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Darryl Worley “Have you forgotten” http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=p 6 y. LQRF-c. EU Darryl Worley “Have you forgotten” http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=p 6 y. LQRF-c. EU 4 min

September 11, 2001 The Day that changed America Casey Young POL 650 Dr. Shawn September 11, 2001 The Day that changed America Casey Young POL 650 Dr. Shawn Williams July 19, 2012

Alan Jackson Song http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=fvj 6 zd. WLUuk 5 min Alan Jackson Song http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=fvj 6 zd. WLUuk 5 min

The Day: Tuesday, September 11 th The Day: Tuesday, September 11 th

The Group Responsible: World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders AKA: Al-Qaeda: The Group Responsible: World Islamic Front for Jihad against Jews and Crusaders AKA: Al-Qaeda: “The Base” Founder: Osama Bin Laden Ideological and current Leader: Ayman al-Zawahiri Major Base: Afghanistan Founded: Late 1980’s Zawahiri joined Bin Laden in 1998 Took responsibility for 9/11 attacks which lead American into a war with Afghanistan

Al Qaeda “Al Qaeda is the first truly global terrorist organization in history” (Riedel, Al Qaeda “Al Qaeda is the first truly global terrorist organization in history” (Riedel, pg. ix) Had a new idea: multiple opeartions in different locales carried out at the same time (Riedel, 60).

The Brains and Ideological: Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri Born: June 19, 1951 in Cairo, Egypt The Brains and Ideological: Dr. Ayman al-Zawahiri Born: June 19, 1951 in Cairo, Egypt Defining moment: Sadat’s assassination (Riedel, 19) Head of Islamic Jihad (or Al-Jihad) Not very charismatic Became leader of Al Qaeda after bin Laden death and still on the run.

Zawahiri’s Ideology Not a hatred for Western culture or values, rather his ideology focuses Zawahiri’s Ideology Not a hatred for Western culture or values, rather his ideology focuses on what he believes the West has don’t to the Islamic world, to the ummah. It is about policy, not values (Riedel, 22 -23) Sees the plot against Islam on every front, fomented by the United States and Europe in the west, Israel nearby, and India in the east (Riedel, 29). Key element to his plan is jihad; every Muslim is dutybound to fight against the enemies of Islam, including the unbeliever and the corrupt followers who ally themselves with the enemy.

The Sheik, Founder, and Financial Backer and Charismatic leader: Osama Bin Laden The Sheik, Founder, and Financial Backer and Charismatic leader: Osama Bin Laden

Usama Bin Laden Born January 22, 1958 in Riyadh, SA – 17 th son. Usama Bin Laden Born January 22, 1958 in Riyadh, SA – 17 th son. Osama means “the Lion”. Moved to Medina @ age of 6 months. By July 1958, M. Bin Laden had fathered 41 children – 21 sons & at least 20 daughters. Mother: Alia Ghanem, 14 year old from Syria. Citrus farming family. 10 th wife. Was a possible maid or concubine. Same Islamic Year – M. Bin Laden fathered 5 sons and 2 daughters under two different wives.

Mohamed Bin Laden Mohamed Bin Laden

M. Bin Laden Financial Empire Bin Laden Affiliated Companies: Binladen Kaiser – engineering & M. Bin Laden Financial Empire Bin Laden Affiliated Companies: Binladen Kaiser – engineering & construction Binladen Emco – pre-cast concrete Al-Midhar Telecommunications Company – consulting Bin Laden Telecom Company Binladen Brothers for Contracting & Industry Saudi Binladin Group – registered in 1990 with over 36, 000 employees in 30 countries

Mosque Renovations Grand mosque in mecca Prophet’s mosque in medina Mosque Renovations Grand mosque in mecca Prophet’s mosque in medina

Holy Site Renovations Al-Aqsa Mosque Dome of the Holy Rock Holy Site Renovations Al-Aqsa Mosque Dome of the Holy Rock

M. Bin Laden: The Player 22 wives 54 Children M. Bin Laden: The Player 22 wives 54 Children

The Bin Laden's The Bin Laden's

September 3, 1967 M. Bin Laden’s plane crashes along the Saudi – Yemen border. September 3, 1967 M. Bin Laden’s plane crashes along the Saudi – Yemen border. Pilot – Jim Harrington, former US Air Force fighter pilot. Two other passengers onboard. Previously flew a 7 passenger Twin Beech propeller. Switched to a Hawker Siddeley twin-engine jet.

The Aftermath of the Plane Crash Mohammed Bin Laden Organization No known record on The Aftermath of the Plane Crash Mohammed Bin Laden Organization No known record on the size of the estate. Estimated - $150 million Kingdom outstanding debts to M. Bin Laden estimated to be $100 million in payments. Saudi Government sets up trust fund for children.

Inheritance Sharia Law – sons to receive twice as much as the daughters. 4 Inheritance Sharia Law – sons to receive twice as much as the daughters. 4 current wives at the time of death to split 1/8 of the shares. Former wives to receive no inheritance, however their children would. Sons, to include Osama, to receive 2. 27% of the company’s shares. Roughly $20 million each. Daughters to receive roughly 1% Total inheritance breakdown – Sons – 50% Daughters – 30% Current Widows – Rest of the shares.

Bin Laden’s rage against America “One can ask, at this point, whether 9/11 or Bin Laden’s rage against America “One can ask, at this point, whether 9/11 or some similar tragedy might have happened without bin Laden to steer it. The answer is certainly not” (Wright, pg. 332). “He saw it (America) as the vanguard of a global crusade on the part of Christians and Jews to crush the Islamic resurgence” (Wright, 208). “This battle is not between al-Qaeda and the U. S. , ” bin Laden would later explain. “This is a battle of Muslims against the global Crusaders” (Wright, 209). But the “greatest disaster to befall the Muslims” is the “occupation of Saudi Arabi, which is the cornerstone of the Islamic world, the place of revelation…was sold out to the Israelis and Americans (Riedel, 57).

Bin Laden on the Palestine Question “The main root of the conflict between our Bin Laden on the Palestine Question “The main root of the conflict between our civilization and your civilization is the Palestine question. I stress that the Palestine question is my nation’s central issue. It was, therefore, a key factor that has, since my childhood, provided me and the free 19 men with an overwhelming feeling of the need to punish the Jews and those supporting them. This is why the incidents of September 11 th took place” (Riedel, 130).

President Obama on Bin Laden Death http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 V 0 ISgos. President Obama on Bin Laden Death http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=3 V 0 ISgos. Tl. Q Start at 15 seconds

Time Magazine Bin Laden Time Magazine Bin Laden

Red X Has Happen three other times Adolph Hitler Zarqawi Sadam Hussein Musab al- Red X Has Happen three other times Adolph Hitler Zarqawi Sadam Hussein Musab al-

The Mastermind: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM) Mastermind behind 9/11 Had planned to blow up The Mastermind: Khalid Sheikh Mohammed (KSM) Mastermind behind 9/11 Had planned to blow up jumbo jets with his cousin Ramzi Yusuf across the Pacific Bin Laden heard of this idea and had KSM tweak it to make it feasable Captured in Pakistan in 2003 and has been a key contributor for helping stop terrorists

Pre-Attacks by Al Qaeda Pre-Attacks by Al Qaeda

WTC 1993 Bombings February 26, bombed planted in Ryder Truck in garage of North WTC 1993 Bombings February 26, bombed planted in Ryder Truck in garage of North Tower Ramzi Yousef 6 people killed and around 1, 000 wounded

Bombing of the USS Cole October 12, 2000 Claimed by Al Qaeda Killed 17 Bombing of the USS Cole October 12, 2000 Claimed by Al Qaeda Killed 17 and wounded 40 “ The destroyer represented the capital of the West, ” Bin Laden said, “and the small boat represented Mohammad” (Wright, pg. 319). America did not retaliate, and bin Laden felt he needed to do something bigger

The Manhattan Raid Al Qaeda called 9/11 the Manhattan Raid (Riedel, pg. 1) Possibly The Manhattan Raid Al Qaeda called 9/11 the Manhattan Raid (Riedel, pg. 1) Possibly wanted Eastern and Western attacks but felt it was too risky, so decided to stick only with the East. Decided to target 4 major targets of significance: 1. World Trade Center (Economic strength) 2. Pentagon (Military strength) 3. White House/Capital Building (governmental/Democracy)

9/11 How it unfolded http: //www. cnn. com/video/#/video/us/2011/09/07/na tpkg-911 -aircheck-timeline. cnn CNN (9 min) 9/11 How it unfolded http: //www. cnn. com/video/#/video/us/2011/09/07/na tpkg-911 -aircheck-timeline. cnn CNN (9 min)

World Trade Center Videos http: //www. cnn. com/video/? /video/us/2011/09/11/coo per-911 -wtc-history. cnn#/video/us/2011/09/11/cooper 911 -wtc-history. World Trade Center Videos http: //www. cnn. com/video/? /video/us/2011/09/11/coo per-911 -wtc-history. cnn#/video/us/2011/09/11/cooper 911 -wtc-history. cnn CNN World Trade Center Video

1) The World Trade Centers Opened in 1973, 7 th building finished in 1987 1) The World Trade Centers Opened in 1973, 7 th building finished in 1987 Was made up of 7 buildings Towers 1 and 2 (Twin Towers) stood as world tallest buildings (110 stories) Cost was $400 million 50, 000 people worked in the towers, 200, 000 passed through Had its own zip code: 10048 2, 753 people died in attacks, 343 firefighters and 23 NYPD Around 3, 000 total deaths and people from 80 countries

Construction of WTC in 1971 Construction of WTC in 1971

Design of WTC Twin Towers Design of WTC Twin Towers

Top of the World Observation Deck 80, 000 visitors a year Top of the World Observation Deck 80, 000 visitors a year

Bin Laden on WTC Such momentous constructions are bound to intrude on the subconscious, Bin Laden on WTC Such momentous constructions are bound to intrude on the subconscious, as they are meant to do—”those awesome symbolic towers that speak of liberty, human rights and humanity”—as bin Laden labeled them. ” Looming Tower (pg. 176)

Planes crashing into WTC http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=q. Nw 0 j. Oh. VJ Planes crashing into WTC http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=q. Nw 0 j. Oh. VJ 3 A Firefighter video (1 st tower) http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=XELam. Un. F 0 EU Second tower video http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Jz. KI 9 TBR-XQ People jumping from WTC (start at 1: 50)

Plane hitting the Pentagon http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Za. Po. D_7 Tm. Nc Hits Plane hitting the Pentagon http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Za. Po. D_7 Tm. Nc Hits pentagon at 25 seconds

The 19 Hijackers The 19 Hijackers

The 20 th Hijacker Zacarias Moussaoui Went to flight school in Minnesota in 2001 The 20 th Hijacker Zacarias Moussaoui Went to flight school in Minnesota in 2001 and alerted the flight school after strange questions about flying. Captured by FBI, but not allowed to thoroughly check his belongings or would have probably made connection. FBI supervisor responded that he was “trying to keep somone from taking a plane and crashing into the World Trade Center” (Wright, 351).

Bush’s speech after 9/11 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Xbq. Cqu. Dl 4 k 4&fe Bush’s speech after 9/11 http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=Xbq. Cqu. Dl 4 k 4&fe ature=related 4 ½ minutes http: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=BQAeeimx 3 S 4 Bush declares war on Terror

9/11 New Release Tapes http: //www. cnn. com/video/? /video/us/2011/09/08/tsr -todd-911 -audiorecordings. cnn#/video/us/2011/09/08/tsr-todd-911 audio-recordings. cnn 9/11 New Release Tapes http: //www. cnn. com/video/? /video/us/2011/09/08/tsr -todd-911 -audiorecordings. cnn#/video/us/2011/09/08/tsr-todd-911 audio-recordings. cnn CNN Video

Remembering and Rebuilding Building 5 new towers Tallest is One World Trade Center, measuring Remembering and Rebuilding Building 5 new towers Tallest is One World Trade Center, measuring 1, 776 feet (tallest in North America) Also a Memorial and Museum

Tensions between the FBI and CIA January meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was photographed Tensions between the FBI and CIA January meeting in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia was photographed and surveillance but not wiretap. Meeting produced USS Cole bombing and 9/11 attacks (Wright, 310 -311) CIA failed to let FBI or State Department know about two terrorists from Malaysia meeting needed to be put on terror list or had entered the country 19 months before 9/11 (Wright, 311 -312) CIA found laptop of Zawahiri’s closest political confidant in Azerbaijan, but would not turn it over to the FBI

Possible Reasons Why? (Wright, 312 -314 Sensitive information from the CIA may compromise their Possible Reasons Why? (Wright, 312 -314 Sensitive information from the CIA may compromise their work with FBI, which could demand total control of a situation CIA was hoping to recruit some of the terrorists and use them against Al Qaeda FBI wanted to capture bin Laden for questioning; CIA wanted to kill bin Laden before he became too big a threat

How America has changed since 9/11? Delays at the airport are longer, arrival time How America has changed since 9/11? Delays at the airport are longer, arrival time is earlier, and items being carried on are smaller (Fear of flying) Created a new cabinet department (Homeland Security, 2001) Declared a War on Terrorism that took us into Afghanistan and then into Iraq Repression of freedom exchanged for control of security, especially against suspected terrorists (Patriot Act) Fear/Misunderstandings of Radical Muslims or anyone who might be from the Middle East

Work Cited Page Some pictures, information, and slides came from professor Max Wise class Work Cited Page Some pictures, information, and slides came from professor Max Wise class

Resources and Books The Looming Tower by Lawrence Wright The 9/11 Commission Report American Resources and Books The Looming Tower by Lawrence Wright The 9/11 Commission Report American Foreign Policy in a New Era by Robert Jarvis The Search for Al Qaeda by Bruce Riedel Mastermind (KSM) by Richard Miniter