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Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User’s Approach Chapter 9 Local Area Networks Data Communications and Computer Networks: A Business User’s Approach Chapter 9 Local Area Networks - Software and Support Systems 1

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Introduction Proper support of a local area Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Introduction Proper support of a local area network requires hardware, software, and miscellaneous support devices. A network operating system is the most important software component. Numerous network support programs are also required to support users on a LAN. Support devices such as hubs, switches, routers, servers, modems, power supplies, and more also necessary. 2

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Operating Systems An operating system manages Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Operating Systems An operating system manages all applications and resources in a computer. A multitasking operating system supports the execution of multiple processes at one time. A network operating system is a large, complex program than manages the resources common on most local area networks. Besides performing standard operating system functions, a network operating system is called upon for additional functions, such as … 3

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 4 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 4

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Operating Systems Several popular network operating Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Operating Systems Several popular network operating systems currently exist: • Novell Net. Ware versions 3, 4, 5 and 6 • Windows NT, 2000, and 2003 • Unix • Linux 5

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell Net. Ware Version 3 - Popular Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell Net. Ware Version 3 - Popular but older version of Novell Net. Ware. Is no longer supported by Novell (end of 2000). User logs onto a particular server. Bindery maintains directory system. Version 4 - Unlike version 3 this version allows single network login. Bindery replaced by powerful NDS database. No longer supported by Novell (beginning of 2004). Version 5 - Allows administrator to use IP protocol instead of Novell’s proprietary IPX/SPX protocols. 6

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell Net. Ware Version 6 Any client Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell Net. Ware Version 6 Any client anywhere on the Internet can print and use storage services from a Net. Ware 6 server without loading a single byte of Novell’s Client 32 software Powerful Internet printing services (i. Print) make printing nearly idiot-proof (user clicks on graphical image of floor plan showing printers; if user does not have printer driver, it is loaded automatically in background!) 7

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell Net. Ware Version 6 i. Folder Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell Net. Ware Version 6 i. Folder – Very effective background application powered by Apache Web Server to “equalize” the documents in each system’s My Documents folder with an identical set on the server. Volumes can hold 8 terabytes of data in up to 8 trillion files and can keep 1 million files open concurrently. 8

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell NDS (Net. Ware Directory Services) A Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Novell NDS (Net. Ware Directory Services) A database that maintains information on, and access to, every resource on the network, including users, groups of users, printers, data sets and servers. Network administrator creates a hierarchical tree structure that represents the layout of the organization. Tree structure is composed of organizational units which are composed of further objects, and leaf objects which are not composed of further objects. 9

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 10 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 10

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 User interface based Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 User interface based on popular Windows operating system, but is NOT the same as Windows 98 or Windows Me. Full service multi-tasking operating system capable of supporting multiple servers. NT systems work very well with other Microsoft products. Questionable if NT can support large systems. Blue screen of death (BSOD) plagues NT systems. 11

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Domain Group of Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Domain Group of users, servers, and other resources that share account and security information May have from 1 to several hundred domains depending on size of system Every domain has one and only one primary domain controller (PDC) (a server) Centrally manages account information and security Each domain should have at least one backup domain controller (BDC) (a server) 12

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Single domain model Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Single domain model Simplest Windows NT domain model One domain that services every user and resource 13

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 14 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 14

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Master domain model Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Master domain model Uses a single domain to exert control over user account information Separate resource domains manage resources such as networked printers 15

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Multiple master domain Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows NT version 4 Multiple master domain model Uses two or more master domains that are joined in two-way trusts to manage many resource domains 16

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 Updated version of Windows NT Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 Updated version of Windows NT network operating system. Specific versions of 2000 designed to support wide variety of system types: Windows 2000 Professional - replaces NT Workstation Windows 2000 Server - replaces Windows NT Server Windows 2000 Advanced Server – supports up to 8 procs / 8 GB Windows 2000 Datacenter Server - supports up to 32 processors 17 and 64 GB RAM

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 Biggest change from NT: Active Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 Biggest change from NT: Active Directory The AD is the central repository for all objects that make up the enterprise: domains, organizational units, users, groups, computers, printers, etc. Roughly based on X. 500 spec, creates a hierarchical tree 18

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 At the top of the Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 At the top of the hierarchical model is a single forest of one or more trees, which must contain at least one (root) domain, which must contain at least one organizational unit (OU), and several other containers. (See next slide) Recommended size limitation of 1 million objects per domain, but lab tests have hit 10 million objects without failure 19

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 20 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 20

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 The domain has basically remained Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 The domain has basically remained the same, but now you can have parent and child domains The parent and all its child domains are defined as a single domain tree, with multiple trees in the same AD a forest Domains are named in accordance with the Internet’s DNS standard RFCs 1034 and 1035 21

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 For example, the root domain Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 For example, the root domain in a tree could be called bigcompany. com The marketing child domain could be mktg. bigcompany. com, and the production child domain could be prod. bigcompany. com As in NT, you can create Trusts between parent and child domains. Only with 2000 the trust can be transitive 22

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 Many still agree that Windows Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2000 Many still agree that Windows 2000 has a way to go to catch up to Net. Ware with regards to simplicity of administration. Nonetheless, Net. Ware has dropped below 20% of the market while Windows continues to climb (>50%) 23

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2003 The newest version of Windows Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Windows 2003 The newest version of Windows network operating system. Improvements to Active Directory, including new management tools Capability to interconnect up to 8 Windows servers New and improved file and print support services Support for IPv 6 Security improvements 24

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Unix Older but very popular multitasking operating Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Unix Older but very popular multitasking operating system capable of supporting network operations. First operating system written in the language C. Very stable system capable of supporting very large operations. Numerous versions available from different vendors. 25

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Linux Operating system based on the principles Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Linux Operating system based on the principles of Unix. Many versions available for free or very small price. Very stable multitasking operating system. When incorporated with other free software products, such as the Apache Web Server and Atipa’s Blue. Bird network management software, this system becomes extremely cost effective and powerful. 26

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 27 Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 27

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Servers In order to support a Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Servers In order to support a network operating system, you need one or more network servers. Network servers are high-power workstations often with multiple processors, RAID, SCSI, and lots of memory and disk space. New forms of servers include server appliances, and server blades. 28

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Servers A clear majority of local Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Servers A clear majority of local area networks are client/server networks. A client/server network has one or more network servers supporting the operations of one or more clients, or user workstations. Peer-to-peer networks also exist. A peer-to-peer network may have servers, but the network relies less on the servers and more on the communications between workstations. 29

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Software: Utilities, Tools, and Applications In Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Network Software: Utilities, Tools, and Applications In order to support a network operating system, may also need: • Utilities • Internet software 30

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Utilities Eight of the more common groups Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Utilities Eight of the more common groups of network utility software include: • Antivirus software Antispam software • Backup software Network-monitoring software • Crash protection software Security assessment software • Remote access software Uninstall software 31

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Internet Software necessary to support the server Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Internet Software necessary to support the server side of Internet connections. Retrieves web pages and other documents when asked to by a client workstation. Can interface with a database program allowing users to store and retrieve data via the Internet. Necessary with commercial Internet applications. 32

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Software Licensing Agreements Virtually every commercial software Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Software Licensing Agreements Virtually every commercial software program comes with a specific license agreement. Most licensing agreements specify the following conditions: • Software installation and use • Network installation • Back-up copies • Decompilation 33

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Software Licensing Agreements Most licensing agreements also Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Software Licensing Agreements Most licensing agreements also specify the following conditions: • Rental statement • Upgrade availabilities • Copyright restrictions • Maintenance agreements 34

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Software Licensing Agreements Most licensing agreements come Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Software Licensing Agreements Most licensing agreements come in one of the following forms: • Single user single station license • Single user multiple station license • Interactive user license • Network server license • Site license • Corporate license 35

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 LAN Support Devices Other devices necessary for Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 LAN Support Devices Other devices necessary for the proper support of a LAN: • Uninterruptable power supplies (UPS) • Tape drives • Printers • Media converters • Workstations (including thin client workstations) 36

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 LAN Software In Action: Selecting an NOS Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 LAN Software In Action: Selecting an NOS Hannah asks the following questions: What are the primary uses (applications) of the current system? Some applications work better (or only) with a specific NOS. How would the choice of a particular NOS affect maintenance and support? Windows is easier to install but harder to maintain. Net. Ware is harder to install but easier to maintain. Linux is challenging to install. 37

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 LAN Software In Action: Selecting an NOS Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 LAN Software In Action: Selecting an NOS Are finances an issue in the selection of a NOS? Linux offers an extremely attractive cost. Does the existing system have any unusual hardware or software that might influence the NOS choice? Will the network be located in a single location or in multiple locations? Net. Ware is easier to maintain from remote locations. Are there any political pressures to select a particular NOS? 38

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home Many decisions to make when installing a wireless LAN. Which IEEE 802. 11 format? 802. 11 b? Older, well-tested, but slower (11 Mbps) 802. 11 a? Newer, faster (54 Mbps), uses higher frequencies 802. 11 g? Newer, faster (54 Mbps), compatible with 802. 11 b 39

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home What type of wireless access point do you need? If you already have a wired network (with router and modem), all you need is a basic wireless access point. If you don’t have a home network but have a high-speed Internet connection, you will need a wireless router. If you don’t even have a high-speed Internet connection yet, you might want to consider a wireless gateway. 40

Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless Data Communications and Computer Networks Chapter 9 Wireless Networking In Action: Creating a Wireless LAN for Home What type of network operating system do you need? Do you need something as powerful as Windows 2000/2003 or Net. Ware? No, you only need a client operating system such as Windows XP, Apple Mac OS, or Linux. 41