- Количество слайдов: 30
Customs specialty I. History of specialty 1. What is customs and whence it appeared 2. Periods of customs 3. Foreign experience customs past periods II. The current situation 1. Specific features of customs 2. System of customs offices 3. The role of customs in the public administration III. Development 1. Goals and objectives of customs 2. Solution of problems of development of customs affairs 3. Integration processes
What is customs and whence it appeared
The concept of customs • The concept of customs business brings together a wide range of questions, both economic and legal issues affecting foreign trade. First of all, they affect the state to ensure their economic security through foreign trade regulation.
The origin of customs in Ancient Russia • appearance of customs associated with the development of trade and labour. Appeared special layer of people - merchants, who do not specialize in the production of goods, and are engaged in their sale.
Periods of customs
The period of Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich • In 1667 was accepted Novotorgovy charter. • Rules of customs control was viewed primarily as a means of promotion and development of domestic production and replenish the treasury, and not to regulate foreign trade.
The period of Peter the Great Customs legislation of Russia played an important role in the improvement of customs clearance of goods.
The period of free trade (XIX) • Customs examination is an important document. • First, it confirms the passage of goods across the border. • Second, the customs findings detail the goods received by the Customs, and is a document by which the customs duty is charged. • In 1988 was introduced customs declaration.
Soviet period • The Customs Code of the USSR, was adopted In 1991. • It made a great contribution to the development of the national customs legislation. • Individual terms, the definitions contained in it, would be more accurate than those that result in the Customs Code in 1993
It is on the border began to apply the tools of economic policy, called the tariff. For a long time it was the customs tariff. That it was practiced tariff practices and technology in virtually all countries. Home Products feature - the completion of the state budget to allow the State to build the future in mind, counting on our own strength, and not on the international situation.
The modern global economy excludes non-economic coercion countries. More characteristic is the growing financial interest in permanent economic cooperation between the countries. In recent decades, formed a new global marketplace. National economies are no longer sent to the disengagement and poverty, and the integration and association. As an example of such integration can serve the European Union.
In general, international experience suggests that foreign trade regulation, the implementation of measures to liberalize or protection policies can not be built in isolation from the state of the economy, all the problems of its economic development and criteria of economic security. All foreign countries in some way combine liberal and protectionist measures in accordance with the specific objectives of economic development.
Federal Customs Service The Federal Customs Service is the federal executive authority which is carrying out according to the legislation of the Russian Federation functions on control and supervision in the field of customs business, and also function of the agent of currency control and special functions on fight against smuggling, other crimes and administrative offenses.
Regional customs offices The regional customs office (MOUTH) is the customs office entering into uniform federal centralized system of customs offices of the Russian Federation and providing realization of tasks and FTS functions of Russia in the region of activity to the MOUTH within competence.
Customs The customs is the customs office entering into uniform federal centralized system of customs offices of the Russian Federation and providing realization of tasks and FTS functions of Russia in the region of activity of customs within competence.
Customs posts The customs post carries out the activity under the direct management of customs or regional customs office in case of direct submission to management.
Functions of customs authorities The Analysis of the long and complex process of formation and development of the Customs Service of Russia on the various stages of its development is necessary to better understanding of the current state, development of Russian customs and basic functions of the customs authorities at the moment.
On July 1, 2011 was finally formed the Customs Union of Russia, Belarus and Kazakhstan in a single customs territory, within which no customs duties and economic limitations, except special protective, antidumping and countervailing measures. According to the Customs Code of the Customs Union, the customs authorities have changed their functions that have been assigned in the Customs Code of the Russian Federation.
The Customs Code of the Customs Union provides a comprehensive list of functions of customs authorities at present. On the customs territory of the Customs Union the customs authorities provide the following main rules: 1) to facilitate the implementation of a common trade policy of the customs union; 2) enforcement of the customs legislation of the customs union and other laws of the states - members of the customs union, control over the execution of the laws by the customs authorities; 3) the improvement of customs operations and customs control, including mutual administrative assistance and ect.
System of Government President of The Russian Federation is a Presidential (or a constitutional) republic. The President is the head of the state and is elected directly by the people. In fact he has much power, he controls all the three branches of power. The President can even dissolve the Duma if he doesn't agree with his suggestions three times running. The President has his administration, but it's not part of the Federal Government. The President is involved in the work of the legislative and executive branches.
The Federal Assembly represents the Legislative branch of power. It's made up of the two houses: the Federation Council and the State Duma, which make laws. The Federal Assembly is also called the Parlament, but it's not its official name. Both chambers are headed by chairmen sometimes called speakers. The Duma consists of 450 deputies (one half is elected personally by the population, and the other half consists of the deputies who are appointed by their parties after voting).
The role of customs in the public administration Customs are public authorities, through which the import into and export from its territory of exported and imported goods, baggage, mail and other goods. Customs determines the boundaries of the State Customs Committee, he also provides for the establishment and liquidation
Head of the system of customs bodies of the State Customs Committee, which is headed by the President, who is appointed and dismissed by the President of Russia.
Goals and objectives of customs • One of the main objectives of customs policy is to encourage the development of national economy of Russia. Obviously, this takes it beyond customs. The concept of customs should include not only the customs policy, but also the means of its realization: the procedure and conditions for the movement of goods across the customs border and vehicles, collection of customs duties, customs clearance, etc. From the very phrase "customs business" that it is in the strict sense refers to the activities and operations specialist - custom, so it must be characterized, above all, as an activity
• Any division of customs on certain parts of a contingent and treat them separately to unity, and in the light of the close relationship between them. Different in nature, in the aggregate they are all aimed at achieving economic, regulatory and law enforcement purposes of customs. • Economic goals are achieved through customs increasing the state budget by levying customs duties in the movement of goods and vehicles across the customs border: customs duties, value added tax, excise duties - for customs clearance, for storage of goods for customs escort and other charges collection by the customs authorities of the Russian Federation. • Regulatory purpose of customs rates are achieved through the establishment of export and import duties and taxes on goods transported across the customs border of the Russian Federation, as well as through the establishment of prohibitions and restrictions on the import and export of goods, licensing, permits the import and export of certain goods and a number of other measures.
• • Customs enforcement purposes is to protect national security, public order, life and health, morals, morals and cultural values of the society and in the protection of animals, plants and the environment, and in promoting the interests of Russian consumers of imported goods, and in the fight against illegal trafficking through the customs border of the Russian Federation, drugs, weapons, objects of artistic, historical and archaeological heritage, etc. Customs Code defines the overall direction of the customs - harmonization and unification with generally accepted international norms and practices. The obvious "external" orientation customs reflected in the fact that the Customs Code allows for the development and strengthening of international economic integration, the creation of the customs union between Russia and other countries, free trade zones, and conclude international, treaties and agreements on customs matters in accordance with the rules international law. In the customs legislation, the number of specific customs - legal terms, such as, for example, "customs territory", "Customs Border", "customs procedure", "declaring, " "customs duty", etc. Even such well-known concepts of civil law, as "goods" and "vehicles" in the customs legislation has its own specific interpretation. The integration process is now in almost all countries and continents and covers. This process will include a variety in terms of its political and economic development of the state
• Current condition of Russian Customs Service - problems and perspectives. 25 October, 1991 should be considered to be the moment of the begining of formation and development for the modern customs affairs in our country - the day when the president of Russia signed the Decree "About Creation of the State Customs Comittee SCCRF"(the State Customs Comittee of the Russian Federation, further renamed into FCS of Russia - the Federal Customs Service of the Russian Federation). Disintegration of the USSR into some independent states, formation of the new Russian statehood, liberalization of foreign trade activities and some other factors had their effect upon the customs policy alteration of the updated Russia and caused the necessity of transformation of the customs system according to the new approaches views to the customs policy were reconsidered.
Actual problems of introduction of quality management system among customs authorities of the Customs union and ways to decision. Since October, 2011 the new order of providing the state services and the state functions execution has been operating , according to this order iterdepartmental interaction is organized due to the principles considerably simplifying contacts with federal executive authorities for citizens and organizations. Now the applicant isn't obliged to submit documents and data available in any authority as to recieve one or another state service. Federal executive authoriies have to recieve necessary information in the format of interdepartmental interaction.
FCS of Russia has completely finished the work connected with the organization of interdepartmental interaction concerning with 11 state services. Generally it belongs to register activity. However nowadays it's carried out the work that transfer to a new order the function connected with reception, registration, refusal to registrate and making decision of the customs declaration release.
It's wothwhile to note that essential results successfully are reached in the sphere of the electronic declaring organization. The share of the good declarations wich giving into Russian customs autorities is carried out in electronic form, following the results of the year can reach 80 percent from the whole declaration massif.