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Cubic Mile Energy Robert Mikloš & Adam Obert Tercia Slovakia Cubic Mile Energy Robert Mikloš & Adam Obert Tercia Slovakia

Energy Team Energy Team

Energy Poem Energy is all around us, Strong enough to pound us. Kinetic or Energy Poem Energy is all around us, Strong enough to pound us. Kinetic or potential, Either way is fine. Kinetic for avalanche, Potential for packed snow.

Cubic Mile l l l Prolog : There has been a radical transformation in Cubic Mile l l l Prolog : There has been a radical transformation in housing energy consumption over the last 30 years, with an absolute reduction in heat consumption and a rapid growth in electricity consumption, reflecting wider technological and social transformations in the movement from an industrial to a knowledge-based society. In new housing it is shown that electricity consumption now dominates the total primary energy consumption. As a consequence, traditional heat-saving versions are relatively less effective, and can result in overheating and rising electricity consumption. At the same time, rising temperatures in the future due to climate change will result in falling heat demand increasing cooling demand in housing.

Cubic Mile Energy resources In the past In the present In the future Cubic Mile Energy resources In the past In the present In the future

What types of energy did people use the most? Wind and water energy types What types of energy did people use the most? Wind and water energy types were popular in the past. People used water and wind energy. Watermills and windmills were very important. l They were used for grinding grain for example. l They produced lot of energy people needed. l

What kind of energy resources did people mostly use in the past ? l What kind of energy resources did people mostly use in the past ? l l l The most famous energy resource was a windmill. Windmill is a machine which converts the energy of wind to rotational motion by means of adjustable vanes called sails. The second famous energy resource was a watermill. Watermill was most used in boats. The most famous boat who used it was Titanic.

Energy Resources can be divided into 2 categories: 1. Non-Renewable Resources, e. g. coal Energy Resources can be divided into 2 categories: 1. Non-Renewable Resources, e. g. coal or oil Once used these resources cannot be used again. 2. Renewable Resources, e. g. wind or solar These resources can be used over and over again.

Non-Renewable Resource, e. g. COAL Coal is formed from dead vegetation that has been Non-Renewable Resource, e. g. COAL Coal is formed from dead vegetation that has been buried in mud for millions of years. First forming PEAT then the PEAT turns into COAL over time as more water and air are squeezed out, due to the weight of more earth building up on top of it.

Non-Renewable Resource, e. g. Gas Natural gas is found underground, often in the same Non-Renewable Resource, e. g. Gas Natural gas is found underground, often in the same places as oil. A mixture of gases make up ‘natural gas’. It is mainly made up of methane gas.

l l Biofuels: these fuels come from a wide range of materials from wood l l Biofuels: these fuels come from a wide range of materials from wood to plant waste and waste materials from animals. Firewood is a good source of energy but the wood does have to be cut, transported and trees replanted. Methane gas can be produced from plant and animal waste materials but production rates are slow. Bio diesel can be produced in several ways, for example from maize or from the by-products of wheat production. The potential for biofuel production is great. At the moment, however, there are problems around the issue of scalability as current production levels fall far short of the levels required to substitute fossil fuels.

l l Micro generation: for the last 100 years the : main concept in l l Micro generation: for the last 100 years the : main concept in electricity generation has been to ‘think big’ and build large power stations. Now we are beginning to see a new trend, small scale local generation of power using renewable biofuels. In the developing world where funds are scarce experts predict micro generation is the way forward. With time these separate micro generators cab be joined up to form a larger power grid.

Non-Renewable Resource, e. g. Oil is formed from the remains of plankton (small plants Non-Renewable Resource, e. g. Oil is formed from the remains of plankton (small plants and animals) that live in the sea million years ago. Oil is formed when the dead plankton are covered by mud on the sea floor and slowly change into oil. This change happens due to the actions of heat and microbes.

Renewable Resource, e. g. Windmills have been used to power machines for centuries. Wind Renewable Resource, e. g. Windmills have been used to power machines for centuries. Wind is freely available. Turbines are needed to harness this resource. Hill-top/exposed areas are good for building windmils.

Wind turbines: these are now a : common site in several European countries. Some Wind turbines: these are now a : common site in several European countries. Some people say the turbines are ugly and cause ‘visual pollution’. To minimise their visual impact they can be located out at sea (as long as the sea is not too deep). Obviously, when there’s no wind, no electricity is generated.

Renewable Resource, e. g. Solar There is more sun available in southfacing locations. Light Renewable Resource, e. g. Solar There is more sun available in southfacing locations. Light and heat from the sun can be used to porduce a solar energy on solar panels.

Solar power: A large amount of capital : is required to set up a Solar power: A large amount of capital : is required to set up a solar power system. At the moment photovoltaic cells are not very efficient at converting solar power to electricity. It takes 5 -6 years for such a system to become costefficient. If these cells could be made more efficient experts have calculated that 4% of the earth’s desert areas could supply all of the world’s energy needs.

Renewable Resource, e. g. Biomass & Biogas Animal and plant waste can be used Renewable Resource, e. g. Biomass & Biogas Animal and plant waste can be used to produce energy. Biogas is gas given off when material decays. Wood from sustainable sources can be used for biomass.

Renewable Resource, e. g. Hydro The energy from running water in rivers can be Renewable Resource, e. g. Hydro The energy from running water in rivers can be harnessed. Fast-flowing river water can be used to spin turbines to produce electricity.

Renewable Resource, e. g. Wave & Tidal The energy from running water at the Renewable Resource, e. g. Wave & Tidal The energy from running water at the sea – waves and tidal movement – can be used to produce energy. It is not used too much nowadays.

Tidal flow schemes: an example of tidal flow is the Gulf Stream which flows Tidal flow schemes: an example of tidal flow is the Gulf Stream which flows from Florida to the north west of Scotland at speeds of 1. 5 metres per second. There are problems, however, converting this kinetic energy into electricity. Today’s marine current turbines (an underwater version of a wind turbine) operate best in shallow water where they can be fixed to the sea bed. At the moment they are not able to exploit the energy present in tidal flows such as the Gulf Stream where the sea is very deep.

Tidal barrages: these can be built in coastal areas where there is a large Tidal barrages: these can be built in coastal areas where there is a large variation in the levels of high and low tides. Tidal barrages are dams that fill with sea water when the tide comes in, when the tide goes out the water is released. As it escapes it generates electricity. Unfortunately, the number of locations where tidal barrages can be built is limited and they can have a considerable impact on the local marine ecosystem.

What types of energy resources will people use in the future ? l For What types of energy resources will people use in the future ? l For centuries, the way in which the sun and stars produce their energy remained a mystery. During the Twentieth Century, scientists discovered that they produce their energy by the fusion process. Einstein's theory that mass can be converted into energy provided the basis for understanding fusion.

Meanwhile, there is one energy source that is free and inexhaustible. It’s like a Meanwhile, there is one energy source that is free and inexhaustible. It’s like a giant nuclear reactor – only this one is located 93 million miles away. 25 Solar Wonders, © 2007 Florida Solar Energy

Will people use more renewable energy or non-renewable energy ? l People will mined Will people use more renewable energy or non-renewable energy ? l People will mined nonrenewable energy resources and use only renewable energy resources and we will use new types of energy we would be able to generate.

Fact file- energy in Slovakia Electricity - production: 30. 57 billion k. Wh (2004) Fact file- energy in Slovakia Electricity - production: 30. 57 billion k. Wh (2004) Electricity - production by source: fossil fuel: 30. 3% hydro: 16% nuclear: 53. 6% other: 0% (2001) Electricity - consumption: 24. 8 billion k. Wh (2004) Electricity - exports: 10. 59 billion k. Wh (2004) Electricity - imports: 8. 731 billion k. Wh (2004) Oil - production: 3, 808 bbl/day (2003 est. ) Oil - consumption: 71, 400 bbl/day (2003 est. ) Oil - exports: NA bbl/day Oil - imports: NA bbl/day Oil - proved reserves: 4. 5 million bbl (1 January 2002) Natural gas - production: 165 million cu m (2004 est. ) Natural gas - consumption: 6. 72 billion cu m (2004 est. ) Natural gas – exports: 1 million cu m (2004 est. ) Natural gas - imports: 6. 949 billion cu m (2004 est. ) Natural gas - proved reserves: 15. 01 billion cu m (1 January 2002)

Cubic Mile Energy in houses In the past In the present In the future Cubic Mile Energy in houses In the past In the present In the future

Cubic Mile l House in the past : In the past people used wood Cubic Mile l House in the past : In the past people used wood and oil to heat the houses which were usually made from wood which didn´t keep warmth in. They lit the houses with candles.

Cubic Mile l House in the present : l The standard has been named Cubic Mile l House in the present : l The standard has been named "Passive House" because the passive heat inputs delivered externally by solar irradiation through the windows and provided internally by the heat emissions of appliances and occupants essentially suffice to keep the building at comfortable indoor temperatures throughout the heating period. It is a part of the Passive House philosophy that efficient technologies are also used to minimize the other sources of energy consumption in the building, notably electricity for household appliances. The target of the CEPHEUS project is to keep the total final energy demand for space heating, domestic hot water and household appliances below 42 k. Wh/m 2 year". l

Energy in our households. l l l All of us use energy at home. Energy in our households. l l l All of us use energy at home. What is nowadyas crucially important is the way we use it, the amount we use and what does the used energy comes from. Production of energy pollutes our environment the most; the most ecological energy is the one we do not use at all at the moment. Think twice and put a little bit effort to save a lot of energy in your households.

You can contribute to economise energy in your households using economical ways of its You can contribute to economise energy in your households using economical ways of its usage. Solar energy Lighting Water consumption Electric appliances Wall thickness Heating Door and windows

Heating l Heating covers 60 -70 % of the energy used in our households. Heating l Heating covers 60 -70 % of the energy used in our households. This is the space we would reach the most significant energy saving. l Cutting down the temperature in rooms about 2° C we save from 10 to 12 % of energy. l 21⁰C is an ideal temperature of a room. We should turn down the heating feeling hot; once you feel cold it is better to put on something warm.

Door and windows. l Plastic door and windows with doubled glass help to keep Door and windows. l Plastic door and windows with doubled glass help to keep the warmth inside the room. l A lot of required energy can get to the house thanks to solar energy – via solar beam penetrating through the windows. l We should roll down the blinds and curtains to trap the warmth inside the house.

Wall thickness Walls made of thin layer, without isulation and warm layers contribute to Wall thickness Walls made of thin layer, without isulation and warm layers contribute to the biggest loss of the warmth on the other hand thick walls with good insulation keep warmth very well and during summer they keep house cold. l Thick walls are able to keep permanent temperatute inside the house. l

Usage of water in households. l l l Potable water is the precious thing Usage of water in households. l l l Potable water is the precious thing we have. Economical usage of potable water save energy at the same time. An average family let run out 15 -20 thousands liters of potable water through water batteries and flushing mechanisms of toilets monthly. Using potable water we have to follow the rule: the faster the better. Taking a shower we waste only 1/3 of water we would use for a bath. Half-fulfilled waching machine uses twice as much energy.

They suggested 50 ways to save water in Florida. Are you able to suggest They suggested 50 ways to save water in Florida. Are you able to suggest more?

Ecological solution Ecological solution

In some countries there is lack of potable water. In some countries there is lack of potable water.

Acces to potable water. What will be the situation like in 30 years time? Acces to potable water. What will be the situation like in 30 years time?

Electric appliances l l Is it necessary to use them for all chores? Limited Electric appliances l l Is it necessary to use them for all chores? Limited usage of electric appliances especially in a kitchen or a garden can save al ot of energy and we can avoid turning our house into storeroom of pointless and unwanted gadgets. Did you know that producing one battery we use much more energy than is battery able to produce during its existence. By the way batteries create hatarduous waste. We should replace one-shot batteries with rechargable ones.

Solar panels are able to cover from 60% to 80% consumption of hot water Solar panels are able to cover from 60% to 80% consumption of hot water in our households. l The simpliest way of using solar energy is to put an old barrel somwhere in your garden and you would enjoy hot shower during the whole summer. l

l l l l l Energy and Resources COUNTRY PROFILE - Slovakia View Technical l l l l l Energy and Resources COUNTRY PROFILE - Slovakia View Technical and Source Notes Energy Production and Consumption Slovakia Europe World (in thousand metric tons of oil equivalent) {a} Total Energy Production, 2000 5994 2253336 10077984 % change since 1980 75 % 152 % 37 % Energy Imports, 1997 15001 1341347 9521506 Energy Exports, 1997 2457 961926 3419104 Total Energy Consumption {b}, 1999 17991 2559701 9702786 Electricity consumption, 1999 1956 291148 1040770 Energy consumption per capita, 1997 3 4 2 % change since 1990 -21 % -14 % 0 % Energy Consumption per GDP {c}, 1999: 328 243 244 % change since 1990 -24 % X -13 %

l Energy Consumption by Source, 1999 (in thousand metric tons oil equivalent) Total Fossil l Energy Consumption by Source, 1999 (in thousand metric tons oil equivalent) Total Fossil Fuels 14095 2117484 7689047 Coal and coal products 5157 480313 2278524 Crude oil and natural gas liquids 5382 906066 3563084 Natural Gas 5794 786787 2012559 Nuclear 3418 303885 661901 Hydroelectric 390 60847 222223 Renewables, excluding hydroelectric: 76 64845 1097889 Primary solid biomass (includes fuelwood) 76 56374 1035139 Biogas and liquid biomass 0 1919 14931 Geothermal 0 4886 43802 Solar 0 390 2217 Wind 0 1227 1748 l Tide, wave, and ocean 0 50 53 l l l

l Energy Consumption by Sector, 1999 (in thousand metric tons of oil equivalent) l l Energy Consumption by Sector, 1999 (in thousand metric tons of oil equivalent) l Industry 5876 569813 2140474 Transportation 1485 451881 1755505 Agriculture 316 51724 166287 Commercial & public services 1912 154692 511555 Residential 2342 477196 1845475 Non-energy Uses 988 76515 333981 Total Final Energy Consumption {d} 12919 1781820 6753276 l l l

Cubic Mile Energy resource water Fresh water Cubic Mile Energy resource water Fresh water

Energy resource -fresh water l l Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Energy resource -fresh water l l Fresh water is naturally occurring water on the Earth's surface in bogs, ponds, lakes, rivers and streams, and undergorund as groundwater in aquifers and underground streams. Freshwater is characterized by having low concentrations of dissolved salts and other total dissolved solids. The term specifically excludes seawater and brackish water.

Will people lead wars to get acces to potable water in the future? Will people lead wars to get acces to potable water in the future?

Cubic Mile l House in the future : Our Visions : l ENERGY: An Cubic Mile l House in the future : Our Visions : l ENERGY: An Active House is CO 2 neutral. It has an exceptionally low energy consumption and covers its energy requirements from renewable sources. l INDOOR CLIMATE: An Active House has a healthy and comfortable indoor climate, allowing people to express themselves and live their lives in comfort. l ENVIRONMENT: An Active House is designed, situated and constructed to interact with its environment.

l Epilog : Cubic Mile l Energy experts predict that by the end of l Epilog : Cubic Mile l Energy experts predict that by the end of this century, just 250 years after the start of the Industrial Revolution, we will have burnt all the world’s coal and gas reserves, reserves that took 200 million years to develop. l With fossil fuel reserves running down the search is on for alternative sources of energy. The need for renewable sources of energy is greater than ever.

The End The End