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Cornell Notes Unit: Native Americans Topic: Causes of Conflict with the Sioux Guiding Question: What were the major social, political, and economic causes of conflict between the European-Americans and the Sioux people? (This is the guiding question for the final assessment essay for this unit of study. )
Causes and History of Conflict between the Sioux and the U. S. Government 1804—Lewis and Clark Meet the Sioux in the Newly Purchased Territory of Louisiana which included Sioux Territory (Political—land purchased w/out recognition of the Sioux) Early 1830’s--The Sioux are the dominant Warriors of the Northern Plains (Lewis and Clark had to pay tribute to pass through their territory) 1834 Congress Declares Indian Territory all land west of the Mississippi and North of Iowa (Political—US too weak to challenge the Sioux) 1840’s—Economics--40, 000 Settlers cross Sioux territory bound for the Oregon Territory (Political--Territory Acquired in Oregon brings on many settlers. )
Events Leading to first Large Scale Conflict Between the Sioux and the U. S. Army 1845 John O’ Sullivan Declares “Manifest Destiny” (Social—Attitude that the U. S. was destined go from “sea to shining sea. ”) 1845 Texas is annexed by President Polk (Political—Territorial Aggression) 1846 Oregon Country is added (Political— Territorial Aggression. Polk Quote Campaign Quote: “ 54’ 40” or fight” 1848 Mexican American War ends and the U. S. acquires all of the Southwest 1848—Economics--Gold is discovered in California
1851 Treaty of Fort Laramie—U. S. Army Signs Treaty to Protect Settlers Traveling to California and Oregon Territory Designated boundaries of the Northern Plains Tribes—Each tribe is also to be paid a $50, 000 annuity for 50 years. Later the government went back on the deal and said 15 years. In exchange for this annuity the Native Americans were expected to allow white settlers to freely travel across their territory on the way to California and Oregon. They also agreed to stay in their designated boundaries.
1854—First Major U. S. Army Confrontation with the Sioux The Brule Sioux killed a cow from a wagon train. Lt. Gratton and 30 U. S. Cavalry Soldiers marched into the Sioux camp, and arrogantly declared that they must pay for the cow. The Sioux refused and the Soldiers drew their weapons---the Sioux slaughtered them to the last man
1855—U. S. Army Retaliation--General William Harney sent 600 Soldiers to the Platte River to attack the Brule Sioux Of the band of 250, 85 are killed and several dozen are taken captive and wounded Significance: This is the first major attack on a Sioux village by the U. S. Army. The Sioux will remember this for Years to come.
1854 Little Crow of the Santee Sioux of Minnesota signs a treaty with the U. S. Government The Santee were guaranteed half the land of what is present day Minnesota. In 1858 the U. S. government reneged on their promise and cut the Santee Territory in half. (Political—U. S. Government broke the treaty to acquire more land for U. S. settlers. ) Eventually 24 million acres were taken by the U. S. government
Chief Little Crow Source: Little Crow, Sioux Chief and Leader of Indian Massacre of 1862 in Minnesota. c 1862. Photograph. Lib. of Cong. Washington D. C. Lib. of Cong Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Protests of the Injustice Some white settlers and Indian agents “ripped off” the Indians on the reservations and used their women as prostitutes (Social—Crimes, lack of respect) Chief Little Crow went to Congress to protest however, thousands of White settlers were moving into Minnesota and his pleas fell on deaf ears An Episcopal Bishop of Minnesota went to Washington D. C. on behalf of the Santee and said: “a nation which sowed robbery would reap a harvest of blood. ”
The pot begins to boil as trouble with reservationlife leads to conflict Native Americans worried about the loss of their culture. Indians were given 80 acres of good bottom land, but only 1 in four men farmed—warriors believed farming was woman’s work Little Crow said this about farming: “A man cannot dress and work like a white man and at the same time adhere to the religion of the Dakota. ” Because of the Civil War annuities and government supplies begin running late and this leads to much anger
Starvation and Lack of food leads to Indians breaking into Agency Trading Posts The Trader Andrew Myrick said the following when approached by Little Crow about letting the Indians buy food on credit until the annuities arrived: “If they are hungry, let them eat grass. ”
The Spark that sets off the fire Four Santee warriors walking home from a unsuccessful hunt, raid a farm and kill 3 white men, a woman and a 15 year old girl. The men go back to a Santee warrior lodge and explain their deeds. The warriors decide to fight rather than turn the boys over to be executed.
Little Crow Joins the Fight Little Crow: “Braves, you are little children— you are fools, you will die like the rabbits when the hungry wolves hunt them in the hard moon. Taoyateduta is not a coward and he will die with you. ” 100 Men attack the Lower Agency, kill 20 men and take 10 women and children captive Many atrocities are committed by parties on both sides.
White Refugees During the Sioux Uprisin Source: People Escaping from the Indian Massacre of 1862 in Minnesota, at Dinner on a Prairie. 1862. Photograph. Lib. of Cong. Washington D. C. Lib. of Cong Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Final Tally The Army moves in and crushes the uprising, killing hundreds of Sioux warriors. 392 are tried for murder and 302 are sentenced to death—some trials lasted only 5 minutes. President Lincoln pardoned all but 39 because the he felt the trials were unfair. Hundreds of Sioux move west to find a home with their cousins in the Dakota Territory
Little Crow’s Fate In 1863, Little Crow returned to Minnesota to acquire some horses and he was shot by two farmers while picking wild raspberries. There was a $75. 00 bounty on Native Americans off the reservation.
Simultaneous Execution of 38 Santee Sioux Indians at Mankato Minnesota, December 26, 1862 Source: Execution of the thirty-eight Sioux Indians at Mankata, Minnesota, December, 26, 1862. c 1883. Print. Lib. of Cong. Washington D. C. Lib. of Cong Web. 26 Sept. 2013.
Big Eagle of the Santee Sioux “The Whites were always trying to make the Indians give up their life and live like white men—go to farming, work hard and do as they did—and the Indians did not know how to do that, and did not want to anyway…If the Indians had tried to make the whites live like them, the whites would have resisted, and it was the same with many Indians. ” (Social— Human Nature to resist change, especially another way of life forced upon them. )
Bonus Question: What was the name of the Episcopal minister who spoke in support of the Santee Sioux of Minnesota? (10 Points) Find the name of one other White man who spoke on behalf of the Santee Sioux of Minnesota? (10 Points) Hint: It might be a military man. Bonus response documentation (copies) must be handed in by this Friday.