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“Creating New Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning” Dr. Patrick “Creating New Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning” Dr. Patrick Werquin Professor, CNAM, Paris and Independent Consultant Formerly Senior Economist, OECD (Education) Formerly Programme Specialist, UNESCO (Education)

Agenda • Main Idea and Background: Literacy, Adult Learning and Recognition of Non-formal and Agenda • Main Idea and Background: Literacy, Adult Learning and Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning (RNFIL) • Terms and Concepts: Literacy and Recognition • Rationale: Literacy and RNFIL • Analysis of RNFIL: Cost/Benefit; RNFIL vs. Training • Applications: Examples from Country Practice • Critical Factors for Sustainability Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Qualifications Systems as a Policy Tool With Mike Coles (QCA) For a short summary Qualifications Systems as a Policy Tool With Mike Coles (QCA) For a short summary see: www. oecd. org/dataoecd/10/2 /38500491. pdf Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Main Conclusions (in 2007) • Together with: – Qualifications Frameworks – Credit Transfer Systems Main Conclusions (in 2007) • Together with: – Qualifications Frameworks – Credit Transfer Systems – Involvement of all Stakeholders – Information and Guidance –… • … recognition of non-formal and informal learning is (RNFIL) is a potential mechanism to promote Lifelong Learning • Therefore: new OECD activity (2007 -2009) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Main Conclusions (in 2007) • Together with: – Qualifications Frameworks – Credit Transfer Systems Main Conclusions (in 2007) • Together with: – Qualifications Frameworks – Credit Transfer Systems – Involvement of all Stakeholders – Information and Guidance –… • … recognition of non-formal and informal learning is (RNFIL) is a potential mechanism to promote Lifelong Learning • Therefore: new OECD activity (2007 -2009) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Learning Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 Adult Learning Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Learning: Main Lessons - General under provision - Motivation (of adults) is the Adult Learning: Main Lessons - General under provision - Motivation (of adults) is the main issue Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Enrolment in Educational Institutions by Age Group Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy Enrolment in Educational Institutions by Age Group Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: IALS, ALL, (PIAAC)° Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, Adult Literacy: IALS, ALL, (PIAAC)° Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? - Real competencies unknown… -… but there is a Adult Literacy: What is it? - Real competencies unknown… -… but there is a need to know them -We need to know them, in short, for policy action -Qualification vs. competences -Initial education and training vs. adult learning Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? -How skills are acquired and lost? -How policies can Adult Literacy: What is it? -How skills are acquired and lost? -How policies can shape the process of skill formation, especially in view of the increasing orientation of structural funds towards human capital objectives? -Target groups and individuals most in need not necessarily observable -Technological progress => Communication easy and cheap, innovation, KE -Wider benefits (social inclusion, citizenships issues) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? - Not a basic threshold of reading ability. -No Adult Literacy: What is it? - Not a basic threshold of reading ability. -No longer “Can you read? ” but “How well do you read? ”. Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? The ability to understand employ printed information in daily Adult Literacy: What is it? The ability to understand employ printed information in daily activities, at home, at work and in the community to achieve one's goals, and to develop one's knowledge and potential. Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? - Skills that are teachable - Skills that can Adult Literacy: What is it? - Skills that are teachable - Skills that can be learned - Skills used to facilitate other activities - Skills important to learning other new skills -Skills that are individual attributes that form the basis of independent action -In short: foundation skills, needed to learn further Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? - 3 domains : PROSE DOC(ument) QUANT(itative) - 20 Adult Literacy: What is it? - 3 domains : PROSE DOC(ument) QUANT(itative) - 20 Countries or Regions. - 6 years of work (1994 -95, 1996 and 1998). Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: What is it? - From 0 to 500 in the 3 domains Adult Literacy: What is it? - From 0 to 500 in the 3 domains (PROSE, DOC and QUANT) - Scores have been grouped so as to show different skills in different levels of proficiency. - 5 Levels: -Level 1: 0 and 225 -Level 2: 226 and 275 -Level 3: 276 and 325 -Level 4: 326 and 375 -Level 5: 376 and 500 Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

The 5 Levels in Detail Level 1 indicates persons with very poor skills, where The 5 Levels in Detail Level 1 indicates persons with very poor skills, where the individual may, for example, be unable to determine the correct amount of medicine to give a child from information printed on the package. Level 2 respondents can deal only with material that is simple, clearly laid out, and in which the tasks involved are not too complex. It denotes a weak level of skill, but more hidden than Level 1. It identifies people who can read, but test poorly. They may have developed coping skills to manage everyday literacy demands, but their low level of proficiency makes it difficult for them to face novel demands, such as learning new job skills. Level 3 is considered a suitable minimum for coping with the demands of everyday life and work in a complex, advanced society. It denotes roughly the skill level required for successful secondary school completion and college entry. Like higher levels, it requires the ability to integrate several sources of information and solve more complex problems. Levels 4 and 5 describe respondents who demonstrate command of higherorder information processing skills. Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

The 5 Levels in Short Levels 1 and 2: Represent a shortfall relative to The 5 Levels in Short Levels 1 and 2: Represent a shortfall relative to the desirable minimum. Level 3: Minimum suitable (everyday life, workplace, modern society) Levels 4 and 5: Good handling and processing of information Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Distribution of Literacy SWE CAN DNK US US Patrick Werquin, International Conference CERI-OECD, Evidence Distribution of Literacy SWE CAN DNK US US Patrick Werquin, International Conference CERI-OECD, Evidence from the IALS, Paris, 13 February 2008

Adult Literacy: What is it? -Who is at Prose Level 1: -Low Ed. Attainment Adult Literacy: What is it? -Who is at Prose Level 1: -Low Ed. Attainment -With vocational preparation -Rather feminine - Rather old - More often single -Low income - Also at Document Level 1 -Do NOT go to library or concert -More often born abroad -Deny having issues with literacy Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: Main Lessons - Large proportion of individuals with a low level of Adult Literacy: Main Lessons - Large proportion of individuals with a low level of literacy (Best=Sweden: 25% at level 1) - Low level people deny the issue - The “mismatch”: Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: the Mismatch Among Adults Low Literacy High Literacy Low educational attainment 40% Adult Literacy: the Mismatch Among Adults Low Literacy High Literacy Low educational attainment 40% 10% High educational attainment 10% 40% Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Adult Literacy: the Mismatch Among Adults Low Literacy High Literacy Low educational attainment 40% Adult Literacy: the Mismatch Among Adults Low Literacy High Literacy Low educational attainment 40% 10% High educational attainment 10% 40% There are self-learners Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Main Idea behind RNFIL Recognising all learning outcomes, whatever the context (whether formal, non-formal Main Idea behind RNFIL Recognising all learning outcomes, whatever the context (whether formal, non-formal or informal) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Issues and Questions • • What is it? How do you measure it? How Issues and Questions • • What is it? How do you measure it? How do you assess it? What is recognition? Who does it? Does it work? How much does it cost? Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Based on an OECD Activity in… … 22 countries on the 5 continents: Australia, Based on an OECD Activity in… … 22 countries on the 5 continents: Australia, Austria, Belgium-Flanders, Canada, Chile, Czech Republic, Denmark, Germany, Greece, Hungary, Iceland, Ireland, Italy, Korea, Mexico, the Netherlands, Norway, Slovenia, South Africa, Spain, Switzerland the United Kingdom (Same issues, different responses) www. oecd. org/edu/recognition Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Possible Outcomes of RNFIL • RNFIL has value in the lifelong learning (LLL) system Possible Outcomes of RNFIL • RNFIL has value in the lifelong learning (LLL) system and in the labour market, e. g: – Exemptions (academic prerequisite) – Credits (toward a qualification) – Interim qualification (toward a qualification) – Partial qualification (some component of a job) – Full qualification/certification Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Terms • Many terms (in English): – RPL (Australia, South-Africa, Ireland…), PLAR (Canada), APL Terms • Many terms (in English): – RPL (Australia, South-Africa, Ireland…), PLAR (Canada), APL or APEL (UK…)… – RAS (Recognition of Acquired Skills ) – (Recognition of previous knowledge ) – Recognition of Learning Outcomes Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Terms and Concepts • Many terms (English): – RPL (Australia, South-Africa, Ireland…), PLAR (Canada), Terms and Concepts • Many terms (English): – RPL (Australia, South-Africa, Ireland…), PLAR (Canada), APL or APEL (UK…)… – RAS (Recognition of Acquired Skills) or RAC (Recognition of Acquired Competences): BEL-Flanders – (Recognition of previous knowledge ) – Recognition of Learning Outcomes: EU • Other languages: – EVC (Flanders, Netherlands…), VAE (France), RANFI (Mexico), Acreditación and Certificación (Spain)… Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Terms (cont’d) • Other languages: -Anerkennung von non-formalem und informellem lernen (Austria, Germany) - Terms (cont’d) • Other languages: -Anerkennung von non-formalem und informellem lernen (Austria, Germany) - EVC (Flanders, Netherlands…) - Validation (VAE, France) - RANFI (Mexico), Acreditación (Spain) - Japan (no name!!!) - Italy (varies by Province) - Nordic European countries (also varies) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Recognition of What: NFIL • Many definitions of NFIL - Not consensual • Formal Recognition of What: NFIL • Many definitions of NFIL - Not consensual • Formal learning: • Structured in terms of content, scheduling, organisation and financing • Informal learning: • Not structured, never intentional • Non-formal learning: • Varies a lot (the least consensual ): in between formal and informal, with variations to allow for national/regional/local or sectoral specificities) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Recognition • Recognition too has many meanings • Keyword: here it’s social recognition : Recognition • Recognition too has many meanings • Keyword: here it’s social recognition : whether outcomes have value and are used in the society, in the labour market typically? (not specific to RNFIL). (As soon as you agree, you have issues because this not happening - Not yet appealing to young people for them to drop out from school) • Key issue: recognition does not necessarily mean a high level of formalisation, but it needs some (continuum of outputs, from self esteem to qualifications for the labour market). Where quality assurance comes in!! Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Definitions: Recommendations • Do not waste time • Better to focus on learning outcomes, Definitions: Recommendations • Do not waste time • Better to focus on learning outcomes, as opposed to just learning: it’s easier. A key concept that EQF and RNFIL have in common. • Better to focus on non-formal and informal learning, as opposed to formal learning: it’s more innovative/promising (and not already done) • Better to focus on recognition, as opposed to just non-formal and informal learning: it’s easier because it’s visible(process) • In short: “recognition of non-formal and informal learning outcomes” is what matters • And recognition does not necessarily means “highly formalised” Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Rationale (Labour Market and LLL) • Time and Cost (cheaper, not free, not cheap) Rationale (Labour Market and LLL) • Time and Cost (cheaper, not free, not cheap) • Untapped human capital • Motivation (not starting from scratch) • Demography… • Job matching • Unqualified individuals/workers may have skills • Crisis (assessment a good start before reskilling) • Certificates awarded by vendors>Certification MOE • Employers do it all the time (practical/informal) • In short: a lot has to do with competences, qualifications and the labour market Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Main Rationale Creating new routes to qualifications! But why do we need more qualifications? Main Rationale Creating new routes to qualifications! But why do we need more qualifications? Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Rationale: A More Qualified Labour Force! • Visibility of skills, knowledge and competences • Rationale: A More Qualified Labour Force! • Visibility of skills, knowledge and competences • Skills shortages (availability or… visibility) • Distribution of qualifications, occupational mobility • Regulated occupations, and labour markets • ISO processes (quality) • Public contracts Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Rationale: A Policy Tool • • • Time and Cost (untapped human capital) Motivation Rationale: A Policy Tool • • • Time and Cost (untapped human capital) Motivation (not starting from scratch) Demography… Employers do it all the time (practical/informal) Consistent with qualifications frameworks (outcomes) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Rationale: A Policy Tool • It’s flexible: continuum of outputs, from self assessment (portfolio) Rationale: A Policy Tool • It’s flexible: continuum of outputs, from self assessment (portfolio) to full certification • Job matching • Training has a cost (RNFIL is cheaper) • Unqualified individuals/workers may have skills • Motivator for resuming formal studies • Crisis (assessment a good start before reskilling) • Certificates awarded by vendors>Certification MOE Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

How Does it Work? Here again, approaches vary a lot. Common patterns: • Information How Does it Work? Here again, approaches vary a lot. Common patterns: • Information and guidance • Documentation • Assessment • (full) Certification/Qualification (or not) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

How Does it Work in Detail? In detail: • Information and guidance (needs vary How Does it Work in Detail? In detail: • Information and guidance (needs vary a lot) • Documentation (Portfolio, previous jobs or training periods…) • Assessment (Portfolio - Simulation, Observation, Written tests, Interview, Panel…) • (full) Certification/Qualification (or not) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

How Does it Work and the labour market? The labour market is everywhere: • How Does it Work and the labour market? The labour market is everywhere: • Information and guidance (information or even decisions often come from employers, colleagues, unions) • Documentation (many documents come from previous jobs/employers) • Assessment (many methods involve the workplace) • (full) Certification/Qualification (or not) (mainly useful in the labour market) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

RNFIL and NQF/EQF Creating new routes to qualifications! (Developing existing (formal) routes) It is RNFIL and NQF/EQF Creating new routes to qualifications! (Developing existing (formal) routes) It is NOT about awarding underserved qualifications to everybody (frequently heard comment) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Link between VET/LM and RNFIL • Visibility of skills, knowledge and competences • Skills Link between VET/LM and RNFIL • Visibility of skills, knowledge and competences • Skills shortages (availability or… visibility) • Distribution of qualifications • Regulated occupations • ISO processes • Public contracts • Many of these arguments can also be used for establishing a qualifications framework Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Second chance Canada, GED, Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Second chance Canada, GED, Bachillerato, adult school certificate Mexico, education referenced to school (Higher Education) Norway, Chile, system Spain Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Second chance Canada, GED, Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Second chance Canada, GED, Bachillerato, adult school certificate Mexico, education referenced to school (Higher Education) Norway, Chile, system Spain Entry to higher South Africa, Universities working together education UK, Belgium (CENEVAL), access to higher (Flanders) education courses Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Second chance Canada, GED, Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Second chance Canada, GED, Bachillerato, adult school certificate Mexico, education referenced to school (Higher Education) Norway, Chile, system Spain Entry to higher South Africa, Universities working together education UK, Belgium (CENEVAL), access to higher (Flanders) education courses Exemptions from Hungary, Chile, Modular higher education formal programmes UK, Belgium programmes, with exemptions (Higher Education) (Flanders) available, specific credits. University discretion over exemptions Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Labour competence certification Netherlands, Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Labour competence certification Netherlands, Germany, South Africa, Belgium (Flanders) Exceptional procedures to allow those with established competence to gain existing formal qualification Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Labour competence certification Netherlands, Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Labour competence certification Netherlands, Germany, South Africa, Belgium (Flanders) Exceptional procedures to allow those with established competence to gain existing formal qualification VET system redesign Spain, Mexico, Hungary, Australia, UK Creation of RNFILfriendly qualifications Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Labour competence certification Netherlands, Applications of RNFIL Type of Application Exemplar Countries Typical Examples Labour competence certification Netherlands, Germany, South Africa, Belgium (Flanders) Exceptional procedures to allow those with established competence to gain existing formal qualification VET system redesign Discrete applications Spain, Mexico, Creation of RNFILHungary, Australia, friendly qualifications UK Belgium (Flanders), ECDL, language Hungary, Canada, certificates, professional Greece, Germany bodies Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Country Practice in Short • Some countries have a legal framework • Some don’t Country Practice in Short • Some countries have a legal framework • Some don’t • Some countries recognise academic knowledge, skills and competences (Portugal) • Some focus on competences for the labour market • Some may award full qualifications on the basis of recognition of non-formal and informal learning, many do not • Some use existing standards (from the world of education), some create specific ones (close to the labour market needs) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Cost-Benefit Model Main idea: comparing Learning (L) and Certified learning (C) Benefit (C) Cost/Benefit Cost-Benefit Model Main idea: comparing Learning (L) and Certified learning (C) Benefit (C) Cost/Benefit Cost (C) Benefit (L) Cost (L) VL Vc Exchange Value of Learning Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Recognition vs. Training Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, Recognition vs. Training Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Recognition vs. Training (cont’d) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Recognition vs. Training (cont’d) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Barriers to RNFIL • Work on barriers, some clearly psychological: • Legitimacy of NFIL Barriers to RNFIL • Work on barriers, some clearly psychological: • Legitimacy of NFIL (culture shift) • Credibility (“undeserved” award) • Understanding what it is about (“you will give degrees to everybody”) • Input process unknown (therefore not quality assured) • Many actors and stakeholders are against RNFIL: universities (fear of competition), employers (upward pressure on wages), trade unions (reduced commitment to learning) • Shift from learning to assessment • Ownership of the standards Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Critical Factors for Sustainability • Clear rhetoric • Clear definitions, clear (mutually exclusive) concepts Critical Factors for Sustainability • Clear rhetoric • Clear definitions, clear (mutually exclusive) concepts • Information, advice and counselling • Legal framework or social consensus • Piloting/Evaluation (Data… ) • “Physical” support: [e-]portfolio and the like (Profil. PASS, Competence passport/card…), certification • Assessment methods: examinations, simulation, observation, interview (standards…) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Critical Factors for Sustainability • Financing and fees • Quality assurance • Dedicated assessment Critical Factors for Sustainability • Financing and fees • Quality assurance • Dedicated assessment centre(s) • Appropriate definition of objectives and expected outcomes: exemptions, credits, full qualification • Qualification for RNFIL officers/staff/assessors • Critical mass for opening a recognition process • “Group” recognition of NFIL (even if fundamentally a concept for an approach by individual) Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Critical Factors for Sustainability • Do NOT oversell the concept: • Recognition of NFIL Critical Factors for Sustainability • Do NOT oversell the concept: • Recognition of NFIL may not be suitable for people without knowledge, skills and competences • Recognition of NFIL will not directly create economic growth • Recognition of NFIL does not create the skills, knowledge and competences it is meant to recognise… even if … it is still a learning process • Recognition of NFIL is not free (not even always cheap, but cheaper than formal learning) • Recognition of NFIL is probably not a universal solution Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Merci Questions and comments please to: patrick. werquin@gmail. com Merci Questions and comments please to: patrick. [email protected] com

Read More? • Slander Veronika (with Primoz Hvala Kamenscek, Meta Slander and Barbara Kuncic), Read More? • Slander Veronika (with Primoz Hvala Kamenscek, Meta Slander and Barbara Kuncic), 2007. New OECD Activity on Recognition of non-formal and informal learning, Draft Country Background Report for SLOVENIA. August. www. oecd. org/dataoecd/4/23/41680347. pdf • Mernagh Edwin, Fred Séchaud and Patrick Werquin, 2008. Recognition of non-formal and informal learning in Slovenia, Country Note prepared for the OECD activity. Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Read More? • Werquin P. , 2012. “The Missing Link to Connect Education and Read More? • Werquin P. , 2012. “The Missing Link to Connect Education and Employment: Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning Outcomes”, Journal of Education and Work. (forthcoming) • Charraud AM. and P. Werquin, 2011. The Implementation of a National Qualifications Framework and a Regional Qualifications Framework in ECOWAS Countries, Policy Document prepared for the UNDP, Dakar, Senegal • Werquin, P. and C. Wihak, 2011. Islands of Good Practice: Recognising Non-formal and Informal Learning, in Harris J. (ed. ), “Researching Recognition of Prior Learning”, NIACE, UK. • Werquin P. , 2010. Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning: Country Practices, OECD, Paris, February, 65 p. , www. oecd. org/dataoecd/22/12/44600408. pdf Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Read More? • Werquin Patrick (2010). Recognising Non-formal and Informal Learning: Outcomes, Policies and Read More? • Werquin Patrick (2010). Recognising Non-formal and Informal Learning: Outcomes, Policies and Practices, OECD-Publishing, Paris, 91 p. • Recotillet Isabelle and Patrick Werquin (2009). “The French VAE: Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning as a Visa for a Job? ”, European Journal of Vocational Training, N° 48, 2009/3. (forthcoming) www. cedefop. europa. eu/etv/projects_networks/EJVT/DEF AULT. asp • Werquin Patrick (2009): “Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning in OECD Countries: an Overview of Some Key Issues. ” In: REPORT, No. 3, http: //www. reportonline. net/english/start/ Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Read More? • Werquin Patrick (2008). “Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning in OECD Read More? • Werquin Patrick (2008). “Recognition of Non-formal and Informal Learning in OECD Countries: A Very Good Idea in Jeopardy”, Lifelong Learning in Europe, 3 2008, p. 142149. http: //www. lline. fi • Werquin Patrick (2007). “Moving Mountains: Will Qualifications Systems Promote Lifelong Learning”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 42, No. 4, p. 459– 484. http: //www. wiley. com/bw/journal. asp? ref=0141 -8211 • Werquin, Patrick (2007): “Terms, Concepts and Models for Analysing the Value of Recognition Programmes. ” www. oecd. org/dataoecd/33/58/41834711. pdf Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Read More? • Werquin P. , 2007. “Moving Mountains: Will Qualifications Systems Promote Lifelong Read More? • Werquin P. , 2007. “Moving Mountains: Will Qualifications Systems Promote Lifelong Learning”, European Journal of Education, Vol. 42, No. 4, p. 459 -484. www. wiley. com/bw/journal. asp? ref=0141 -8211 • Coles M. and P. Werquin, 2007. “National Qualifications Systems to Modernise VET Systems”, in: Descy, P. and M. Tessaring (eds. ), Fourth report on VET in Europe. Luxembourg. • OCDE, 2007. “Qualifications for Lifelong Learning”, OECD Policy Brief, March. • OCDE, 2007. Qualifications Systems: Bridges to Lifelong Learning, OECD Publishing, 282 p. • Miyamoto K. and P. Werquin, 2006. Participation in Adult Learning – Another Look at the Story the Numbers Tell, Working paper, OECD, Directorate for Education, Paris. Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011

Read More? • OCDE and Statistics Canada, 2005. Learning a Living, OECD Publishing, Paris, Read More? • OCDE and Statistics Canada, 2005. Learning a Living, OECD Publishing, Paris, 339 p. • OCDE, 2005. Promoting Adult Learning, OECD Publishing, Paris, 171 p. • Werquin P. , 2005. “Literacy: Words Count”, The OECD Observer, N° 251, p. 32 -34, September. • OCDE, 2003. Beyond Rhetoric: Adult Learning Policies and Practices, OECD Publishing, Paris, 269 p. • Pont B. and P. Werquin, 2000. “Literacy in a Thousand Words”, The OECD Observer, N°. 223, p. 49 -50, October. • OCDE and Statistics Canada, 2000. Literacy in the Information Age, OECD Publishing, Paris. Dr. Patrick Werquin, Creating Opportunities through Literacy and Recognition, SIAE, Ljubljana, 7 December 2011