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DAML-S A DAML+OIL Ontology for Web Services VISA E 0 an 00 00 ic DAML-S A DAML+OIL Ontology for Web Services VISA E 0 an 00 00 ic er 00 0/00 bbs 0 Ho R. m 0 00 ss re xp rry Je P EX DAML-S Ma ste 000 r. C 0000 ard 000 0 000 EXP 00/0 EX 00 P 0 bs 00 R. Hob 0/0 000 Jerry 0 A Delivery Brought to you by the DAML-S Web Services Coalition Image compliments of Hobbs & Connolly, SRI Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

DAML-S Briefing DAML-S Web Services Coalition presented by: Sheila A. Mc. Ilraith Knowledge Systems DAML-S Briefing DAML-S Web Services Coalition presented by: Sheila A. Mc. Ilraith Knowledge Systems Laboratory (KSL) Stanford University http: //www. daml. org/services/ Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

DAML-S Web Services Coalition * CMU: Massimo Paolucci, Terry Payne, Katia Sycara BBN: Mark DAML-S Web Services Coalition * CMU: Massimo Paolucci, Terry Payne, Katia Sycara BBN: Mark Burstein Nokia: Ora Lassila Stanford KSL: Sheila Mc. Ilraith, Honglei Zeng SRI: Jerry Hobbs, David Martin, Srini Narayanan Yale: Drew Mc. Dermott Manchester: Ian Horrocks * Founded February, 2001 Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

What is DAML-S? DAML-S: A DARPA Agent Markup Language for Services • DAML+OIL Ontology What is DAML-S? DAML-S: A DARPA Agent Markup Language for Services • DAML+OIL Ontology for (Web) services • AI-inspired markup language: • tailored to the representational needs of Services • expressive power • well-defined semantics • ontologies support reuse, mapping, succinct markup, . . . • Release of DAML-S version 0. 5 June, 2001 http: //www. daml. org/services/ Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Layered Approach to Language Development The first major application of DAML+OIL DAML-S (Services) DAML-L Layered Approach to Language Development The first major application of DAML+OIL DAML-S (Services) DAML-L (Logic) DAML+OIL (Ontology) RDFS (RDF Schema) RDF (Resource Description Framework) XML (Extensible Markup Language) Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

DAML-S Objectives Provide an upper ontology for describing properties & capabilities of (Web) services DAML-S Objectives Provide an upper ontology for describing properties & capabilities of (Web) services in an unambiguous, computer interpretable markup language. Desiderata: • the ontology of Web services • ease of expressiveness • enables automation of service use by agents • enables reasoning about service properties and capabilities Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Automation Enabled by DAML-S • Web service discovery Find me a shipping service that Automation Enabled by DAML-S • Web service discovery Find me a shipping service that transports goods to Dubai. • Web service invocation Buy me 500 lbs. powdered milk from www. acmemoo. com • Web service selection, composition and interoperation Arrange food for 500 people for 2 weeks in Dubai. • Web service execution monitoring Has the powdered milk been ordered and paid for yet? Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Who Will Use DAML-S? • Web service providers (e. g. , Amazon, Intelink, United Who Will Use DAML-S? • Web service providers (e. g. , Amazon, Intelink, United Airlines) mark up their services • 3 rd party Web page designers (e. g. , Web Designers) mark up clients’ services • 2 nd-ary Web service providers (e. g. , Travelocity, My Simon) exploit others’ services to create add-on services use/write agent software to find/execute/compose other services • Web service end users (e. g. , Joe, Analysts) characterize their needs use/write agent software to find/execute/compose services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Upper Ontology of Services Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne, CMU Mc. Ilraith for Upper Ontology of Services Ontology images compliments of Terry Payne, CMU Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Profile High-level description of a service and its provider • description of service Service Profile High-level description of a service and its provider • description of service (human readable) • specification of functionalities service provides • functional attributes (requirements and capabilities) Profile used for • populating service registries • automated service discovery • matchmaking Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Profile Acme. Shipping name Acme Shipping Ltd. physical. Address 3333 Travis Road Manchester, Service Profile Acme. Shipping name Acme Shipping Ltd. physical. Address 3333 Travis Road Manchester, NH web. URL www. acmeship. com email [email protected] com. . . Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Profile A service is provided by an Actor (service provider) E. g. , Service Profile A service is provided by an Actor (service provider) E. g. , Acme. Book. Shipping is provided by Acme. Shipping Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Profile Acme. Book. Shipping provided. By Acme. Shipping geographic. Radius USA input Customer. Service Profile Acme. Book. Shipping provided. By Acme. Shipping geographic. Radius USA input Customer. Name Origin Dest Del. Date. . . output Confirmation. Number when “successful”. . . precondition effect loc(Goods, Dest, Del. Date) when “successful” Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Upper Ontology of Services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01 Upper Ontology of Services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Model Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01 Service Model Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Model Process Model “How does it work? ” Each service is conceived as Service Model Process Model “How does it work? ” Each service is conceived as simple or composite process (event/action) Associated with each service is a set of inputs, outputs, preconditions and effects (function and action metaphor) Composite processes are compositions of simple or other composite processes in terms of constructs such as sequence, if-then-else, fork, . . . Data flow and Control flow should be described for each composite service A black box and glass box view are given of each composite service Process model used for: • (automated) Web service invocation, composition, interoperation, monitoring (potentially together w/ grounding). Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Function/Dataflow Metaphor Input: • customer name • origin • destination • weight • pickup Function/Dataflow Metaphor Input: • customer name • origin • destination • weight • pickup date • . . . Output: • confirmation no. • . . . Acme Book Truck Shipment truck available + ? valid credit card Y N • failure notification • … Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

AI-inspired Action/Process Metaphor Output: • confirmation no. • . . . Effect: • goods AI-inspired Action/Process Metaphor Output: • confirmation no. • . . . Effect: • goods at location if successful • credit card debited. . . Input: • customer name • origin • destination • pickup date • . . . Preconditions: • knowledge of the input • . . . Acme Book Truck Shipment truck available + ? valid credit card Output: Effect: Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition Y N • failure notification • … DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Composite Process Input & Preconditions • • • Output & Effects Acme. Truck. Shpng Composite Process Input & Preconditions • • • Output & Effects Acme. Truck. Shpng • • • confirmation no. • . . . • • • customer name • location • car type • dates • credit card no. • . . . www. acmecar. com ? book car service • failure notification • … • confirmation no. • . . . • customer name • flight numbers • dates • credit card no. • • . . . www. acmeair. com book flight service ? • confirmation no. • dates • room type • credit card no. • . . . www. acmehotel. com book hotel service ? • failure notification • … ? • • • failure notification • errror information • … Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Composite Process Acme. Truck. Shpng Expanded. Acme. Truck. Shpng Confirm Shipping Region N Acme Composite Process Acme. Truck. Shpng Expanded. Acme. Truck. Shpng Confirm Shipping Region N Acme Truck Shipping expands truck available + valid credit card Y Get Quote Service Get Shipping Dates Book Truck Shipment Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Acme. Truck. Shpng Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition expand Exp. Acme. Truck. Shpng DAML Acme. Truck. Shpng Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition expand Exp. Acme. Truck. Shpng DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Upper Ontology of Services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01 Upper Ontology of Services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Service Grounding (under development) • Specification of service access information • specifies communication protocols, Service Grounding (under development) • Specification of service access information • specifies communication protocols, transport mechanisms, etc. • E. g. , SOAP, HTTP forms, Java RMI, RPC, etc. Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Review: Upper Ontology of Services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01 Review: Upper Ontology of Services Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Exploiting Ontologies of Services Service Shipping Air. Shipping Boat. Shipping Purchase Buy. Ticket Buy. Exploiting Ontologies of Services Service Shipping Air. Shipping Boat. Shipping Purchase Buy. Ticket Buy. Book Truck. Shipping Acme. Truck. Shipping Buy. Air. Ticket Buy. Concert. Ticket Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition Congo. Buy. Book Amazon. Buy. Book DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Related Work Related Industrial Initiatives • UDDI • eb. XML • WSDL • . Related Work Related Industrial Initiatives • UDDI • eb. XML • WSDL • . Net • XLANG • Biztalk, e-speak, etc These XML-based initiatives are currently complementary to DAML-S intends to build on top of these efforts exploiting increased expressiveness, semantics, inference that enables automation. Related Academics Efforts • Process Algebras (e. g. , Pi Calculus) • Process Specification Language (Hoare Logic, PSL) • Planning Domain Definition Language (PDDL) • Business Process Modeling (e. g. , BMPL) Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Tools and Applications DAML-S provides a means of describing Web services. It’s just another Tools and Applications DAML-S provides a means of describing Web services. It’s just another DAML+OIL ontology all the tools and technologies that exist for DAML+OIL are relevant Some DAML-S Specific Tools and Technologies: Extending DAML-S: DAML-S Coalition (security, symbol grounding, …) Discovery, Matchmaking, Agent Brokering: CMU, SRI (OAA), Stanford KSL Automated Web Service Composition: Stanford KSL, BBN/Yale/Kestrel, CMU, MIT, Nokia, SRI DAML-S Editor: Stanford KSL, SRI, CMU (profiles), Manchester Process Modeling Tools & Reasoning: SRI, Stanford KSL Service Enactment /Simulation: SRI, Stanford KSL Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Challenges Technical Issues • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model • Laundry list Challenges Technical Issues • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model • Laundry list of unaddressed & resolved issues (SRI & CMU will mention some this afternoon) (some will be mentioned in Breakout tomorrow) Connecting with Industry Initiatives & with User Community • need to connect DAML-S with industry initiatives • need people in industry (& in DAML) to mark up services with DAML-S • concern: industry’s lack of adoption of RDF Tools availability • DAML+OIL reasoner • DAML-S editor Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Challenges Technical Issues • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model • Laundry list Challenges Technical Issues • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model • Laundry list of unaddressed & resolved issues messages, synchronization, conversation protocols, exceptions and transaction, multiple participants, scripts, unification/binding, constraints, ontologies of processes, service grounding, . . . Connecting with Industry Initiatives & with User Community • need to connect DAML-S with industry initiatives • need people in industry (& in DAML) to mark up services with DAML-S • concern: industry’s lack of adoption of RDF Tools availability • DAML+OIL reasoner • DAML-S editor Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Challenges Technical Issues • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model • Laundry list Challenges Technical Issues • DAML+OIL not sufficient for the process model • Laundry list of unaddressed & resolved issues (SRI & CMU will mention some this afternoon) (some will be mentioned in Breakout tomorrow) Connecting with Industry Initiatives & with User Community • need to connect DAML-S with industry initiatives • need people in industry (& in DAML) to mark up services with DAML-S • concern: industry’s lack of adoption of RDF Tools availability • DAML+OIL reasoner • DAML-S editor Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

We Want Your Input! Status: DAML-S version 0. 5 released June, 2001. Please get We Want Your Input! Status: DAML-S version 0. 5 released June, 2001. Please get involved! Break-out Session (Friday) *** Try DAML-S for your application *** give feedback *** DAML-S version 0. 5 and related papers http: //www. daml. org/services/ mailing list [email protected] 3. org (technical discussions) [email protected] org (announcements) Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01

Acknowledgements • Slides created by Sheila Mc. Ilraith, KSL Stanford • Page 1 graphic Acknowledgements • Slides created by Sheila Mc. Ilraith, KSL Stanford • Page 1 graphic created by Jerry Hobbs & Kelli Connolly, SRI • Ontology images created by Terry Payne, CMU Mc. Ilraith for DAML-S Coalition DAML PI Meeting 07/19/01