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Current Developments in Computer Hardware, Software and Communication Dr. Gu Wei Senior engineer Intel Corporation
``Overview´´ Hardware Software (System) Software (Application) Communication
Birth of a Chip (ICs) n n Transistors / Die 0. 18 to 0. 13 micron technology 200 mm to 300 mm wafers Gordon Moore‘s Law The number of transistors that would be incorporated on a silicon die would double every 18 months for the next several years
IA-32 Architecture n Intel‘s 32 -Bit (Incl. 16 -Bit) Architecture u Function Units u Connections u Machine Instruction Sets n Intel 4004, 8085/8080, 8086/8088, 286, 386, 486, Pentium, P 6, Penium Pro, Pentium. II, Penium. III, Penium 4. . . Compatibility of software (object code created in 1978 can still executed on newst processor) Every new generation deliver significantly higher performance n n
Intel Processor Date Freq. (MHz) Trans. (/Die) E. Bus Addr. (Bits) Caches 8086 1978 8 29 K 16 1 MB None 286 1982 12. 5 134 K 16 16 MB ? ? 386 DX 1985 20 275 K 32 4 GB ? ? 486 DX 1989 25 1. 2 M 32 4 GB L 1: 8 KB Pentium 1993 60 3. 1 M 64 4 GB L 1: 16 KB Pentium Pro 1995 200 5. 5 M 64 64 GB L 1: 16 KB L 2: 256 KB Or 512 KB Pentium II 1997 266 7 M 64 64 GB L 1: 32 KB L 2: 256 KB Or 512 KB Pentium III 1999 500 8. 2 M 64 64 GB L 1: 32 KB L 2: 256 KB Or 512 KB Pentium 4 2000 1. 5 GHz 42 M 64 64 GB 12 K op Trace 8 KB L 1 256 KB L 2
n MMX technology u Introduced with Pentium family u Addtional 64 bits Registers, Instructions, u SIMD execution model, u Paralle computation on packed 64 integer data for multimedia applications n Streaming SIMD Extensions (SSE) u Introduced with Pentium III u Addtional 128 bits Registers, Instructions. . . n Multiprocessorsystem u 2 or 4 processors (with shared memory) TM
Pentium 4 Processor n n n 1. Imp. of Intel Net. Burst micro-architecture u Rapid Execution Engine u Hyper Pipelined Technology (Instruction prefetch, Branch prediction. . . ) u Advanced Dynamic Execution (Out of order core. . . ) u New cache subsystem Streaming SIMD Extension 2 (SSE 2). . . 400 MHz Net. Burst system bus. . .
Support for system programming Control Registers n Debug Registers n Performance monitoring Counters n Time-Stamp Counter n
IA-64: Itanium n n Intel‘s 64 -bit architecture Goals: u Overcome the limitations of today‘s architecture u Provide world class floating point performance u Support large memory needs with 64 -bit addressability u Protect existing investments with IA-32 compatibility u Support growing high-end application workloads for e-business, enterprise, & technical computing
IA-64: Data types & Registers n n Data: u Integer: 8, 16, 32, 64 u Floating-point: 32, 64, 82 Registers u 128 General u 128 Floating-point u 128 Application u 64 Predicate u 8 Branch u 1 Instruction Pointer
IA-64: Boosting Performance n n Increases instruction level parallelism u Instruction bundle/group u supporting hyper software pipelines, . . . Improves branch handling u more branch register u predicate register before an instruction, . . . Hides memory latencies u more general registers for temporary data Nat-bit, register stack, . . . Supports modular code u data/control dependencies u preloading, . . .
Connecting system units n n n Bus & Port u Pins (number & function) u Access signals and timing u Size Internal bus & port u ISA/ESIA, PCI, mini PCI, . . . (P&P) u Parallel ATA Serial ATA (flexible, thin cable) u AGP External bus & port u SCSI, -2, -3, PCMSIA, u RS-232, PS-2, Fire. Wire, USB, . . . (Com-P&P, hot P&P)
Software n Compiler optimization u u . . . Benefiting from new processor t Use of new registers & instructions t Exploitation of paralelism Pro - Program analysis and restructuring
Software n Operating System (e. g. Windows 2000, Whistler) u u u u Benefiting from new processor Advanced I/O Subsystem Fast boot & application launch Advanced resource (memory, devices, etc. ) & power management More supports for error detection & debugging, system file protection Support for programming in multi-thread/processor t Interlocked-Operations (inc, dec, exchange, . . . ) t Spinlocks, synchronization objects, . . . API (Opened or Closed, Documented/Undocumented) t For writing programs & Libraries t For writing drivers
Software n Advanced Installation u u u n Monitoring & Administration u u n Events view Log files Error detecting & recovering u u u n Detecting enviroment (processor, memory, . . . ) Selecting the optimized version Configuration SFP Last. Known. Good. . . Saving current system& appls. status by shutdown
Software n n Standalone or combination of u Server-Client u Expert system u Database u Management u Communication. . . Multimedia (Game, Hoppy, . . . ) E- and I-Business Security
Software n n n Middleware u used to integrate incompatible applications Vaporware u Announced long before it is ready to be shipped Interpreter & Execution u Java u HTML XML. . .
Communication n Physical channels u Wire t Phone line • high frequence (1 – 2 M bits) x. DSL t Cable t Glass Fiber • Multiwavelength sources, ultra-switch, . . . u Wireless t Ground stations t Satelite
Communication n Channel allocation u Voice band, . . . Transfer Technology u Analog v. Digital u Circuit/Packet switching u ATM Multiple Access Control u FDMA u TDMA u CDMA
Communication n Protocols u A set of rules govering the information flow within a communication infrastructure u Symbols (characters), format, timing, error correction, and running order u Examples: t HDLC, X. 25, „Internet“(TCP/IP), HTTP, WAP, . . .
Communication n Networking u Connectionless vs. Connection-oriented Communications u LAN (ethernet, token ring/bus) u WAN t Communication network/Computer network t X. 25 t ISDN, B-ISDN, SONET, . . . u Internet, Intranet, Extranet, Evernet
Communication n More powerful DSP & Controller u u n Intended to embedded systems/devices (Set-Top Box, Handy, HPC, . . . ) Example: t 100 MBits ethernet controller with many integrated protocol implementations, a mini-pci interface and a interface for attaching a DSP (LAN+Modem Combo -Card for Notebooks) Simple & cheep ICs u u u Intented as an extension of a PC‘s (normally as a buildin card) Use of PC‘s CPU power (vi´a a driver) Examples: t Controllerless modem, software modem, . . .
IXA: Intel Internet Exchange Architecture n n n A combination of solutions for network and communication system manufacturers (OEMs) Building blocks u Processors (Pentium. III, IXP 1200 network processor, . . . ) u Supporting chip sets u Software from third party and Intel labs u Drivers. SDKs & DDKs For quickly developping various networking and communications products
LAN: Use of power line More than one PC at home n Most used lines and plug-in interface in a building n Problems: u Different goals in USA and Europe u Disturbances u Standards n
WAN: Mobile + Internet Service One in fours PCs now sold are notebooks n WAP & Bluetooth n UMTS n `Anytime/Anywhere´ communications n