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Cultural Geography Cultural Geography

Maps reflect change over time • • • Knowledge Place names Boundaries Perspective of Maps reflect change over time • • • Knowledge Place names Boundaries Perspective of place names Disputed Areas

Knowledge • Map of Columbus’ time • Satellite images • GIS Knowledge • Map of Columbus’ time • Satellite images • GIS

Place Names • Formosa, Taiwan, Republic of China • Palestine, Israel, Occupied Territories Place Names • Formosa, Taiwan, Republic of China • Palestine, Israel, Occupied Territories

Boundaries • Africa-1914, 1990 • Europe –Before World War II and after, since 1990 Boundaries • Africa-1914, 1990 • Europe –Before World War II and after, since 1990 • Russia and former Soviet Union • Middle East-Before 1948, After 1967

Perspectives of place names • Arabian Gulf v. Persian Gulf • Sea of Japan Perspectives of place names • Arabian Gulf v. Persian Gulf • Sea of Japan v. East Sea • Middle East v. North Africa and Southwest Asia

Disputed areas • • Korea Western Sahara Former Yugoslavia Kashmir Disputed areas • • Korea Western Sahara Former Yugoslavia Kashmir

Cultural Difference can link or divide regions • • Language Ethnic Heritage Religion as Cultural Difference can link or divide regions • • Language Ethnic Heritage Religion as a unifying force Religion as a diverse force

Language • • • Arab World-Arabic Hispanic America-Spanish Brazil (Portuguese) Canada-French/English Switzerland multiple languages Language • • • Arab World-Arabic Hispanic America-Spanish Brazil (Portuguese) Canada-French/English Switzerland multiple languages English, French, Italian, German • English-World language

Ethnic Heritage • Yugoslavia-Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Albanians • Burundi and Rwanda-Hutus and Tutsis • Ethnic Heritage • Yugoslavia-Serbs, Croats, Bosnians, Albanians • Burundi and Rwanda-Hutus and Tutsis • United States and Switzerland-unity in multiple ethnic countries • Korea and Japan -predominantly single ethnicity • Cyrus-Greece and Turks

Religion as a unifying force • • • Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity Islam Religion as a unifying force • • • Hinduism Buddhism Judaism Christianity Islam

Religion as a divisive force • Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims in Pakistan and Religion as a divisive force • Conflicts between Hindus and Muslims in Pakistan and India • Conflicts between Catholics and Protestants in Northern Ireland • Jews, Christians, and Muslims all claiming Jerusalem as their religious heritage site.

Divisions are regions of the Earth’s surface over which groups of people establish social, Divisions are regions of the Earth’s surface over which groups of people establish social, economic, and political control. • Countries • Alliances

Alliances: Economic and Political • • • North Atlantic Treaty Organization European Union Organization Alliances: Economic and Political • • • North Atlantic Treaty Organization European Union Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries North American Free Trade Agreement Commonweath of Nations Red Cross/Red Cresent Organization of American States League of Arab States Association of Southeast Asian Nations African Union

Spatial divisions may generate conflict • • • Differences in culture, language, religion Retention Spatial divisions may generate conflict • • • Differences in culture, language, religion Retention of historical boundaries Imperial conquest and control Economic similarities and differences Boundary and territorial disputes Cultural differences Economic Difference Ethnic Difference Nationalism

Boundary and territorial disputes • • • Syria /Israel –Golan Heights Western Sahara/Morocco China/ Boundary and territorial disputes • • • Syria /Israel –Golan Heights Western Sahara/Morocco China/ Taiwan India/Pakistan-Kashmir Iraq/ Kuwait

Cultural Difference • • Indonesia Canada (Quebec) Ireland Sudan Cultural Difference • • Indonesia Canada (Quebec) Ireland Sudan

Economic Difference • • • Fertile Land Access to fresh water Access to coast Economic Difference • • • Fertile Land Access to fresh water Access to coast Fishing rights Natural resources Economic Difference

Ethnic Difference • • Balkans Cyprus Rwanda and Burundi Kashmir Ethnic Difference • • Balkans Cyprus Rwanda and Burundi Kashmir

Cooperation may eliminate the need for the division and control of the Earth’s surface Cooperation may eliminate the need for the division and control of the Earth’s surface • Humanitarian initiatives (red cross/red crescent) • Economic alliance (law of the sea, China, and the US, Multinational corporations, NAFTA • Cultural alliance-Francophone world • Military Alliance North Atlantic Treaty Organization • Problem solving Antarctica Treaty • Program to promote international understanding • Alliance for environmental preservation • Foreign Aid