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CRYSTAL-FACE & MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Retrievals of cloud thermodynamic phase, optical thickness, and CRYSTAL-FACE & MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Retrievals of cloud thermodynamic phase, optical thickness, and particle size S. Platnick 1, M. D. King 1, J. Riedi 2, S. Ackerman 3, G. T. Arnold 1, 4, J. Dinsick 1, 4, M. Gray 1, 4, E. Moody 1, 4, G. Wind 1, 4, M. Fitzgerald 5, J. Myers 5 1 NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 2 Laboratoire d’Optique Atmospherique, U. Lille, 3 U. Wisconsin, Madison, 4 EER Systems, 5 NASA Ames Research Center MODIS Atmosphere Team Retreat St. Michaels MD 18 March 2003 adapted from C-F STM, Salt Lake City UT, 26 Feb. 2003 et al.

Outline New • Overview of CRYSTAL-FACE • The MODIS Airborne Simulator – – • Outline New • Overview of CRYSTAL-FACE • The MODIS Airborne Simulator – – • X calibration overview Data – web site and quicklook imagery, L 1 B • Case study examples • Future efforts S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

C-F Aircraft Platforms ER-2: remote sensing of cirrus, aerosols, gases, radiative flux Platnick, Newman, C-F Aircraft Platforms ER-2: remote sensing of cirrus, aerosols, gases, radiative flux Platnick, Newman, King 200 ms-1, 70 kft, 8 hrs Proteus: remote sensing of cirrus, aerosols, gases Bill Smith, Allen Larar (La. RC) 175 ms-1, 58 kft, 6 hrs WB-57: in situ sampling above/upper anvil (crystals, aerosols, tracers, water vapor, radiative flux) Randy Friedl (JPL), Marty Ross 185 ms-1, 62 kft, 6. 5 hrs UND Citation: in situ sampling below/lower anvil (crystals, ice nuclei, water vapor) 120 -170 ms-1, 43 kft, 3. 5 hrs Mike Poellet (UND) CIRPAS Twin Otter: in situ boundary layer, radiative flux Rick Flagan (Cal. Tech) 80 ms-1, 19 kft, 5 hrs NRL P-3: Eldora doppler radar Hans Verlinde (PSU) S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

CRYSTAL-FACE ER-2 Instrument Payload Conical Scanning Sub-mm wave Imaging Radiometer (Co. SSIR) Wang (GSFC), CRYSTAL-FACE ER-2 Instrument Payload Conical Scanning Sub-mm wave Imaging Radiometer (Co. SSIR) Wang (GSFC), Radiation Meas. System (RAMS) Valero (Scripps) ro ep Evans (CU) Mahoney (JPL) m sa Cloud Radar System (CRS) ER-2 Doppler Radar (EDOP) Microwave Temp. Profiler (MTP) l a os p Meteorological Meas. System (MMS) Bui (Ames) 0 S-2 Heymsfield (GSFC), Mace (Utah) od rt. rp pe su od nte ce ep rlin e k ee h. c ng nose cone -b y, E ay a Q-b d, ft) rpo ed a pe su suriz res np (u Solar Spectral Flux Radiometers (SSFR) Pilewskie (Ames) JPL Laser Hygrometer (JLH) Herman (JPL) Cloud Physics Lidar (CPL) Mc. Gill (GSFC) MODIS Airborne Simulator (MAS) Vaisala Dropsonde King (GSFC), Platnick (UMBC) Halverson (UMBC), Starr (GSFC) S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

ER-2/Proteus platform synergy ER-2, Proteus payload is an “A-train” simulator: Aqua (MAS, SSFR, RAMS, ER-2/Proteus platform synergy ER-2, Proteus payload is an “A-train” simulator: Aqua (MAS, SSFR, RAMS, NAST-I/M), Cloud. Sat (CRS), Calipso (CPL), Parasol (POLDER, RSP), … Satellites intercomparisons of interest: Aqua (18 April 2002, 1330 local): MODIS, CERES, AIRS, AMSR -E Terra (1030 local): MODIS, CERES, MISR, ASTER Envisat (March 2002, 1000 local): interest from SCIAMACHY team (also flies AATSR, MERIS) S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

Key West Naval Air Station S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003 Key West Naval Air Station S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003 S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

Ground Sites: remote sensing (radar, lidar, radiometers, etc. ) Western site: PARSL (PNNL Atmospheric Ground Sites: remote sensing (radar, lidar, radiometers, etc. ) Western site: PARSL (PNNL Atmospheric Remote Sensing Laboratory) - Everglades City 94, 35 GHz, lidar, radiosondes, radiometers, met, etc NPOL (NASA polarimetric radar) - Big Cypress National Preserve Eastern Site: Tamiami airport Miami 94 GHz radar, ceilometer, IR, met data; Tsay SMART

Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02 Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02

Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02 Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02

Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02 Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02

Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02 Pictures WB-57: 7 -13 -02

Pictures ER-2: 7 -19 -02 Pictures ER-2: 7 -19 -02

Pictures KW NAF hangar 591 Pictures KW NAF hangar 591

Pictures sea-going vessels Pictures sea-going vessels

23 July case study ER-2 flight tracks 23 July case study ER-2 flight tracks

NNE (~34°) MAS 1. 88 µm band 23 July 2002 (from MAS web site) NNE (~34°) MAS 1. 88 µm band 23 July 2002 (from MAS web site) Lake Okeechobee Good case to study cloud evolution!

Selected histograms - particle size Selected histograms - particle size

CRS nadir radar reflectivity (Heymsfield, Li) MAS optical thickness MAS effective radius (µm) CRS nadir radar reflectivity (Heymsfield, Li) MAS optical thickness MAS effective radius (µm)

In situ WB-57 particle distributions available (A. Heymsfield) Good case to supplement w/IR retrievals In situ WB-57 particle distributions available (A. Heymsfield) Good case to supplement w/IR retrievals (Shaima)! ~ 72 km MAS 26 July, Fl 07 southern sortie (coordination w/WB-57)

~ 48 km MAS, 16 July, Fl 08, western gnd. site coordination ~ 48 km MAS, 16 July, Fl 08, western gnd. site coordination

slide from T. Garrett, C-F STM Feb. slide from T. Garrett, C-F STM Feb.

MAS - future activities • Optical/microphysical retrieval issues – thin cirrus limitations: sun glint, MAS - future activities • Optical/microphysical retrieval issues – thin cirrus limitations: sun glint, surface reflectance – ice scattering radiative transfer libraries – comparison with other instruments/techniques, including: Remote: IR techniques (MAS/MODIS/AIRS); Radar/lidar (CRS, EDOP, CPL): water path, particle size, extinction; Air. POLDER, RSP: phase, directional properties In situ: CIN, size distributions, et al. • Science - why do these retrievals matter? – Scaling up to satellite retrievals – Applications in a broad range of small scale cloud microphysical issues (water path, size, etc. ), CR modeling – Linkage w/radiative flux is gl, v 0, l which is NOT DERIVABLE FROM re ALONE (unlike water (Mie) droplets) S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

Southern FL spectral surface albedo from MODIS (derived from product MOD 43, ~1. 7 Southern FL spectral surface albedo from MODIS (derived from product MOD 43, ~1. 7 km resolution, diffuse sky, 8/2001, E. Moody) shallow waters w. gnd. site 0. 65 µm MODIS band 0. 86 µm 2. 13 µm vis reflectance for tc=0. 5 ~ 0. 03

MAS - future activities • Optical/microphysical retrieval issues – thin cirrus limitations: sun glint, MAS - future activities • Optical/microphysical retrieval issues – thin cirrus limitations: sun glint, surface reflectance – ice scattering radiative transfer libraries – comparison with other instruments/techniques, including: Remote: IR techniques (MAS/MODIS/AIRS); Radar/lidar (CRS, EDOP, CPL): water path, particle size, extinction; Air. POLDER, RSP: phase, directional properties In situ: CIN, size distributions, et al. • Science - why do these retrievals matter? – Scaling up to satellite retrievals – Applications in a broad range of small scale cloud microphysical issues (water path, size, etc. ), CR modeling – Linkage w/radiative flux is gl, v 0, l which is NOT DERIVABLE FROM re ALONE (unlike water (Mie) droplets) S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

extras extras

MAS instrument overview • Scanning, grating spectrometer with 4 optical ports – Operated by MAS instrument overview • Scanning, grating spectrometer with 4 optical ports – Operated by NASA Ames Airborne Sensor Facility (J. Myers, M. Fitzgerald) - 50 spectral bands (v. 36 MODIS bands) including: 0. 65, 0. 86, 0. 94, 1. 61, 1. 64, 1. 88, 2. 1, 3. 7, 11 µm bold=MAS only - 50 m spatial resolution (at ground, nominal ER-2 altitude), ± 43° scan • Calibration – Ames Calibration lab (P. Hajek) – Radiometric Thermal bands: on-board blackbody Solar reflective bands: pre/post-deployment laboratory calibration, field ground-based measurements for trend monitoring – Spectral Pre/post-deployment laboratory calibration S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

MAS instrument cloud algorithms MODIS heritage algorithms - Cloud mask: U. Wisconsin (S. Ackerman, MAS instrument cloud algorithms MODIS heritage algorithms - Cloud mask: U. Wisconsin (S. Ackerman, et al. ) - Cloud optical & microphysical properties (optical thickness, effective particle size (~ /), water path, thermodynamic phase): NASA GSFC (King, Platnick, et al. ) • Primary particle size retrieval from 2. 1 µm band • Optical thickness information from 0. 65 µm (land), 0. 86 µm (ocean) • Thermodynamic phase derived from combination of cloud mask tests, IR bispectral (B. Baum), and SWIR bands (J. Riedi) • Ice cloud radiative transfer libraries: 12 distributions, combination of 4 habits as a function of size - (P. Yang, A. Heymsfield, et al. ) • Surface albedo derived from MODIS albedo & ecosystem products (Boston U. , Strahler, Schaff, et al. ) S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

MAS information, data • Web site: – MAS quicklook, ER-2 mission summaries, flight tracks, MAS information, data • Web site: – MAS quicklook, ER-2 mission summaries, flight tracks, etc. http: //mas. arc. nasa. gov/data/deploy_html/crystalfacehome. html • Data – L 1 B data (calibrated, geolocated) archived in HDF(4), by ER-2 straight line flight track: http: //daac. gsfc. nasa. gov/fieldexp/MAS/ – L 2 products (cloud mask, thermodynamic phase, optical thickness/particle size retrievals) available on request – Requested case studies processed to date, selected flight tracks: 23, 29 July (L. Li, G. Heymsfield, Mc. Gill, Starr) - developing convection over peninsula 26 July (A. Heymsfield) - southern sortie 13 July (Jensen) - thin cirrus 16, 23 July (Mace) - western gnd. site observations 9, 11, 29 July (Di Girolamo) - Terra/MISR S. Platnick, St. Michaels MD, 18 March 2003

MAS & ER-2 SSFR (Pilewskie): 9 July 2002 1835 UTC 350 nm 1901 UTC MAS & ER-2 SSFR (Pilewskie): 9 July 2002 1835 UTC 350 nm 1901 UTC Albedo 1700 nm