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CSCI-235 Micro-Computer Applications Application Software CSCI-235 Micro-Computer Applications Application Software

Software Ø Software – All the programs that give the computer its instructions l Software Ø Software – All the programs that give the computer its instructions l Two categories of software: System software © Prentice-Hall, Inc Application software

Application Software Ø Application software refers to programs that enable the user to be Application Software Ø Application software refers to programs that enable the user to be productive when using the computer © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Application Software Personal Productivity Internet Word Processing Web Browsers Spreadsheets E-Mail Address Books Multimedia/Graphics Application Software Personal Productivity Internet Word Processing Web Browsers Spreadsheets E-Mail Address Books Multimedia/Graphics Home/Education Personal Finance Desktop Publishing Tax Preparation Photo Editing Reference 3 D Rendering Games © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Personal Productivity Word Processor Spreadsheet Database © Prentice-Hall, Inc Personal Productivity Word Processor Spreadsheet Database © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Word Processor Ø Software for creating text documents (e. g. , Microsoft Word) Ø Word Processor Ø Software for creating text documents (e. g. , Microsoft Word) Ø More sophisticated programs for creating large documents (e. g. , books) or documents with lots of graphics (e. g. , brochures) are often referred as Desktop Publishing Software Ø Most modern word processors allow the integration of graphics with text © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Text Editors Ø A text editor is a program that you can use to Text Editors Ø A text editor is a program that you can use to create and modify files Ø UNIX systems typically offer a choice of text editors of which the vi editor is the most common © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Text Editors vs Word Processors Ø A text editor is not a word processor Text Editors vs Word Processors Ø A text editor is not a word processor Ø A word processor typically does more than a text editor. Besides adding text to a file, most word processing programs allow you to control the appearance of the text (e. g. , paragraph styles, typefaces, etc…) when it is printed Ø In contrast, a text editor does just that – edit text © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Spreadsheet Ø Software for working with numeric data, calculations and graphing/charting (e. g. , Spreadsheet Ø Software for working with numeric data, calculations and graphing/charting (e. g. , Microsoft Excel, Lotus 1 -2 -3) Ø Modern spreadsheets include lots of built- in analysis tools and functions © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Databases Ø Software that allows the creating of highly structured containers for storing information Databases Ø Software that allows the creating of highly structured containers for storing information (e. g. , Microsoft Access) Ø Allows the user to perform queries © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Presentation/Multimedia Ø Software that allows the user to combine several data formats (e. g. Presentation/Multimedia Ø Software that allows the user to combine several data formats (e. g. , text, audio, video) to create presentations (e. g. , Microsoft Powerpoint) © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Multimedia/Graphics Desktop Publishing Photo Editing 3 D Rendering © Prentice-Hall, Inc Multimedia/Graphics Desktop Publishing Photo Editing 3 D Rendering © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Internet Web Browser © Prentice-Hall, Inc E-mail Internet Web Browser © Prentice-Hall, Inc E-mail

Home/Education Personal Finance Tax Preparation Reference Games © Prentice-Hall, Inc Home/Education Personal Finance Tax Preparation Reference Games © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Custom Software Ø Specifically tailored to an organization’s needs l Organization hires computer programmers Custom Software Ø Specifically tailored to an organization’s needs l Organization hires computer programmers to design, write, test, and implement software Ø Can be extremely complex and take years to write Ø Used for specialized fields l l l Billing programs Inventory tracking programs Point of Sale software © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Custom Software © Prentice-Hall, Inc Custom Software © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Software Suite Ø Individual applications share a common program code Ø Popular office suites Software Suite Ø Individual applications share a common program code Ø Popular office suites offer a word processor, spreadsheet, database, presentation, and other programs © Prentice-Hall, Inc

System Requirements Sample Minimum System Requirements • IBM compatible PC with a 486 PC System Requirements Sample Minimum System Requirements • IBM compatible PC with a 486 PC processor or better (Pentium® recommended) Microsoft Windows® 95 12 MB RAM (16 MB recommended) Hard disk space (standard installation approx. 100 MB) CD-ROM drive (2 x or better) • Mouse or other pointing device • • Ø System requirements refers to the minimum level of equipment needed to run a program Platform– PC or MAC l Microprocessor l Drive– 3. 5 Floppy or CD-ROM l RAM l Available hard disk space l © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Software Version Ø Software producers include a version number with their products Ø Version Software Version Ø Software producers include a version number with their products Ø Version numbers identify the release of the program being used Ø Recent releases have numbers greater than earlier releases (Recent Ver. 6. 0; Earlier Ver. 1. 0) l Whole numbers are major revisions (1. 0, 2. 0, 3. 0, etc. ) Decimal numbers refer to maintenance releases or updates and © Prentice-Hall, Inc fixes (1. 1, 1. 2, 1. 3, etc. ) l

Software Upgrades Ø Software upgrading is the process of keeping the application program current Software Upgrades Ø Software upgrading is the process of keeping the application program current Ø Types of upgrades: l l Patch – Small changes in the program Service release – Major changes in the program © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Software Licenses and Registration Ø A software license gives the user the right to Software Licenses and Registration Ø A software license gives the user the right to install and use the program on one computer Ø Organizations purchase a site license to install a program on many computers © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Types of software Most computer software is copyrighted Ø Software piracy – Infringing on Types of software Most computer software is copyrighted Ø Software piracy – Infringing on a program’s copyright Ø Copyrighted software cannot be: Ø • • • Ø Copied Altered Used on more than one computer Types of copyrighted software: l l l Commercial – Buy before using it Shareware – Try it before you buy it Freeware – Free software, but it can’t be copied and/or sold Public domain software is not copyrighted. There are no restrictions on using, copying, altering, or selling the software Ø http: //www. tucows. com Ø © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Installing and Managing Application Software ü Install the software on the hard drive Ø Installing and Managing Application Software ü Install the software on the hard drive Ø Ø ü Installation utilities guide you through the process Installation changes the registry of the operating system Use an uninstall utility to remove a program from the hard drive Ø Do not just delete a program from your files Example © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Intelligent Software? Ø The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) attempts to build intelligent entities Intelligent Software? Ø The field of Artificial Intelligence (AI) attempts to build intelligent entities © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Artificial Intelligence Ø AI is one of the newest sciences (1956) (Mc. Carthy) Ø Artificial Intelligence Ø AI is one of the newest sciences (1956) (Mc. Carthy) Ø A truly universal field l l l Ø learning and perception playing chess proving mathematical theorems writing poetry etc … Still has openings for several full-time Einsteins © Prentice-Hall, Inc

How would we decide whether a computer is intelligent? Ø The Turing Test (Alan How would we decide whether a computer is intelligent? Ø The Turing Test (Alan Turing, 1950) Ø Eliza l http: //www. manifestation. com/neurotoys/eliza. php 3 © Prentice-Hall, Inc

The Turing Test Proposed by Alan Turing (1950) (the father of AI) Ø Based The Turing Test Proposed by Alan Turing (1950) (the father of AI) Ø Based on indistinguishability from undeniably intelligent entities (i. e. , we) Ø Is a computer that passes the test really intelligent? Ø Programming a computer to pass the test provides plenty to work on Ø l l Natural Language Processing Knowledge Representation Automated Reasoning Machine Learning © Prentice-Hall, Inc

Acting Humanly: The Turing Test Today, AI researchers devote little effort to passing the Acting Humanly: The Turing Test Today, AI researchers devote little effort to passing the test Ø More important to study underlying principles of intelligence Ø Turing Test suggested major components of AI Ø l l l Natural Language Processing Knowledge Representation Automated Reasoning Machine Learning Computer Vision Robotics © Prentice-Hall, Inc

AI in the 21 st century AI is everywhere Ø Fuzzy logic is used AI in the 21 st century AI is everywhere Ø Fuzzy logic is used in elevators, washing machines, cars Ø Intelligent agents are used in many software applications Ø Robots explore other worlds, and toy robots play with children (and with some adults) Ø Expert systems diagnose diseases recommend cures Ø Computer games use AI Ø © Prentice-Hall, Inc

State of the Art Ø Which of the following can be done at present? State of the Art Ø Which of the following can be done at present? l l l l l Play a decent game of table tennis Driving in the center of Cairo Buying a week’s worth of groceries at the market Buying a week’s worth of groceries on the web Playing a decent game of bridge at a competitive level Discovering and proving new mathematical theorems Writing an intentionally funny story Giving competent legal advice in a specialized area of law Translating spoken English into spoken Swedish in real time Performing a complex surgical operation © Prentice-Hall, Inc