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CSUSM ERGONOMICS Self Administered Study Program Workstation Ergonomic Training Risk Management and Safety Operations - Craven 4700
Curricula § What is Ergonomics § The benefits of an Ergonomic program § Ergonomic related injuries and their causes § Identifying Ergonomic Risk Factors § Office Ergonomics § Control Strategies to minimize risk § What you can do to prevent injury Note - Industrial Ergonomics is addressed in specific presentations orientated to a particular work environment
The benefits of an Ergonomic program § DECREASED INJURIES, ILLNESSES, § § AND WORKERS’ COMPENSATION COSTS. INCREASED EFFICIENCY AT WORK. INCREASED PHYSICAL WELL BEING. DECREASED ABSENTEEISM AND TURNOVER. INCREASE IN EMPLOYEE MORALE.
What is Ergonomics? Ø “Ergonomics is the science of fitting workplace conditions and job demands to the capabilities of employees. ” ( U. S. Dept. of Health) Ø Ergonomic principles are used to improve the “fit” between the worker and the workplace. Ø A practical approach to Ergonomics considers the match between the person, the equipment they use, the work processes and the work environment. Ø A persons capabilities, physical attributes and work habits must be recognized to improve ergonomic factors in the workplace. Ø Risk Management and Safety is pleased to present this first step in assisting our colleagues to become ergonomically knowledgeable and eligible for the Ergonomic Resource Fund Program.
Ergonomic related injuries and their causes The following slides will provide initial information concerning some of the most common occurring ergonomic injuries, it is not a comprehensive list and all significant discomfort should be examined by a Health Care Professional. Any exercise program to help strengthen the body components need to be approved by a persons HCP.
The Quickie Quiz #201108 Just a quick quiz to see how much you already know about your body systems that may be affected by ergonomic set-up and movement issues. This is not a pass/fail quiz, just informational and to get you into the scope of the program. A CTD is what? ________________ (what about MSD and RMI’s!? ) Do you think all the muscle and bone systems interact? YES NO # of US adults who will suffer Low back pain ______ An ergonomic Evaluation will fix all your problems? YES NO
A CTD is what? Cumulative Trauma Disorder – means it usually is not a sudden spontaneous event; the terms MSD = The Answers Please…. . Do you think all the muscle and bone systems interact? There were no trick questions. YES ; if functioning correctly they all work together # of US adults who will suffer Low back pain 80 -85% = WOW! This basic information should help you in your selfevaluation process. An ergonomic Evaluation will fix all your problems? Musculo-skeletal Disorders, RMI’s = Repetitive Motion Incidents. NO; if only we could, but we can help some and prevent others
EMPHASIS As you saw with a great many people experiencing back pain it is important to address that area and the associated muscle/bone structures that are likely to cause the greatest discomfort. Back issues can affect or exacerbate neck/shoulder and upper arm as well as hip and upper leg areas. The self evaluation process will help you understand the need for proper alignment in your set-ups.
TYPES of FORCE INJURIES • BENDING OVER • TWISTING • FALL or LONG TERM SEATED COMPRESSION Other Ergonomic Related Injuries include; § Tendonitis § Carpal Tunnel Syndrome § Tennis Elbow § Neck and Upper Back injuries § Strains/Sprains § Bursitis § Thoracic Outlet Syndrome § Trigger finger EXAMPLE of Bending force injury potential
Identifying Ergonomic Risk Factors THERE ARE CONDITIONS OR CIRCUMSTANCES THAT INCREASE THE CHANCES OF DEVELOPING A MUSCULO-SKELETAL DISORDER (MSD). THE LIKELIHOOD OF DEVELOPING AN INJURY IS DEPENDENT ON THE FREQUENCY AND DURATION OF EXPOSURE TO RISK FACTORS. BOTH OCCUPATIONAL AND PERSONAL RISK FACTORS CAN AFFECT AN INDIVIDUALS WELL BEING AT HOME OR WORK.
Risk factors and causes of MSD’s Repetition Force Awkward Posture Static Posture Contact Stress Temperature Extremes Vibration Psycho Social These above listed factors and causes are covered in the following slides.
Repetition Occurs when the same or similar movements are performed frequently. Repetition can also occur when different tasks are performed if those tasks have the same movements. Injury may result from repetition when the tissues do not have adequate time to recover.
Force is the amount of physical effort required by a person to do a task or maintain control of tools or equipment. A pinch grip produces 3 -5 times more force on the tendons in the wrist than a grip with the whole hand. With excessive force the muscles are contracting much harder than normal, this can lead to stress on the muscles, tendons and joints.
Awkward Posture Is a deviation from the “neutral” body position. A “neutral” body position is safest and most efficient position in which to work. Awkward posture puts stress on muscles, tendons and joints. Neutral Awkward
Static Posture Static posture occurs when one position is held for a prolonged period of time. The muscles will become fatigued from a lack of blood flow during a static posture. This fatigue can lead to discomfort and even injury.
Contact Stress Contact stress is caused by any sharp or hard object putting localized pressure on a part of the body. Contact stress will irritate local tissues and interfere with circulation and nerve function.
Temperature Extremes Environmental conditions such as extreme heat or cold can place stress on tissues. Extreme cold constricts blood vessels and reduces sensitivity and coordination of body parts. Excessive heat can result in increased fatigue and heat stress.
Psycho-social Issues Stress, boredom, and anxiety can contribute to the possibility of developing a MSD. Psycho-social issues can create increased muscle tension and reduce a person’s awareness of work technique.
OFFICE ERGONOMICS ØBY APPLYING ERGONOMIC PRINCIPLES TO THE OFFICE SETTING, RISK FACTORS ARE MINIMIZED, PRODUCTIVITY IS INCREASED, AND OVERALL WORKPLACE QUALITY IS IMPROVED. ØTHE WORKSTATION MUST BE ADJUSTED TO PROMOTE A NEUTRAL POSITION WHILE A PERSON WORKS. ØWHEN ADJUSTING A WORKSTATION, KEEP IN MIND THAT ALL OF THE EQUIPMENT INTERACTS. MAKING ONE ADJUSTMENT MAY ALTER ANOTHER.
Self Evaluation Process - Adjusting the Workstation ü Adjust the Chair. ü Adjust reach requirements. ü Adjust focal requirements. You may find it useful to print out the information in the following checklists that may assist you in evaluating your work-station area. To print the checklist slides remember to set your printer to print “current page” or you can put in the numbers of the slides. (23 -26)
One of the reasons it is important to understand the chair adjustments and fit it to the user, is many chairs look similar yet are designed for a specific purpose. The chair on the left below (Fig. A) is a simple conference chair with only 2 adjustments while the chair on the right (Fig. B) has 10 adjustments so that it can be fit to the 95 percentile of users. Figure A Important note: It is not recommended to purchase chairs from catalog pictures or outlet stores. They are often inferior quality and have not been evaluated to fit the end user. Contact RM&S Ext. 4502 to setup an evaluation. Figure B
Self Evaluation Process – Adjust the Chair Adjustments (as applicable): q Height q Seat Pan q Arms (up/down, in/out, forward back, swivel in out) q Lumbar support (built in or adjustable) q Tilt Lock /Rocker Lock q Head rest (some units are built in, others can be added on) Some chairs have levers that will perform multiple adjustments. The chair above shows a tilt lock bar, and a rocker/tension bar both which have multiple settings
Workstation Reach/Alignment: q Monitor(s) Height/Eye-line q Monitor(s) Alignment to Keyboard/ User q Mouse Reach and angle q Keyboard Tray – Height and angle q Keyboard legs in flat position Model Example with return and old CRT monitor. Example: Office before an evaluation.
Self Evaluation Process – Adjust Reach and Alignment Requirements Recommendations Workstation Reach/Alignment: q Monitor(s) Height/Eye-line (2”-3” from top of monitor edge) q Monitor(s) Alignment to Keyboard/ User (“H” key is centered on monitor or where two units meet, and the center of the users chest. ) q Mouse Reach and angle (back by the edge of the keyboard, slightly above if the tray allows, and use the arm/shoulder to move the mouse – not the wrist) q Keyboard Tray – Height and angle (dependent on user size/height and workstation design) q Keyboard legs in flat position (or angled using an approved footrest)
Self Evaluation Process – Distance/Focal Requirements Focal /Distance Requirements: q Phone reach/position (headset? ) q Distance to monitor (seated/standing) 24”-30” q Monitor(s) screen tilt angle (glare? ) Check your workstation before you place the equipment in position, e. g. § Where is the best place for the New Office without adjustments for user. monitor(s)? §Where should the keyboard tray be? §Where does the CPU go? §Should I have wireless? §Will I spend a lot of time on the phone? §Will I benefit from a sit/stand setup?
Environmental considerations: q Lighting (ambient, office, task, ) (what type, how many? ) q Temperature/HVAC Vents (Where are they, call Facility Services (Ext. 4600) if you think you need adjustments – DO NOT block vents. )
Remember the Source Had a tough day? Computer giving you problems? Going to an important meeting? Need to relax? The following slides are to revisit the most common areas of ergonomic discomfort….
Typical workstation problems
And another Typical workstation problems
Or even this typical workstation problems
Additional Resources You may visit the RM&S website and check out the following (http: //www. csusm. edu/rms/safety_programs/ergonomics. html) Ergonomics in the Office General Information Ergonomics Tips Stretching Exercises Back Pain Lifting Techniques Your Back is Your Life! Eye Strain Ergonomics for Computers Computer Checklist Workstation Techniques
Thank you for your Diligence To complete and document your training please do the following: ü Print the Certificate of Completion, ü Sign and date the certificate ü Have your Supervisor/MPP sign & date the Certificate Risk Management and Safety
Certificate of Completion for Ergonomic Self Evaluation This certificate authenticates that __________________ (Print Name Clearly) has successfully completed the Ergonomic Self Administered Training Program conducted by Risk Management and Safety at California State University, San Marcos, on _________ Date __________ Signature of Employee Supervisor/MPP __________ Signature of