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CS 626 -449: Speech, NLP and the Web/Topics in AI Pushpak Bhattacharyya CSE Dept. , IIT Bombay Lecture-27: Phonology (quiz took place on 12/10/09; Lect 26 on 9/10/09 was on HMM, jointly with CS 621) (Thanks to material from my studnets Abhijeet Padhye and Ankit Agarwal)
What is Phonology • Phonetics: Study of sounds produced by the articulatory system (place and manner of articualtion) • Phonology: Study of sound units combine to form bigger units like syllables
Recap of phonetics Places and Manners of Articulation mainly from Speech and Natural Language Processing: Jurafski and Martin, 2 nd Edition
Ancient 5 x 5 Indian Classification of Consonants Group क वरग क ख ग घ ङ Velar च वरग च छ ज झ ञ Palatal ट वरग ट ठ ड ढ ण Alveolar त वरग त थ द ध न Dental प वरग प फ ब भ म Labial
Phonteic Symbols and IPA notation
Places of articulation
Place of Articulation • • • Labial: Two lips coming together – [p] as in possum, [b] as in bear Dental: Tongue against the teeth – [th] of thing or the [dh] of though Alveolar: Alveolar ridge is the portion of the roof of the mouth just behind the upper teeth; tip of the tongue against the alveolar ridge. – Phones [s], [z], [t], and [d] Palatal: Roof of the mouth; blade of the tongue against this rising back of the alveolar ridge – sounds [sh] (shrimp), [ch] (china), [zh] (Asian), and [jh] (jar) Velar: Movable muscular flap at the back of the roof of the mouth; back of the tongue up against the velum – sounds [k] (cuckoo), [g] (goose), and [N] (kingfisher) Glottal: closing the glottis (by bringing the vocal folds together) – glottal stop [q] (IPA [P]) is made by
Manner of Articulation: Stops and Nasals • All consonants are produced by restriction of airflow; Manner of Articulation; how the restriction is produced: – complete or partial stoppage • A stop is a consonant in which airflow is completely blocked for a short time • English has voiced stops like [b], [d], and [g] as well as unvoiced stops like [p], [t], and [k]. • Stops are also called plosives • Nasal sounds [n], [m], and [ng] are made by lowering the velum and allowing air to pass into the nasal cavity
Fricatives • Fricatives, airflow is constricted but not cut off completely. The turbulent airflow that results from the constriction produces a characteristic “hissing” sound. – The English labiodental fricatives [f] and [v] are produced by pressing the lower lip against the upper teeth, allowing a restricted airflow between the upper teeth. The dental fricatives [th] and [dh] allow air to flow around the tongue between the teeth. – The alveolar fricatives [s] and [z] are produced with the tongue against the alveolar ridge, forcing air over the edge of the teeth. – In the palato-alveolar fricatives [sh] and [zh] the tongue is at the back of the alveolar ridge forcing air through a groove formed in the tongue.
Manner of Articulation: Affricates, Laterals/Liquids and Taps/Flaps • • • Affricates are stops followed immediately by fricatives – English [ch] (chicken); Marathi chaa (e. g. , gharaachaa; of the house) Lateral or Liquids: tip of the tongue up against the alveolar ridge or the teeth, with one or both sides of the tongue lowered to allow air to flow over it – [l] (learn) Tap or flap: quick motion of the tongue against the alveolar ridge – [dx] (IPA [R]) – The consonant in the middle of the word lotus ([l ow dx ax s]) is a tap in most dialects of American English – speakers of many UK dialects would use a [t] instead of a tap in this word.
Articulation of consonants: Larynx action/glottis state • Vocal cords are pulled apart. The air passes freely through the glottis. This is called the voicelessness state and sounds produced with this configuration of the vocal cords are called voiceless: p t k f θ s ʃ tʃ • Vocal cords are pulled close together. The air passing through the glottis causes the vocal cords to vibrate. This is called the voicing state and sounds produced with this configuration of the vocal cords are called voiced: b d g v ð z ʒ dʒ • Vocal cords are apart at the back and pulled together at the front. This is called the whisper state. • Vocal cords assume the voicing state but are relaxed. This is called the murmur state.
Vowels (1/2) Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Vowels (2/2) Pushpak Bhattacharyya
Basic of syllables “Syllable is a unit of spoken language consisting of a single uninterrupted sound formed generally by a Vowel and preceded or followed by one or more consonants. ” Ø Vowels are the heart of a syllable (Most Sonorous Element) (svayam raajate iti svara. H) Ø Consonants act as sounds attached to vowels.
Syllable structure Ø A syllable consists of 3 major parts: Ø Onset (C) Ø Nucleus (V) Ø Coda (C) Ø Vowels sit in the Nucleus of a syllable Ø Consonants may get attached as Onset or Coda. Ø Basic structure - CV
Possible syllable structures Ø The Nucleus is always present Ø Onset and Coda may be absent Ø Possible structures ØV Ø CV Ø VC Ø CVC
syllable theories Ø Prominence Theory Ø E. g. entertaining /entəteɪnɪŋ/ Ø The peaks of prominence: vowels /e ə eɪ ɪ/ Ø Number of syllables: 4 Ø Chest Pulse Theory Ø Based on muscular activities Ø Sonority Theory Ø Based on relative soundness of segment within words
Introduction to sonority theory “The Sonority of a sound is its loudness relative to other sounds with the same length, stress and speech. ” Ø Some sounds are more sonorous Ø Words in a language can be divided into syllables Ø Sonority theory distinguishes syllables on the basis of sounds.
Sonority hierarchy Ø Defined on the basis of amount of sound associated Ø The sonority hierarchy is as follows: Ø Vowels (a, e, i, o, u) Ø Liquids (y, r, l, v) Ø Nasals (n, m) Ø Fricatives (s, z, f, …. . sh, th etc. ) Ø Affricates (ch, j) Ø Stops (b, d, g, p, t, k)
Sonority scale Ø Obstruents can be further classified into: Ø Fricatives Ø Affricates Ø Stops
Sonority theory & syllables “A Syllable is a cluster of sonority, defined by a sonority peak acting as a structural magnet to the surrounding lower sonority elements. ” ØRepresented as waves of sonority or Sonority Profile of that syllable Nucleus Onset Coda
Sonority sequencing principle “The Sonority Profile of a syllable must rise until its Peak(Nucleus), and then fall. ” Peak (Nucleus) Onset Coda
examples Ø ABHIJEET Ø Sonority Profile 1 A I H J B Ø Sonority Profile 2 A I H J B E E T
Maximal onset principle “The Intervocalic consonants are maximally assigned to the Onsets of syllables in conformity with Universal and Language-Specific Conditions. ” Ø Determines underlying syllable division Ø Example Ø DIPLOMA DIP LO MA & DI PLO MA
Syllable Structure: amore detailed look • Count of no. of syllables in a word is roughly/intuitively the no. of vocalic segments in a word. • Thus, presence of a vowel is an obligatory element in the structure of a syllable. This vowel is called “nucleus”. • Basic Configuration: (C)V(C). • Part of syllable preceding the nucleus is called the onset. • Elements coming after the nucleus are called the coda. • Nucleus and coda together are referred to as the rhyme. S ≡ Syllable, O ≡ Onset R ≡ Rhyme, N ≡ Nucleus Co ≡ Coda
Syllable Structure: Examples • ‘word’ • ‘sprint’
Syllable Structure: Examples • ‘may’ No Coda. • ‘opt’ No Onset. • ‘air’ No Coda, No Onset.
Syllable Structure • Open Syllable: ends in vowel • Closed syllable: ends in consonant or consonant cluster • Light Syllable: A syllable which is open and ends in a short vowel – General Description – CV. – Example, ‘air’. • Heavy Syllable: Closed syllables or syllables ending in diphthong – Example: ‘opt’ – Example, ‘may’
Syllabification: Determining Syllable Boundaries • Given a string of syllables (word), what is the coda of one and the onset of another? • In a sequence such as VCV, where V is any vowel and C is any consonant, is the medial C the coda of the first syllable (VC. V) or the onset of the second syllable (V. CV)? • To determine the correct groupings, there are some rules, two of them being the most important and significant: – Maximal Onset Principle, – Sonority Hierarchy
Discussion on the assignment
Data • The Carnegie Mellon University Pronouncing Dictionary • machine-readable pronunciation dictionary for North American English that contains over 125, 000 words and their transcriptions. • The current phoneme set contains 39 phonemes
“Parallel” Corpus Phoneme Example Translation -------AA odd AA D AE at AE T AH hut HH AH T AO ought AO T AW cow K AW AY hide HH AY D B be B IY
“Parallel” Corpus cntd Phoneme Example Translation -------CH D DH ER EY F G HH IH IY JH cheese CH IY Z dee D IY thee DH IY EH Ed EH D hurt HH ER T ate EY T fee F IY green G R IY N he HH IY it IH T eat IY T gee JH IY
The tasks • First obtain the Carnegie Mellon University's Pronouncing Dictionary • Train and Test the following Statistical Machine Learning Algorithms • HMM - For HMM you can use either Natural Language Toolkit or you can use GIZA++ with MOSES. • MEMM - For MEMM use Max. Ent package. • CRF - Use CRF++
Tasks (cntd) • Feed Forward Neural Network. For this you can use either SCILAB or Java. NNS • Train and Test the following Knowledge Based Learning Algorithms – Decision Tree – Decision List • For the Knowledge based learning Algorithms use the Weka package.
Tasks (cntd) • Report all the results using 5 -fold cross Validation • Compare all the results obtained in the previous steps in terms of – Precision – Recall – F-Score • Finally do a detailed error analysis.