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CS – 6703 GRID & CLOUD COMPUTING Dr. B. Chandramouli
Overall Syllabus • • • Unit 1 Unit 2 Unit 3 Unit 4 Unit 5 ------ Introduction Grid Services Virtualisation Programming model Security
Unit 1 - Syllabus • • • Evolution of Distributed computing: Scalable computing over the Internet Technologies for network based systems Clusters of cooperative computers Grid computing Infrastructures Cloud computing Service oriented architecture Introduction to Grid Architecture and standards Elements of Grid Overview of Grid Architecture
Background • Extension of what you read before…. – Distributed systems – Software architecture • Discuss about “Computing” wrt – Large scale , big data, scientific problems and solutions – Virtual computing • These computing requires – Multiple computers distributed globally and communicating with each other • Results in “Computer to computer communication ( network)” for “computing”
COMMUNICATION ? • Communication is the transfer of information from one place to another. • The process of communication essentially involves the following three components: – Sender – Receiver – Medium
Components of Communication • Sender : - – The component from where the information is transferred • Receiver : - – The component to which the information is transferred. • Medium: - – The component through which the information is transferred.
Computer Communication • In computer communication the sender and the receiver are both computers and medium is electromagnetic waves, cables or some other physical media.
What is Networking ? • Networking is a way of communication. • The concept of connecting computers together to form computer network. A computer network is a communication system where a group of computers and other devices like printer are connected by cables and other hardware. • This concept of connected computers sharing resources called networking.
• To share – – – • • • Why Network ? Data Messages Printers Hard disks CD-ROMS Modems Other hard disk resources. Advantages of Networking : Networks allow efficient management of resources. Network helps keep information reliable and up-to-date. Networks help speed up data sharing. Transferring files across a network is always faster than non network. Services like E-mail allow communication among individuals.
Types of Networks • L A N (Local Area Network) – If a network is confined to a single location, typically one building or complex, it is called local area network. The maximum distance from one end of a network to another is usually limited. Generally sending and receiving of messages through a physical connection such as a cable. • W A N (Wide Area Network) – When the networks is spread over wide areas such as across cites, states or countries. It is called as a wide area network. Communication take place via telephone lines, satellites or physical cable. Best example is live telecast of sports. • M A N (Metropolitan Area Network) – In between LAN and WAN is the metropolitan network. This networks that covers entire city, but uses LAN technology. Cable television networks are the examples of MAN s. The MAN s we are interested in carry information in the form of computer signals from one computer to another.
Components of networks • Server: - – Computers that provide shared resources to network users. • Clients: - – Computers that access shared network resources provided by a server. • Media: - – The way in which the computers are connected. • Resources: - – Files printers and other items to be used by network users
CATEGORIES OF NETWORK • Server Based Network : – A server is a computer on a network that functions as a server and is not used as client. – A server is optimized to service requests from network clients – Servers perform wide variety of tasks. – Usually large networks have specialized servers for different tasks, e. g. • File and print servers: - • – Manage user access and use of file and printer resources. • Application servers: - – Make the data on the server available to clients. • Mail servers: – Manage electronic messaging between network users. • Communication servers: – Handle data flow and E-mail messages.
CATEGORIES OF NETWORK… • PEER TO PEER NETWORK : – In this there are no dedicated servers. – All the computers are equal and therefore are termed as peers. – The main advantage of this network is simple in design and maintenance. – It is usually expensive to set up as compared to server-based networks.
Topology • Topology refers to the arrangement of computers, cables and other components on the network. • Networks can be configured in to following basic topologies – Bus – Star – Ring
Bus / Star / Ring • Bus topology : – This is also known as liner bus. It consists of several computers which are attached to a common cable called trunk line. This is also called as passive topology, in which computers are not responsible for transferring of data. In this failure of one computer does not affect the performance of the network • Star topology : – In this computers are connected to a centralized device known as HUB. As each computer is connected to central point, this topology requires great deal of cabling. If the centralized controller fails , the entire network is disabled. • Ring topology : – In this computers are connected through a single circle of cable. This is an active topology, as each computer acts like a repeater to boost the signal and sends it on to the next computer. Failure of one computer can affect the entire network.
INTERNET & INTRANET • INTERNET – Internet is an inter-connection between several computers of different types belonging to various networks all over the globe. It is a networks of network. • INTRANET – An intranet is a private computer network that uses Internet technologies to securely share any part of an organization's information or operational systems with its employees. Interconnectivity of two or more networks to form a single unit is called intranet. It may consist of many interlinked local area networks and also use leased lines in the wide area network
WWW • WORLD WIDE WEB : The World Wide Web (commonly abbreviated as the "Web") is a system of interlinked hypertext documents accessed via the Internet. With a Web browser, one can view Web pages that may contain text, images, videos, and other multimedia and navigate between them using hyperlinks
HYPERTEXT • Hypertext is text, displayed on a computer, with references (hyperlinks) to other text that the reader can immediately access, usually by a mouse click or key press sequence
WEB BROWSER • A web browser is a software application for retrieving, presenting, and traversing information resources on the World Wide Web. The major web browsers are Windows Internet Explorer, Mozilla Firefox, Apple Safari, Google Chrome, and Opera.
Web Pages / Hypertext • A web page or webpage is a document or resource of information that is suitable for the World Wide Web and can be accessed through a web browser and displayed on a computer screen. This information is usually in HTML or XHTML format
Web Pages / Hypertext … • WWW is the most popular method of accessing the internet. The main reason of popularity is due to usage of concept called hypertext. Hypertext is the new way of information storage and retrieval. Hypertext documents on the internet called as web pages. These web pages are created by using special language called hypertext markup language (HTML).
Internet Individual server / Network (Stores Web pages) / web pages are created by HTML WWW – Logical link between all web pages Global network of many networks ( Internet) Client with browser SW ISP
MULTIMEDIA & APPLICATIONS • Multimedia is media and content that uses a combination of different content forms. Multimedia includes a combination of text, audio, still images, animation, video, and interactivity content forms. • Multimedia Apps – Foreign language learning – Video games – Special effects in films – Animated advertisements
Internet of Things • Major Technology evolution of today • Use of internet( wireless) to connect common objects, sensors, computers, devices used in daily life • Io. T uses RFID, sensors, GPS( Global Positioning system) • 3 Types of communication – H 2 H ( Human to Human) -- email, chat, Skype, facebook – H 2 T ( Human to Thing ) -- Voice commands to remote robo ( Open Gate), New location suggest good restaurants( apple watch) – T 2 T ( Thing to Thing ) – remote a/c controller to Home ac ( At 4: 50 pm automatically send signal to power On AC at home)
Technologies in HW • Multicore Processor ( HW) – Have more than 1 core to execute necessary functions • Multi threading (OS) – OS gives the facility to execute an application in many paths(threads) • Graphic Processor ( HW –> CPU + Graphic processing) – CPU is generally sequential processing compared to GPU which is parallel processing mainly suited for Graphic apps. ( Engg, scientific and 3 D animation etc. . ) • Networks ( as seen in previous slides) + Storage area network ( SAN) • Virtualisation ( imitating as if physical devices are available)
Scaling – What and Why ? • What ? – It is the ability of a computer application (software / OS) or product (hardware / network) to continue to function well with high reliability when the need goes high (up) or low (down) • Why ? – – – Business growth forces organisation’s growth No. of functions in an application increase over a period No. of users increase Users get spread across the globe Demand for resources increase ( memory, proc speed etc. ) Data becomes huge
Need of more Computing Power: Grand Challenge Applications Solving technology problems using computer modeling, simulation and analysis Geographic Information Systems Life Sciences Aerospace Mechanical Design & Analysis (CAD/CAM)
Scalable Computing P E R F O R M A N C E 2100 2100 2100 Administrative Barriers + • Individual • Group • Department • Campus • State • National • Globe Q o S Personal Device Main frames Local Cluster Enterprise Cluster/Grid Global Grid Inter Planet Grid
Web Services Basic Architecture • • Web services are consistent with established Service-Oriented Architecture(SOA) principles. Web Services Component – Service Description Web services Roles – Service providers. – Service brokers – Service requestors. Web Services Operations – Publish – Find – Interact • RPC concepts
Virtualization -- a Server for Multiple Applications/OS Applications Operating System Applications Application Operating System System Hypervisor Hardware Hypervisor is a software program that manages multiple operating systems (or multiple instances of the same operating system) on a single computer system. The hypervisor manages the system's processor, memory, and other resources to allocate what each operating system requires. Hypervisors are designed for a particular processor architecture and may also be called virtualization managers.
Distributed system ? • Definition: – A Set of nodes, connected by a network, which appear to its users as a single coherent system. – Examples • Internet ( interconnection of globally distributed computers) • WWW ( Interlinked hypertext) • Mobile network (interconnection of globally distributed computers and mobiles devices)
Why DS is important ? • • Resource sharing Load Sharing Improves scalability Improves reliability Geographically distributed Works during partial failure Parallel processing, so performance improved – PASS, dev by IBM in 1981 used in space shuttle. – Could have been done by 1 m/c – IBM did with 4 nodes for fault tolerance
DS Evolution • Late 70’s and early 80’s: synchronous with distributed processing • Mid 80’s: no point of central control • Late 80’s: peer structure and inter-connection configuration • Later: more fine-grained distribution – Software is decomposed into components – Components can resides on different computers and be implemented with different languages Distributed Systems 38
Examples of Distributed Systems • IT Service Architecture of a Swiss Bank – – Service architecture consists of heterogeneous new and legacy components Hardware platforms range from mainframes to NTs Programming languages including Assembler, Cobol, C, C++, Java, … Different types of middleware can be used to resolve distribution and heterogeneity Authorization Services Customer Information Services Trading Services ATM Services Distributed Systems 40
Transparency in Distributed Systems • Distributed System Definition: A distributed system is a collection of autonomous hosts, heterogeneous in nature, that are connected through a computer network and coordinate with each other in such a way that users perceive the system as a single and integrated computing facility. • Dimensions of transparency in DS – – – – Access Transparency Location Transparency Migration Transparency Replication Transparency Concurrency Transparency Scalability Transparency Performance Transparency Failure Transparency Distributed Systems 41
DS categories • Clusters – A computer cluster consists of a set of loosely or tightly connected computers that work together so that, in many respects, they can be viewed as a single system. Here, computer clusters have each node set to perform the same task ( homogeneous) , controlled and scheduled by software • Cloud – Internet-based computing, where different services — such as servers, storage and applications are delivered to an organization's computers and devices through the Internet. • Grid – Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations to reach a common goal. – The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files. – Grid computing is distinguished from conventional high performance computing systems such as clusters in that grid computers have each node set to perform a different task/application and hetrogeneous in nature
Multiple computers connected together e. g LAN Clusters Distributed computing Cloud Grid Order of increasing complexity Each node performs same task Controlled by network software Mostly physically coupled Multiple computers connected together through Internet All hardware and software services provided by cloud provider without any knowledge to customers, You lease anything you want and pay for that only Multiple computers from different locations connected together each perform different tasks and achieves ONE common goal Not physically coupled
Centralised Vs Distributed Centralised Distributed Many jobs done on a single CPU Jobs are distributed to many CPUs which are interconnected Uses Shared memory, Variables concept NO Shared memory, Variables concept Single global clock to sync ops No global clock
CLUSTERS FOR COOPERATIVE COMPUTING - CLUSTER ARCHITECTURE
What is a cluster? • A cluster is a type of parallel or distributed processing system, which consists of a collection of physically interconnected, Homogeneous , stand-alone computers cooperatively working together as a single, integrated computing resource. • It’s High Performance Computing (HPC) • Its High Availability computing (HA) • A typical cluster: – Network: Faster, closer connection than a typical network (LAN) – Low latency communication protocols ( Slowly responding …between service initiation to result) – Looser connection than SMP ( symmetric multi processor) • Use ? – High Availability in comparison to standalone – High Performance in comparison to standalone – Scalable
A cluster of servers (S 1, S 2, …, Sn) interconnected by a high-bandwidth system-area or local-area network with shared I/O devices and disk arrays. The cluster acts as a single computing node may be attached to the Internet through a gateway.
High-availability clusters implementations are best for mission-critical applications or databases, mail, file and print, web, or application servers.
Cluster High Performance thru Load Balancing
CLUSTER BENEFITS v. The main benefits of clusters are: 1. Availability 2. Performance 3. Scalability v These benefits map to needs of today's enterprise business, education, military and scientific community infrastructures.
What’s Grid ? • Similar to electric power grid • Electric power grid makes the job of electricity users very simple ! • Similarly for making computing power as easy and as simple, computer grid is used.
GRID Computing visualisation
What’s Grid computing ? • Grid computing is the collection of computer resources from multiple locations connected together to reach a common goal. • The grid can be thought of as a distributed system with non-interactive workloads that involve a large number of files (data). • Grid computing is distinguished from conventional high performance computing systems such as cluster computing in that grid computers have each node set to perform a different task/application • Grid computers also tend to be more heterogeneous and geographically dispersed (thus not physically coupled) than cluster computers. • Grid sizes are generally quite large. • Although a single grid can be dedicated to a particular application, commonly a grid is used for a variety of purposes. • Grids are often constructed with general-purpose grid middleware software libraries.
An example computational Grid built over specialized computers at three resource sites at Wisconsin, Caltech, and Illinois.
5 Layers of Grid Architecture • Fabric Layer – All physical hardware resources ( storage, sensors, computing servers, network, OS etc) – Responsible for providing resources • Connectivity Layer – Connects resources request to actual resources ( establishes communication bet resources and users) – user permission, data security etc • Resource layer – Forming of various resources ( HW and SW) to run an application under collective operations ( discovery, allocating, reserving of resources) • Collective Layer – Responsible for Monitoring, diagnostics, replication , authorise and authenticate etc…( responsible for replication service, work flow management, monitoring etc. . ) • Application Layer – All application, Control programs , SW dev kits reside here. . Its the interface between grid and users
Distributed Computing GRID • Distributed computing is an “older term” – Typically built around proprietary software and network – Tightly couples systems/organization • Grid is an evolution of distributed computing – – – Dynamic Geographically independent Built around standards Internet backbone Open software
Criteria for a Grid: Large scale ( a few million resources) Geographically distributed Systems heterogeneous in nature Multiple Administrators Single , common Goal Coordinates resources that are not subject to centralized control. Uses standard, open, general-purpose protocols and interfaces. Delivers nontrivial qualities of service. Benefits Exploit Underutilized resources Load Balancing of Resource Virtualize resources across an enterprise Data Grids, Compute Grids Enable collaboration for virtual organizations
Grid Applications Data and computationally intensive applications: This technology has been applied to computationally-intensive scientific, mathematical, and academic problems like drug discovery, economic forecasting, seismic analysis , back office data processing in support of e-commerce • A chemist may utilize hundreds of processors to screen thousands of compounds per hour. • Teams of engineers worldwide pool resources to analyze terabytes of structural data. • Meteorologists seek to visualize and analyze petabytes of climate data with enormous computational demands. Resource sharing – Computers, storage, sensors, networks, … – Sharing always conditional: issues of trust, policy, negotiation, payment, … Coordinated problem solving – distributed data analysis, computation, collaboration, …
Computational Grid Applications • • Biomedical research Industrial research Engineering research Studies in Physics and Chemistry
Grid Topologies • Intragrid – Local grid within an organisation – Trust based on personal contracts • Extragrid – Resources of a consortium of organisations connected through a (Virtual) Private Network – Trust based on Business to Business contracts • Intergrid – Global sharing of resources through the internet – Trust based on certification
A typical view of Grid environment Grid Information Service system collects the details of the available Grid resources and passes the information to the resource broker. Grid Information Service Details of Grid resources 1 2 4 Computational jobs 3 Grid application Computation result User A User sends computation or data intensive application to Global Grids in order to speed up the execution of the application. Processed jobs Resource Broker A Resource Broker distribute the jobs in an application to the Grid resources based on user’s Qo. S requirements and details of available Grid resources for further executions. Grid Resources (Cluster, PC, Supercomputer, database, instruments, etc. ) in the Global Grid execute the user jobs.
Elements ( Features) of Grid Computing • Resource sharing – Computers, data, storage, sensors, networks, … – Sharing always conditional: issues of trust, policy, negotiation, payment, … • Coordinated problem solving – Beyond client-server: distributed data analysis, computation, collaboration, … • Dynamic, multi-institutional virtual organizations – Community overlays on classic org structures – Large or small, static or dynamic
What are “Web Services” and SOA? • What is a service ? – A service is a software entity ( which is available in a public domain) that can be discovered and invoked by other software systems. • What is Web service ? – A Web service is a software system identified by a Uniform Resource Identifier (URI), whose public interfaces and bindings are defined and described using XML. Its definition can be discovered by other software systems. These systems may then interact with the Web service in a manner prescribed by its definition, using XML based messages conveyed by internet protocols • What is SOA ? – A service-oriented architecture (SOA) is an architectural pattern in computer software design in which application components provide services to other components via a communications protocol, typically over a network. The principles of service-orientation are independent of any vendor, product or technology.
Web Services Basic Architecture • Web services are consistent with established Service-Oriented Architecture(SOA) principles. • Web Services Component – Service Description • Web services Roles – Service providers. – Service brokers – Service requestors. • Web Services Operations – Publish – Find – Interact
The Conceptual Web Service Stacks • Format: XML, Extensible Markup Language, to define structures of documents • Search and Find: UDDI Universal Discovery Description and Integration, for registries of Web services • Description: WSDL Web Services Description Language, to describe networked XML-based services • Messaging: SOAP • Simple Object Access Protocol, to define a uniform way of passing XML-encoded data. • Transport: Internet Protocol, HTTP, STMP, etc.
Operations and Message Flow
Cloud computing ? • Cloud computing is using the internet to access someone else's software running on someone else's hardware in someone else's data center.
NIST Cloud Definition “The National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) defines cloud computing as a "pay-per-use model for enabling available, convenient and ondemand network access to a shared pool of configurable computing resources (e. g. , networks, servers, storage, applications and services) that can be rapidly provisioned and released with minimal management effort or service provider interaction. " 73 April 2009
Architecture NIST Visual Model of Cloud Computing Definition 74
Cloud Computing - Services Software as a Service - Saa. S Platform as a Service - Paa. S Infrastructure as a Service - Iaa. S
Cloud Deployment Models • • Public Cloud. Private Cloud. Community Cloud. Hybrid Cloud. 76
Cloud Security Forum Ref. Architecture 10/15/2013 Cloud Reference Architecture(s) IIT-RTC 77
GRID Computing visualisation
Grid Vs Cloud • Common to both – Maximise the use of existing resources – Economise computing cost – Uses abstraction extensively ( concepts looks similar) • Grid – one large job is divided into many small portions and executed on multiple machines. – Meant for large scale computing • Cloud – allow the users to avail of various services without investing in the underlying architecture ( HW, SW, NW) – offers many different services, from web hosting, right down to word processing
Grid Vs Cloud Grid Computing Cloud Computing Access to Shared computing power, storage and other resources Access to Leased computing power, storage and other resources Big Org. pay for the services ( Univ. / Govt) Users pay for the leased services Managed by providers and Users ( Univ. / Managed by Cloud providers only. No role Govt) for user. Big Org. Provide the services ( Univ. / Govt/ Research org. ) Commercial companies provide services Handles huge amount of data, complex calculations ( e. g. weather forecast) Handles reasonable amount of data for commercial and other org. Uses open source technology Uses proprietary technology Suitable for research org. to carry out tasks like global climate modelling etc. . Suitable for business houses to effectively use computing without investing
Standards for GRID environment • OGSA – Open Grid Service Architecture – defines requirements for framework for grid systems that support integration, virtualization and management. – Such a framework requires a core set of interfaces, expected behaviors, resource models bindings. • • OGSI OGSA-DAI Grid FTP WSRF and etc.
Part A -- 2 marks Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11. 12. 13. 14. 15. 16. 17. 18. 19. 20. 21. 22. 23. 24. What are the 3 components of a network ? What is world wide web (WWW) ? What is webpage ? What is meant by scaling ? What is the need for scaling ? What is multicore architecture ? What is multi threading? What is GPU ? How is it different from CPU ? Define distributed system What are the advantages of distributed systems? List the categories of distributed computing systems? Differentiate between centralized and distributed computing. Define Clusters? List the cluster computing benefits. What is meant by Grid computing ? What are the benefits of Grid computing ? List 3 applications of Grid computing What is meant by Cloud computing ? List the deployment modes of cloud computing. What are the 3 services offered by Cloud computing ? List the essential characteristics of Cloud computing Explain – Web Service. Define Service oriented Architecture ( SOA) What is ‘Internet of Things’ ?
Part B – Big Questions 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. Explain in detail the evolution of distributed computing Explain with a diagram Cluster architecture Explain with a diagram Grid architecture Explain with a diagram Cloud architecture Explain with a diagram the Service oriented architecture Explain with neat diagrams, how high availability and high performance achieved through cooperative cluster environment 7. Write a short note on – Muticore processor – Multi threading – Graphic processor
End of Unit 1 Recap and discussions