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CULTURE DEFINED Folk Culture: Small incorporates a homogeneous population, typically rural and cohesive in cultural traits. Popular Culture: Large incorporates heterogeneous populations, typically urban. Ubiquitous. Can change in a matter of days or hours. Local Culture: group of people in a particular place who see themselves as a collective or a community who share experiences, customs, and traits, and who work to preserve those traits and customs in order to claim uniqueness and distinguish themselves from others.
CULTURE DEFINED Cont… Material Culture: group of people includes the things they construct, such as art, hoses clothing, sports, dance, and foods. Nonmaterial Culture: includes the beliefs, practices, aesthetics, and values of a group of people. Hearth: point of origin or cases in first diffusion.
CULTURE TERMS Assimilation: process which people lose originally differentiating traits, such as dress or speech particulars or mannerisms, when they come into contact with another society or culture. Often used to describe immigrant adaptation to new places of residence. Hierarchical Diffusion: A form of diffusion in which and idea of innovation spreads by passing first among the most connected places of peoples. Custom: a practice that a group of people routinely follow. Cultural Appropriation: process by which other cultures adopt customs & knowledge & use them for their own benefit.
U. S. House Types by Region Fig. 4 -1 -1: Small towns in different regions of the eastern U. S. have different combinations of five main house types.
CULTURE TERMS Neolocalism: seeking out the regional culture and reinvigorating it in response to the uncertainty of the modern world. Ethnic Neighborhoods: Neighborhood typically situated in a larger metropolitan city and constructed by or comprised of a local culture, in which a local culture can practice its customs. Commodification: process which something that previously was not regarded as an object to be bought or sold becomes an object that can be bought, sold, and traded in the world market.
Home Locations in Southeast Asia Fig. 4 -7: Houses and sleeping positions are oriented according to local customs among the Lao in northern Laos (left) and the Yuan and Shan in northern Thailand (right).
TERMS… CULTURE TERMS Authenticity: When local cultures or customs are commodified, usually one image or experience is typecast as the “authentic” image or experience of that culture. Distance Decay: The effects of distance on interaction, generally the greater the distance the less interaction. Time-Space compression: explains how quickly invocations diffuse and refers to how interlinked two places are through transportation and communication technologies.
U. S. House Types, 1945– 1990 Fig. 4 -11: Several variations of the “modern style” were dominant from the 1940 s into the 1970 s. Since then, “neo-eclectic” styles have become the dominant type of
TERMS… CULTURE TERMS Global-Local Continuum: What happens at the global scale has a direct effect on what happens at the local scale, and vice versa. This ides posits that the world is comprised of an interconnected series of relationships that extend across space. Glocalization: the process by which people in a local place meditate and alter regional, national, and global processes. Folk-housing region: A region in which the housing stock reflects styles of building that are particular to culture of the people who have long inhabited the area. Diffusion routes: The spatial trajectory through which cultural traits or other phenomena spread.
“Phishing” for a Hearth All aspects of popular culture—music, sports, television, and dance—have a hearth, a place of origin. A hearth begins with contagious diffusion: developers of an idea or invocation may find they have followers who dress as they do or listen to the music they play. A multitude of American musical groups (REM, Hootie and the Blowfish, Vertical Horizon) began as college bands—a few people jamming together in a dorm room. They play a campus party and gain followers. They starts to play at bars & campuses nearby, and soon they sell self-made compact discs at their concerts.
Diffusing Phish • One of the most successful of all college bands is Phish. • Started in a dorm room at the U of Vt in Burlington • Played at bars on campus and in surrounding towns years before gaining a wider audience. Eventually, they filled stadiums & venues of upwards of 130, 000 people. • Phish played together for 21 years, they appeared on MTV only once (on Beavis and Butthead). • The pattern of diffusion of their live concerts gives great insight into the contagious diffusion that became the hearth of Phish. • After the first years, a pattern of hierarchical diffusion emerged, as Phish found fans in major college towns, in Japan, and in Europe.
DEAD HEADS • The music of the Grateful Dead also diffuses relocationally, – as fans follow the musicians along their concerts routes, living in their cars and selling tie-died shirts and beaded necklaces from their cars. • By following the band for years (and estimated 500 to 1000 fans traveled to every Grateful Dead concert) fans create their own customs and culture. – Like other acts of pilgrimage, environmental effects can be grave.
Manufacturing a Hearth Whether a college band “makes it” depends greatly on the actions of producers & media corporate giants. Corporations: MTV (parent company Viacom), generate & produce popular culture, – This pushes innovations in pop culture through their communication infrastructure linking with the world. Clayton Rosati: – Studied MTV’s role in the production of popular culture & geographies of popular culture by globalizing local culture. FINDINGS: MTV playing rap music & Hip Hop from ’ 97 on helped produce music celebrities & opened space of MTV to “artists & forms that were often formerly relegated to street corners, block parties and mix-tapes. ” SO? This broadened the unification of popular aspirations with the machinery of the industrial production of culture. ”
PBS “The Merchants of Cool” A recent documentary looks at the roles corporations and marketing agencies play in creating popular culture. By conducting focus groups with teenagers (the main demographic for invocations in popular culture), by amassing enormous databases of what teenagers do and like, by sending “cool hunters” (“cool” kids themselves) out to talk with other “cool” kids about what is “cool, ” and by rummaging through teenagers’ bedrooms (as Rosati noted MTV does for casting reality shows), MTV and marketing companies are creating what is cool, what is new in popular culture.
Sharon Lee of Look-Look, Research company specializing in youth culture. On how trends in popular culture are spread from the hearth: – “. . it’s a triangle. At the top of the triangle there’s the innovator, 2 -3% of the population. Underneath them: Trend-setter, 17%. They pick up on ideas that the innovators are doing and they kind of claim them as their own. Underneath them: Early Adopter, % Unknown They kind of are the layer above Mainstream- 80%. Take what the trend-setter is doing & make it palatable for mass consumption. It becomes more acceptable, so the mass consumer picks up on it & runs with it which actually kills it. This description is a perfect story of the hierarchical diffusion of traits & trends in pop culture.
Reterritoralization Even as pop culture diffused world wide, it has not blanketed the world (hiding all existing local cultures underneath it) One aspect of popular culture (such as music or food) takes on new forms when it encounters a new locality & the people and local culture Reterritoralization: People in an area producing an aspect of pop culture making it their own.
Reterritorization of Hip Hop and Rap grew out of the inner cities of NYC and L. A. during the 1980 s and 1990 s. – Places such as Compton (L. A. ) and the Bronx and Harlem (NYC) came to represent the hearths of Hip Hop. These neighborhoods (Detroit & Atlanta too) became the authentic spaces of Hip Hop and rap. Neighborhood venues became the lyrics reflected the importance of local places to music itself.
Reterritorization of Hip Hop cont. . The Hip Hop form these hearths diffused abroad, especially to major cities in Europe. – EX- MC Solaar, Die Fantasischen Vier, and Jovanotti each made Hip Hop their own by writing music that connected with the youth of their country (France, Germany, and Italy, respectively). – As Hip Hop diffused throughout Europe, it mixed with existing local cultures, experiences, and places, reterritorializing the music to each locale.
Reterritorization of Hip Hop cont… Indonesia- Good example of reterritorialization. – Imported Hip Hop diffused first to a small group of people in Indonesia – Indonesians began to create Hip Hop. – Creating their own music, artists integrated local culture with “foreign” Hip Hop hearth to create a hybrid that was no longer foreign.
Reterritorization of Hip Hop cont. . As Hip Hop diffused & grew, artists addressed major concerns of local cultures in their lyrics. – Gangsta rap: Hip Hop artists in the U. S. wrote about social issues in the 80 s & 90 s, some wrote about violence, crime, and surviving. – Some artists write more about having fun and partying. France, 1 st Hip Hop artists were African, Arab, & Spanish immigrants. – Lyrics about racism experienced in France. Hip Hop artists outside the US typically write & perform in own language or dialect referencing terms used by artists in the U. S.
A Mental Map of Hip Hop Fig. 4 -3: This mental map places major hip hop performers near other similar performers and in the portion of the country where
Origin of Country Music Fig. 4 -1: U. S. country music has four main hearths, or regions of origin: southern Appalachia, central Tennessee and Kentucky, the Ozark-Ouachita uplands, and north-central
SPORTS Replacing Old Hearths with New: Beating Out the Big Three Popular Sports Football, Baseball, and Basketball
1800’s & 1900’s, benefited sports Advances in transportation technology, communication and institutionalism. Ex: – 1 st, RR interconnected cities across the country, allowing baseball teams to compete and baseball to diffuse. – Telegraph enabled newspapers to report baseball scores, which added to the sport’s following. – Electric lighting made basketball a nighttime spectator The founding of the NFL in 1920 helped institutionalize the sport of football whose rules have changed relatively little over the last century. – sport, played inside gymnasiums.
SPORTS During the 20 th Cent. Big 3 dominated sports popular culture. – Mark Mc. Gwire, Michael Jordan, and Brett Favre on Wheaties boxes – Became icons. – Advertising contracts & corporate sponsors surpassed salaries of biggest sports stars.
ALTERNATIVE SPORT – Alternative sports began to capture the imagination of young sports fans. 60 s Popular films (including Endless Summer) immortalized the freedom of surfing. 70 s, sidewalk surfing, now known as skateboarding, diffused from its hearth in Southern California. 80 s, snowboarding found a following & met strong resistance on ski slopes in the United States. Today? ?
X Games ESPN’s X games (debuting ‘ 95) Video games involving extreme sports propelled the previously alternative sports into popular culture. Video games sparked interest in the sports for kids who had never shown any interest in sports. – Tony Hawk (and the half-pipe) a skateboarder, worked with Activision to create several versions of Tony Hawk’s Pro Skater, Ave. annual sales$180 million. In 2001, sales relating to video game sales were higher than the movie industry’s box office recipients. 2001 baseball lost out to skateboarding, with more children under 18 skateboarding than playing baseball.
Xtreme Xpansion Extreme sports expansion has been driven by advertisers who court the 12 -34 age demographic. Fans looking for athletes who are outside of the excess of major league sports, and fans who desire a sport that is different from their parents’ sport. As extreme sports have become more popular, mainstream, and commodified, the idea that the sport is alternative has lost its weight. – When Tony Hawk beat Shaquile O’Neal for title of favorite sports star in the 2001 Nickelodeon Kids Choice Awards, it signaled the end of skateboarding as alternative. NO LONGER “Alternative” Skate parks can be found in malls throughout the suburbs, and they dot the parks and urban landscapes of the United States.
Hawking Products Tony Hawk- $10 million a year – Own brands, & advertising. – Hawk reportedly earns even more through his skateboards and clothing line, his video games, and his stints as spokesperson for Heinz, Hershey, and Frito-Lay. – Boom Huck Jam tour: Hawk combined sports with music, featuring skateboarders, BMX bike riders, and motorcyclists choreographed and enhanced with alternative live music.
Some Skateboarders desire to remain outside of the pop culture redefine their sport in light of famous figures like Tony Hawk. Those who follow street skateboarding as opposed to vert skateboarding have maintained a separation from the likes of Tony Hawk, despite his agility in their field. Others, looking for something less mainstream, have turned to the Internet and to their imaginations in search of a new extreme sport to lear
Golf Courses in Metropolitan Areas Fig. 4 -16: The 50 best-served and worst-served metropolitan areas in terms of golf holes per capita, and areas that are above and below average.
Threatened Cultural Homogenization. At the global scale, North America, Western Europe, and Japan exert the greatest influence on global popular culture at present. Each region acts as a major hearth for certain aspects of popular culture. – North America and Western Europe and Japan in music, sports, and fast food; – Japan influences North America and Western Europe in children’s television and electronic games; – Western Europe influences North America and Japan in certain realms of fashion, art, and philosophy.
Diffusion of TV, 1954– 1999 Fig. 4 -14: Television has diffused widely since the 1950 s, but some areas still have low numbers of TVs per population.
Distribution of Internet Hosts Fig. 4 -15: The U. S. had two-thirds of the world’s internet hosts in 2002. Diffusion of internet service is likely to follow the pattern of TV diffusion, but the rate of this diffusion may
Hog Production and Food Cultures Fig. 4 -6: Annual hog production is influenced by religious taboos against pork consumption in Islam and other religions. The highest production is in China, which is largely Buddhist.
Ethnicity Distribution of Ethnicities
Ethnicities in the United States – Clustered ethnicities – African American migration patterns Differentiating ethnicity and race – Race in the United States – Division by race in South Africa
African Americans in the U. S. The highest % of African Americans are in rural South & northern cities.
Hispanic Americans in the U. S. The highest % of Hispanic Americans are in southwest & northern cities.
Asian Americans in the U. S. The highest percentages of Asian Americans are in Hawaii and California.
Native Americans in the U. S. Highest % of Native Americans are in the plains, southwest, & Alaska.
Ethnicities in Chicago African Americans, Hispanic Americans, Asian Americans, and European Americans are clustered in different areas of the city.
Ethnicities in Los Angeles Fig. 7 -6: Hispanic, white, African American, and Asian areas in and around Los Angeles.
Triangular Slave Trade & African Source Areas Fig. 7 -7: The British triangular slave trading system operated among Britain, Africa, and the Caribbean and North America.
African American Migration in the U. S. Fig. 7 -8: Twentieth-century African American migration within the U. S. consisted mainly of migration from the rural south to cities of the Northeast, Midwest, and West.
African Americans in Baltimore Fig. 7 -9: Areas with 90% African American population in Baltimore expanded from a core area northwest of
Black “Homelands” in South Africa Fig. 7 -10: During the apartheid era, South Africa created a series of black “homelands” with the expectation that every black would be a citizen of one of them. These were
Ethnicities into Nationalities Rise of nationalities – Nation-states – Nationalism Multinational states – Former Soviet Union – Russia – Turmoil in the Caucasus Revival of ethnic identity – Ethnicity and communism – Rebirth of nationalism in Eastern Europe
Republics of the Soviet Union Fig. 7 -11: The Soviet Union consisted of 15 republics that included the country’s largest ethnic groups. These all became
Ethnic Groups in Russia Fig. 7 -12: Russia officially recognizes 39 ethnic groups, or nationalities, which are concentrated in western and southern portions of the country.
Ethnicities in the Caucasus Fig. 7 -13: The Caucasus region is extremely diverse ethnically. Ethnic groups are spread across several national
Clashes of Ethnicities Ethnic competition to dominate nationality Dividing ethnicities among more than one state
Ethnicity in the Horn of Africa There have been numerous interethnic civil conflicts in the countries of the Horn of Africa (including the Sudan,
Ethnicities in Lebanon Fig. 7 -15: Christians, Sunni Muslims, Shiite Muslims, and Druze are dominant in different areas of the country.
Ethnic Division of South Asia Fig. 7 -16: At independence in 1947, British India was divided into India and Pakistan, resulting in the migration of 17 million people and many killings. In 1971, after a brutal
Jammu and Kashmir Fig. 7 -17: Although its population is mainly Muslim, much of Jammu and Kashmir became part of India in 1947. India and Pakistan have fought two wars over the territory, and there
Sinhalese & Tamils in Sri Lanka Fig. 7 -18: The Sinhalese are mainly Buddhist and speak an Indo. European language, while the Tamils are mainly Hindu and speak a Dravidian language.
Ethnic Cleansing Ethnic cleansing in Yugoslavia – Creation of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia – Destruction of multi-ethnic Yugoslavia Ethnic cleansing in central Africa
Forced Migrations after World War Two Territorial changes after World War II resulted in many migrations, especially by Poles, Germans, and Russians.
The Balkans in 1914 The northern part of the Balkans was part of Austria-Hungary in 1914, while much of the south was part of the Ottoman Empire. The country of Yugoslavia was
Languages in Southeastern Europe Several new states were created, and boundaries were shifted after World Wars I and II. New state boundaries often coincided
Ethnic Regions in Yugoslavia’s six republics until 1992 included much ethnic diversity. Brutal ethnic cleansing occurred in Bosnia, Croatia, and Kosovo during the civil wars of the 1990 s.
Ethnic Cleansing in Kosovo Aerial photography helped document the stages of ethnic cleansing in western Kosovo in 1999.
Ethnicities in Africa The boundaries of African states do not (and cannot) coincide with the thousands of ethnic groups on the continent.
Clustering of Folk Cultures Isolation promotes cultural diversity – Himalayan art Influence of the physical environment – Distinctive food preferences – Folk housing – U. S. folk house forms
Amish Settlements in the U. S. Fig. 4 -4: Amish settlements are distributed through the northeast U
Himalayan Folk Cultural Regions Fig. 4 -5: Cultural geographers have identified four distinct culture regions based on predominant religions in the Himalaya Mountains.
Diffusion of New England House Types Fig. 4 -10: Four main New England house types of the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries diffused westward as settlers
Diffusion of House Types in U. S. Fig. 4 -9: Distinct house types originated in three main source areas in the U. S. and then diffused into the interior as
Wide Dispersion of Popular Culture Diffusion of popular housing, clothing, and food – Popular housing styles – Rapid diffusion of clothing styles – Popular food customs Television and diffusion of popular culture – Diffusion of television – Diffusion of the internet – Government control of television
Alcohol Preferences in the U. S. Fig. 4 -12: Per capita consumption of rum (top) and Canadian whiskey (bottom) show different distributions and
Wine Production per Year Fig. 4 -13: The distribution of wine production shows the joint impact of the physical environment and social customs.
Impacts of the Globalization of Popular Culture Threats to folk culture – Loss of traditional values – Foreign media dominance Environmental impacts of popular culture – Modifying nature – Uniform landscapes – Negative environmental impact