- Количество слайдов: 27
Daniel Riveros John Chang Anand Pattabiraman TECHNOLOGICAL INNOVATIONS Cerulean
Industrial Revolution A period between the 18 th and 19 th century, in which society transitioned from a commercial and agricultural society, to the modern and more “factory based” society of today. England was the “middle man”
Flying Shuttle Revolutionized textile industry John Kay “Automated” the loom Weaver pulled one chord for the shuttle to go one way, pulled another to go the other way Original loom required weavers to manually pass the shuttle
James Hargreaves Born in Lancashire, England Worked as spinner at home Daughter accidentally knocked about wheel Attacked out of fear of competition by locals Driven out to Nottingham Never acquired patent for spinning jenny
Spinning Jenny Shortage of thread James Hargreaves invented the spinning jenny Instead of one wheel per thread, many threads per wheel Originally had eight spindles, later used up to 120 spindles
Edmund Cartwright Born in Nottingham, England Graduated from Oxford Workers disapproved of his inventions Repeatedly thrashed his house/inventions Power loom drove him to bankruptcy
Power Loom Revolutionized factories and manufacturers Improved handlooms, all mechanized Required unskilled worker Wide cloths and complicated patterns Paved way to modern weaving
Henry Bessemer Born in Charlton, England in 1813 Inventive (especially with metal) as a young boy Left for London and set up a business selling decorative metal objects Industrial Revolution Reference Library. Eds. James L. Outman, Elisabeth M. Outman, and Matthew May. Vol. 2: Biographies. p 17. From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
The Bessemer Process Inexpensive way to produce steel Revolutionized steel industry Helped spur Industrial Revolution Steel based products created Railroad tracks Guns
The Bessemer Process Before Iron was mixed with coke and limestone and heated for a week Metal was then hammered and folded Time and labor intensive Material heated in crucible Uniform steel, but small quantities After Removed many impurities that impairs the strength of steel Bessemer’s converters ran continuously Larger quantities of steel Some carbon remains Stronger and more flexible steel
The Bessemer Process http: //teacherlink. org/content/social/instructional/industrialrevolution/bessemersteelproduction. jpg
Henry Cort 1740 -1800 Born in Lancaster, England Grooved Rollers Puddling Process Unable to benefit from his work because of a bad partnership
The Puddling Process • Used to separate carbon from iron • Iron is melted in a furnace From pig-iron to wrought iron
Thomas Newcomen 1663 -1729 English inventor and engineer Developed the first steam engine Tried to develop a machine which could drive a water pump
Thomas Newcomen Steam injected into a cylinder Piston forced to move out Cold water sprayed into cylinder Steam condensed – small vacuum formed Piston forced to move back
Abraham Darby Arguably the cornerstone of the Industrial Revolution Coke-burning blast furnace allowed for mass production of commercial grade iron Eventually led to growth of iron and steel industries
Abraham Darby During his time, charcoal was the leading fuel for smelting Charcoal was incapable of supporting large flames Darby used coke, a derivative of coal Hotter and more sustained without flame Established Bristol Iron Works Company in 1708 and used both charcoal and coke
Frederick Taylor 1856– 1915 "Father of Scientific Management“ Scientific management – a from of industrial engineering
Frederick Taylor Wrote his theory about efficient engineering in a book called Principles of Scientific Management Efficient engineering through both people and machines Said to have created modern industrial work methods Theory viewed as dehumanizing
Cotton was a necessary resource for the textile industries in both the East and the West. Because it was timeconsuming to weave and the demand was high, it pushed towards industrialization in: England with the spinning jenny America with the cotton gin Cotton Gin
The Factory Factories were centers of production which accommodated growing demand. Many of the artisans who the factory replaced began to work in the factories. Women were hired for a smaller salary than men. Children were hired because they were easily replaced and there were not many laws protecting workers.
The Increase of Productivity Interchangeable Parts: Each of the same product would be made up of identical parts and not custommade parts. Assembly Line: A line in which individual parts of a product are placed together in a sequential manner. Division of Labor: The principle that if each person specializes in a certain job, production will be faster. 5 people in an assembly line will produce faster than 5 people individually making products.
Factory production vs. Old “Putting Out” System Merchants employed “putterouters” who distributed raw materials to artisans throughout the countryside. Factories were then created which obtained raw materials and made finished products, replacing the artisans. Mechanization of factory processes replaced factory workers.
Non-European Industrial Advances Iron and steel revolution in China Wootz Steel was crucible steel from India in 300 B. C. Chinese used water mills in the 1 st century CE The use of coke for charcoal occurred in China in 11 th century Britain in the 18 th century. Canals systems used to increase commerce were present in India and China in the 1200 -1500 s
Why does it matter? England was “middle man” Introduction of factories to textile industry Introduced low wages, bad working conditions, and huge amounts of profit Better technologies allowed products to be made faster and more efficiently. Technological innovations were an essential part of industrialization.
Sources DISCovering Science. Online Detroit: Gale, 2003. From Student Resource Center - Gold. http: //www. itraveluk. co. uk/photos/data/945/medium/water-mill. jpg http: //honors. rit. edu/amitraywiki/images/8/8 f/Assembly. jpg http: //cache. viewimages. com/xc/2746959. jpg? v=1&c=View. Images&k=2&d=5 D 63505180 F 54 B 9 B 92 E 68 A 1 F 9 DFE 279 FA 55 A 1 E 4 F 32 AD 3138 Gale Encyclopedia of U. S. Economic History. Eds. Thomas Carson and Mary Bonk. Vol. 2. p 983984. (943 words) From Gale Virtual Reference Library. DISCovering Science. Online Detroit: Gale, 2003. From Student Resource Center - Gold. Encyclopedia of World Biography. Suzanne M. Bourgoin. 2 nd Detroit: Gale Research, 1998. From Student Resource Center - Gold. http: //encyclopedia. jrank. org/Cambridge/entries/044/puddling-process-iron. html Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. Eds. Josh Lauer and Neil Schlager. Vol. 4: 1700 To 1799. p 426 -427. (332 words) From Gale Virtual Reference Library. Science and Its Times: Understanding the Social Significance of Scientific Discovery. Eds. Josh Lauer and Neil Schlager. Vol. 5: 1800 To 1899. p 535 -537. (1575 words) From Gale Virtual Reference Library.
Sources Continued "Spinning jenny. " World of Invention. Kimberley A. Mc. Grath and Bridget Travers. Online. ed. Detroit: Thomson Gale, 2006. Student Resource Center - Gold. Gale. Bergen County Tech HS. 11 May 2008