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Culture of China Polito/Bruewer Culture of China Polito/Bruewer

The Power of Symbols Polito/Bruewer The Power of Symbols Polito/Bruewer

What’s in a “Symbol”? A symbol is: an act, sound, or object having cultural What’s in a “Symbol”? A symbol is: an act, sound, or object having cultural significance and the capacity to excite or objectify a response. Something that stands for or suggests something else by reason of relationship or association. n Symbols often represent aspects or parts of a culture. n

Examples of Symbols: Examples of Symbols:

Even more symbols… Even more symbols…

The Importance of Symbols n Depending on the culture, different symbols have different meanings. The Importance of Symbols n Depending on the culture, different symbols have different meanings. n n n The meaning behind a symbol is: dependent upon the person or culture seeing the symbol. Sometimes, a symbol can be offensive in one culture, but not another. Or, a symbol could have zero meaning at all in one culture, but have meaning in another.

Example #1… Example #1…

Example #2…. If you had no idea who this guy was… Would this mean Example #2…. If you had no idea who this guy was… Would this mean anything?

n 1. HOMEWORK/Classwork: a few sentences for each: Explain the following in a detailed n 1. HOMEWORK/Classwork: a few sentences for each: Explain the following in a detailed response – The American Flag from the perspective of: - A U. S. army veteran - A terrorist - A high school student at a sporting event 2. A green piece of paper with George Washington's picture on it symbolizes one dollar. - A billionaire - A beggar

Why are symbols important to China? n n n Symbols have an important presence Why are symbols important to China? n n n Symbols have an important presence in Chinese culture. China’s languages, like Mandarin, have symbols to represent letters, words, and sentences. Some common themes in China’s symbols (and in Chinese culture): n Red is a color of good fortune and happiness. Common in many aspects of Chinese and Asian culture. n The Number 4 is considered bad luck. n White represents death. Opposite of many Western cultures. n The dragon is an animal of great significance and honor.

Facts of China Polito/Bruewer Facts of China Polito/Bruewer

Quick Facts n n Population of: 1. 34 billion people. China is located in Quick Facts n n Population of: 1. 34 billion people. China is located in eastern Asia. n n Largest country in the world (in terms of population). In terms of land, China is slightly smaller than the United States, but, it has close to one billion more people.

Quick Facts continued… n n In comparison to other countries, China has the 2 Quick Facts continued… n n In comparison to other countries, China has the 2 nd largest economy (U. S. is first; India is 3 rd). Majority of population practices either: Buddhism or Taoism. 47% of population live in cities. Majority of population live in rural areas. Low population growth rate with a large disparity between the male and female population. n Currently, for every 170 men, there are only 100 women.

The East v. The West Polito/Bruewer The East v. The West Polito/Bruewer

Eastern v. Western Culture More of a cultural separation rather than a geographical separation. Eastern v. Western Culture More of a cultural separation rather than a geographical separation. n Eastern cultures: tend to be “collectivist” meaning each person does what needs to be done for the good of everyone else. n Western cultures: tend to be “individualistic” with a focus on how an action benefits the individual. n

Yin & Yang n The East v. West difference can be partially defined by Yin & Yang n The East v. West difference can be partially defined by the concept of: yin & yang. n “Yin”: Chinese word meaning “shaded” n “Yang”: Chinese word meaning “sunny” n Essentially, “yin and yang” represent opposite forces that co-exist within the same entity or object.

Yang: Active Hot Life Summer Male Day Odd Sun Fire Yin: Passive Cold Death Yang: Active Hot Life Summer Male Day Odd Sun Fire Yin: Passive Cold Death Winter Female Night Even Moon Water

Yin & Yang to the East n n Very common throughout Chinese culture. In Yin & Yang to the East n n Very common throughout Chinese culture. In Eastern culture: opposite, yet complimentary forces that work together. Both forces flow and work together in order to create a balance. It is an evolving cycle of light and dark, good and bad. Both parts are a part of a whole; you cannot have one force without the other.

Yin & Yang to the West n n In Western culture: we see everything Yin & Yang to the West n n In Western culture: we see everything as “black” or “white”, “right” or “wrong”. A separation exists between the perspectives. Both forces are often seen as unrelated; they are opposites for a reason.

Facts of China Part II Polito/Bruewer Facts of China Part II Polito/Bruewer

Chairman Mao Polito/Bruewer Chairman Mao Polito/Bruewer

Chairman Mao n n The founder of the People’s Republic of China. Chairmain of Chairman Mao n n The founder of the People’s Republic of China. Chairmain of China’s Communist Party between 1943 and 1976. Recognized as one of the important theoriests of: Communism. What is “communism”? It is an economic and social system in which all (or nearly all) property and resources are collectively owned by a classless society and not by indivdiual citizens.

Mao continued… n n Established the “Great Leap Forward”, which was a movement in Mao continued… n n Established the “Great Leap Forward”, which was a movement in China created in order to rapidly industrialize the nation. Started the “cultural revolution” in China which drastically changed elements common within Chinese culture. Often used propaganda to promote ideas. n For example, one significant change was the closing of schools and universities so that students could join an ideological group or work in factories.

Mao continued… The Chinese people love and hate Chairman Mao. He is an important Mao continued… The Chinese people love and hate Chairman Mao. He is an important figure in Chinese culture. n He brought about immense change to China; responsible for making China into a world economic power. n

Mao continued… n n n But, he was also responsible for widespread famine and Mao continued… n n n But, he was also responsible for widespread famine and death. His portrait still hangs in the Forbidden City in Beijing, China. His carefully preserved body is also on display in Beijing.

The One-Child Policy of China Polito/Bruewer The One-Child Policy of China Polito/Bruewer

One-Child Policy n n n In 1979, three years after the death of Chairman One-Child Policy n n n In 1979, three years after the death of Chairman Mao, a one-child policy was introduced to China in order to prevent overpopulation. Necessary because Chairman Mao did not believe in birth control. Government often used propaganda to promote new policy.

One-Child Policy continued… States that only one child can be born per family. n One-Child Policy continued… States that only one child can be born per family. n Sometimes, the family is allowed to have a second child if the first-born is a girl baby. But, this is usually not allowed. n To the Chinese, a boy child is preferable to a girl child. As a result, girl babies are often put up for adoption and/or killed. n

One-Child Policy continued… n n Parents who only have one child are often awarded One-Child Policy continued… n n Parents who only have one child are often awarded a “one-child glory certificate” which can entitle them to money from the government. If a family fails to follow the policy, they can lose their: land, money, and education privileges for their children. Some women are forced to receive an abortion. Sometimes, some families will avoid officially declaring their children, but the consequences will be severe when the families are caught.

Feng Shui Polito/Bruewer Feng Shui Polito/Bruewer

Feng Shui is the name for Chinese superstitions, especially those regarding the interrelationship of Feng Shui is the name for Chinese superstitions, especially those regarding the interrelationship of a person’s birth chart and the home where he or she lives. n Meant to promote good “chi” or flow of life throughout one’s home. n Everything in the house has purpose or meaning. n

Feng Shui continued… n n n At the entrance facing the front door there Feng Shui continued… n n n At the entrance facing the front door there should be no tree, for it may bring death or divorce. Or, block the “chi” from flowing into the house. Front door should not face the stairwell because all the good fortune and money may roll right out the door. Sharp angles in a household bring bad luck.

Feng Shui continued… n n n Frequent use of shapes such as: rectangles and Feng Shui continued… n n n Frequent use of shapes such as: rectangles and squares. Broken clocks represent time is running out. Cleanliness indicates the success of a household.

Tienanmen Square Tienanmen Square

Tiananmen Square A democratic protest that occurred on June 4, 1989 in Beijing, China. Tiananmen Square A democratic protest that occurred on June 4, 1989 in Beijing, China. n The protest was non-violent and peaceful. n The protests began with students at Peking University (in Beijing), but then they spread to include large numbers protesting for democracy and a change in the corrupt government. n

Tiananmen Square continued… n n During the protest, the Chinese military moved into the Tiananmen Square continued… n n During the protest, the Chinese military moved into the square and opened fire at the protestors. Chinese government claimed zero deaths occurred, but it is possible that as many as 10, 000 were killed.

The Power of Images Polito/Bruewer The Power of Images Polito/Bruewer

Images throughout History… Images throughout History…

Images of Victory Images of Victory

Images of Moments… Images of Moments…

Images for Remembrance… Images for Remembrance…

What’s in an “Image”? n Images often represent important events throughout history. n Can What’s in an “Image”? n Images often represent important events throughout history. n Can be personal and important to the individual. n A picture at your graduation or your first day of school. n Can be important to an entire culture or group. n Images tell a story with a single glance.

The Chinese Lunar Calendar The Chinese Lunar Calendar

The Lunar Calendar The “Lunar Year” is divided into 12 months n Each month The Lunar Calendar The “Lunar Year” is divided into 12 months n Each month has 29 1/2 days. Beginning of each month is the date of the new moon that is marked on the western calendar. n Every 2 1/2 years, a 13 th month is added and is known as the “lunar leap year”. n

Calendar continued… n n n Chinese lunar calendar names each year of its 12 Calendar continued… n n n Chinese lunar calendar names each year of its 12 -year cycles for an animal. Legend has it that the Buddha (from Buddhism) summoned all the animals to him before he departed from Earth. Only 12 animals, however, came to bid him farewell. As a reward to these animals, each year was named after one animal. The 12 animals are: Rat, Ox, Tiger, Rabbit, Dragon, Snake, Horse, Sheep, Monkey, Rooster, Dog, & Pig.

The Year of the Dragon (2012) n n n A symbol of good fortune The Year of the Dragon (2012) n n n A symbol of good fortune and sign of intense power. Those people born during the year of the dragon are to be honored and respected. People born during the Dragon year are said to be: free, uninhibited, beautiful, colorful, energetic, fearless, successful, and ambitious.

A Few More Facts on the Chinese Lunar Calendar: Since the calendar is based A Few More Facts on the Chinese Lunar Calendar: Since the calendar is based on lunar cycles, the typical year is not January 1 December 31 st. Each year varies based on the moon’s cycles. n In the lunar calendar, every “year” is identified differently than the calendar we are used to seeing. n n Example: January 23, 2012 -February 9, 2013 is the year “ 4710”.

More on the Calendar… n n The calendar is one of the longest chronological More on the Calendar… n n The calendar is one of the longest chronological record in history, dating back to 2600 B. C. Divided into 60 -year cycles. Within each cycle, there are five elements with 12 animals each. The five main elements are: wood, fire, earth, metal, and water. Each element represents yin-yang polarity which means that each element has positive and negative characteristics.

“What is your animal? ” Activity On the handout, read the description from your “What is your animal? ” Activity On the handout, read the description from your birth year. n After reading your year’s description, answer the questions on the reverse side of the paper. n

Calendar continued… Feb. 4, 1992 -Jan. 22, 1993 (4690) : The Year of the Calendar continued… Feb. 4, 1992 -Jan. 22, 1993 (4690) : The Year of the Monkey Jan. 23, 1993 -Feb. 9, 1994 (4691): The Year of the Rooster Feb. 10, 1994 -Jan. 30, 1995 (4692): The Year of the Dog Jan. 31, 1995 -Feb. 18, 1996 (4693): The Year of the Pig Feb. 19, 1996 -Feb. 6, 1997 (4694): The Year of the Rat Feb. 7, 1997 -Jan. 27, 1998 (4695): The Year of the Ox