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CONTENTS 11 -1 A vs. an 11 -2 Count and noncount nouns 11 -3 CONTENTS 11 -1 A vs. an 11 -2 Count and noncount nouns 11 -3 Noncount nouns 11 -4 More noncount nouns 11 -5 Using several, a lot of, many/much, and. . . 11 -6 Nouns that be count or noncount 11 -7 Using units of measure with noncount nouns 11 -8 Guidelines for article usage 11 -9 Using the or Ø with names 11 -10 Capitalization 1

11 -1 A vs. AN She is wearing a bracelet. 2 11 -1 A vs. AN She is wearing a bracelet. 2

11 -1 A vs. AN (a) She lives in a cabin. (b) He lives 11 -1 A vs. AN (a) She lives in a cabin. (b) He lives in an apartment. (c) She lives in a large cabin. (d) He lives in an old apartment. a an consonants vowels a an = “one” 3

11 -1 A vs. AN (e) I had an uncle named Spiros. (f) They 11 -1 A vs. AN (e) I had an uncle named Spiros. (f) They have an ugly car. (g) The inch is a unit of measure. (h) He saw a unique building. For words beginning with the letter u: a consonant sound an vowel sound 4

11 -1 A vs. AN (i) I will see you in an hour. (j) 11 -1 A vs. AN (i) I will see you in an hour. (j) This is a happy day. For words beginning with the letter h: a pronounced “h” an silent “h” 5

11 -1 LET’S PRACTICE ___ ear. An a an ___ large ear. A ___ 11 -1 LET’S PRACTICE ___ ear. An a an ___ large ear. A ___ enormous ear. An ___ useful ear. A 6

11 -1 LET’S PRACTICE ___ holiday. A a an ___ universal holiday. A ___ 11 -1 LET’S PRACTICE ___ holiday. A a an ___ universal holiday. A ___ unique holiday. A ___ unhappy situation. An 7

11 -1 LET’S PRACTICE ___ honest mistake. An a an ___ hateful comment. A 11 -1 LET’S PRACTICE ___ honest mistake. An a an ___ hateful comment. A ___ hour of exercise. An ___ unhappy experience. An 8

11 -2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS Should we buy some furniture? Yes. Let’s buy 11 -2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS Should we buy some furniture? Yes. Let’s buy a table and four chairs. 9

11 -2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS COUNT NOUN SINGULAR PLURAL a table one table 11 -2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS COUNT NOUN SINGULAR PLURAL a table one table Ø tables five tables some tables can be counted can be preceded by a/an has a plural form (-s or -es) 10

11 -2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS NONCOUNT NOUN SINGULAR Ø furniture some furniture PLURAL 11 -2 COUNT AND NONCOUNT NOUNS NONCOUNT NOUN SINGULAR Ø furniture some furniture PLURAL Ø Ø one furniture a furnitures cannot be counted is not preceded by a/an does not have a plural form 11

11 -2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? We love to see movies. count ? noncount 11 -2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? We love to see movies. count ? noncount 12

11 -2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? I need some new jewelry. count ? noncount 11 -2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? I need some new jewelry. count ? noncount 13

11 -2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? Which utensil do you want? count ? noncount 11 -2 LET’S PRACTICE NOUN ? Which utensil do you want? count ? noncount 14

11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS The river is so beautiful. All the scenery is beautiful. 11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS The river is so beautiful. All the scenery is beautiful. 15

11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns) (a) 11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns) (a) letters postcards bills advertisements etc. mail 16

11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns) (b) 11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns) (b) grapes bananas apples oranges etc. fruit 17

11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns) (c) 11 -3 NONCOUNT NOUNS INDIVIDUAL PARTS = THE WHOLE (Count Nouns) (Noncount Nouns) (c) necklaces rings bracelets pins etc. jewelry 18

11 -3 LET’S PRACTICE / We have really old furniture__. -s -es / 19 11 -3 LET’S PRACTICE / We have really old furniture__. -s -es / 19

11 -3 LET’S PRACTICE She loves these pearl earring__. s -s -es / 20 11 -3 LET’S PRACTICE She loves these pearl earring__. s -s -es / 20

11 -3 LET’S PRACTICE / I keep all the information__ on my PDA. -s 11 -3 LET’S PRACTICE / I keep all the information__ on my PDA. -s -es / 21

11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS The oil refinery creates lots of air pollution. 22 11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS The oil refinery creates lots of air pollution. 22

11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade 23 11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade 23

11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS 11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS copper cement silver gold 24

11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS 11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) LIQUIDS soda juice oil lemonade SOLIDS & SEMI-SOLIDS copper cement silver gold GASES helium smoke oxygen 25

11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (b) THINGS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE moonlight sleet fog 11 -4 MORE NONCOUNT NOUNS (b) THINGS THAT OCCUR IN NATURE moonlight sleet fog (c) ABSTRACTIONS joy enthusiasm danger 26

11 -4 LET’S PRACTICE -s -es / / / Health __ and happiness __ 11 -4 LET’S PRACTICE -s -es / / / Health __ and happiness __ often go together. 27

11 -4 LET’S PRACTICE / Ginny has all the luck__. Thing__ always go well 11 -4 LET’S PRACTICE / Ginny has all the luck__. Thing__ always go well for her. s -s -es / 28

11 -4 LET’S PRACTICE -s -es / The project is going well. / We 11 -4 LET’S PRACTICE -s -es / The project is going well. / We have made a lot of progress __. / Having patience __ has paid off. 29

11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / 11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE We have new furniture. We have a table and many chairs. 30

11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / 11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT (a) several apples several NONCOUNT Ø count nouns 31

11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / 11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT (a) several apples (b) a lot of apples a lot NONCOUNT Ø a lot of fruit count/noncount 32

11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / 11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT (a) several apples NONCOUNT Ø (b) a lot of apples a lot of fruit (c) many apples much fruit many count much noncount 33

11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / 11 -5 USING SEVERAL, A LOT OF, MANY / MUCH, AND A FEW / A LITTLE COUNT (a) several apples NONCOUNT Ø (b) a lot of apples a lot of fruit (c) many apples much fruit (d) a few apples a little fruit a few count a little noncount 34

11 -5 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT INCORRECT I hope to get several jewelries for my 11 -5 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT INCORRECT I hope to get several jewelries for my birthday. INCORRECT I hope to get some jewelry for my birthday. CORRECT 35

11 -5 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT INCORRECT That store has a few couches that I 11 -5 LET’S PRACTICE CORRECT INCORRECT That store has a few couches that I like. CORRECT We need many furnitures for our new house. INCORRECT We need a lot of furniture for our new house. CORRECT 36

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT He did a lot of 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT He did a lot of work today. 37

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (a) The jar is made of glass. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (b) Do you want a glass of milk? (c) Barb has new glasses. 38

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (d) Jenn has blue hair ! USED AS A COUNT NOUN (e) There is a hair in your food! 39

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (f) These beams are made of iron. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (g) He bought a new iron. 40

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (h) That bulb produces a lot of light. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (i) Please turn on the light. 41

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (j) May I borrow some paper ? USED AS A COUNT NOUN (k) I wrote a long paper for my Ph. D. (l) He reads the paper every morning. 42

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (m) This homework is taking so much time. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (n) She’s been sick many times. 43

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (o) He only did a little work today. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (p) Cooking for his family is a work of love. 44

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (q) Brazil produces a lot of coffee. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (r) I’d like a coffee with cream. 45

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (s) I eat a lot of chicken and fish. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (t) I bought one chicken and one fish. 46

11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN 11 -6 NOUNS THAT CAN BE COUNT OR NONCOUNT USED AS A NONCOUNT NOUN (u) I have experience writing software. USED AS A COUNT NOUN (v) There are many experiences to enjoy when traveling. 47

11 -6 LET’S PRACTICE a some Travis has ____ chicken as a pet. a 11 -6 LET’S PRACTICE a some Travis has ____ chicken as a pet. a 48

11 -6 LET’S PRACTICE a / / I like to get my hair __ 11 -6 LET’S PRACTICE a / / I like to get my hair __ cut once a month. 49

11 -6 LET’S PRACTICE times I tried to call my friend six ______. times 11 -6 LET’S PRACTICE times I tried to call my friend six ______. times 50

11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS She has a bowl of 11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS She has a bowl of cereal, a glass of milk, and a piece of fruit for breakfast. 51

11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil 11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil on the salad. 52

11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil 11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil on the salad. (b) He had three drops of oil on his salad. 53

11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil 11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil on the salad. (b) He had three drops of oil on his salad. (c) He eats some toast with fruit every day. 54

11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil 11 -7 USING UNITS OF MEASURE WITH NONCOUNT NOUNS (a) He put some oil on the salad. (b) He had three drops of oil on his salad. (c) He eats some toast with fruit every day. (d) He had two pieces of toast with berries. 55

11 -7 LET’S PRACTICE I need a _____ of vinegar. bottle bag bottle box 11 -7 LET’S PRACTICE I need a _____ of vinegar. bottle bag bottle box 56

11 -7 LET’S PRACTICE bag container I have a _____ of spaghetti. bottle container 11 -7 LET’S PRACTICE bag container I have a _____ of spaghetti. bottle container 57

11 -7 LET’S PRACTICE bag bottle container bag I’d like to eat a _____ 11 -7 LET’S PRACTICE bag bottle container bag I’d like to eat a _____ of tortilla chips. 58

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE Please tell me a story. You tell the 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE Please tell me a story. You tell the best stories. 59

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (a) A computer can be helpful for homework. 60

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (a) A computer can be helpful for homework. (b) An orange is orange. 61

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (a) A computer can be helpful for homework. (b) An orange is orange. (c) A tornado can be dangerous. 62

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (a) A computer is helpful for doing homework. (b) An orange is orange. (c) A tornado can be dangerous. a + singular count noun generalization any, all, in general 63

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) PLURAL COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) PLURAL COUNT NOUNS (d) Computers can be helpful for homework. 64

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (d) Computers can be helpful for homework. (e) Oranges are orange. 65

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (d) Computers can be helpful for homework. (e) Oranges are orange. (f) Tornadoes can be dangerous. 66

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (d) Computers can helpful for homework. (e) Oranges are orange. (f) Tornadoes can be dangerous. no article (Ø) with plural count noun generalization 67

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) NONCOUNT NOUNS 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR Ø (NO ARTICLE) NONCOUNT NOUNS (g) Ø Exercise increases energy. (h) Ø Fruit contains vitamins. (i) Children need Ø attention. no article (Ø) with noncount noun generalization 68

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR SOME SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (j) 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR SOME SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (j) I bought a computer to help with homework. (k) I brought an orange for desert. (l) There was a tornado in Kansas last week. a + singular count noun one thing (not specific) 69

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR SOME PLURAL COUNT NOUNS (m) 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR SOME PLURAL COUNT NOUNS (m) There are some computers in the lab. (n) I’d love to have some oranges. (o) There are some tornadoes every year. some + plural count noun things (not specific) 70

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR SOME NONCOUNT NOUNS (p) I 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING A OR SOME NONCOUNT NOUNS (p) I need some exercise. (q) The children would like some fruit. (r) I think the cat needs some attention. some (Ø) with noncount noun something not specific 71

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (s) Do you 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE SINGULAR COUNT NOUNS (s) Do you like the computer you bought? (t) I enjoyed the orange you gave me. (u) The tornado that hit yesterday was awful. (v) The moon is full. (w) The window is open. (x) Are you in the garage? the + noun specific person(s) or thing(s) 72

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE PLURAL COUNT NOUNS (y) The computers 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE PLURAL COUNT NOUNS (y) The computers were expensive. (z) I enjoyed the oranges you gave me. (aa) The tornadoes that hit Mexico were awful. (bb) The moons of Saturn are beautiful. the + noun specific person(s) or thing(s) 73

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came early today. 74

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came early today. (dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet. 75

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came early today. (dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet. (ee) The love of a mother is very strong. 76

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came early today. (dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet. (ee) The love of a mother is very strong. (ff) The smog is bad this year. 77

11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came 11 -8 GUIDELINES FOR ARTICLE USAGE USING THE NONCOUNT NOUNS (cc) The mail came early today. (dd) The fruit wasn’t ripe yet. (ee) The love of a mother is very strong. (ff) The smog is bad this year. the with noncount noun something specific 78

11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the Do you have the ____ recipe for 11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the Do you have the ____ recipe for Mom’s lasagna? 79

11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the No, but I have ___ a recipe 11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the No, but I have ___ a recipe from a magazine. 80

11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the Too bad. Mom the makes ___ best 11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the Too bad. Mom the makes ___ best lasagna. 81

11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the I do have ___ an extra special 11 -8 LET’S PRACTICE a an the I do have ___ an extra special spaghetti recipe that you might like. 82

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES The Himalayas are in Asia. 83 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES The Himalayas are in Asia. 83

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (a) Ø Ms. Albert is on 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (a) Ø Ms. Albert is on the phone. She is waiting to speak to Ø Dr. Simmons. 84

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (a) Ø Ms. Albert is on 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (a) Ø Ms. Albert is on the phone. She is waiting to speak to Ø Dr. Simmons. Ø Prime Minister Thompson was re-elected. The titled names. 85

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught English in Ø 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught English in Ø Asia. 86

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught English in Ø 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught English in Ø Asia. Ø Australia is a large island. 87

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught English in Ø 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught English in Ø Asia. Ø Australia is a large island. Over 20% of the earth’s land is in Ø Africa. 88

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught Ø English in 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (b) I taught Ø English in Asia. Ø Australia is a large island. Over 20% of the earth’s land is in Ø Africa. The names of continents. 89

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (c) Madrid is the capital of 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (c) Madrid is the capital of Ø Spain. Ø Chile has some beautiful mountains. Ø Madagascar is a small country. The names of most countries. (d) The Dominican Republic is a small country. There are windmills in the Netherlands. The United States has 50 states. The a few countries. 90

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (e) I love Ø Paris in 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (e) I love Ø Paris in the spring time. Ø New York has wonderful museums. We visited Ø Johannesburg last winter. The names of cities. 91

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (f) The Mississippi River is very 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (f) The Mississippi River is very wide. The most important river that feeds the Black Sea is the Danube. The rivers, oceans & seas. (g) Ø Lake Vostok is the largest lake in the world. A large lake in Canada is Ø Lake Huron. The names of lakes. 92

11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (h) We saw the Virunga Mountains 11 -9 USING THE OR Ø WITH NAMES (h) We saw the Virunga Mountains in Africa. The Andes Mountains are in South America. The names of mountain ranges. (i) Ø Elbrus Mountain is in Russia. A beautiful mountain in Alaska is Mount Denali. The individual mountains. 93

11 -9 LET’S PRACTICE The Mediterranean Sea is located ___ to the north of 11 -9 LET’S PRACTICE The Mediterranean Sea is located ___ to the north of ___ Africa. Ø Ø the 94

11 -9 LET’S PRACTICE Ø the ___ Professor Keely teaches in ___ Czech Ø 11 -9 LET’S PRACTICE Ø the ___ Professor Keely teaches in ___ Czech Ø Republic. She loves working in ___ Prague. Ø the 95

11 -9 LET’S PRACTICE It is illegal to climb ___ Himalayas the in ___ 11 -9 LET’S PRACTICE It is illegal to climb ___ Himalayas the in ___ Bhutan. Ø Ø the 96

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION Barbara Barns studied business at Brac University in Bangladesh. 97 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION Barbara Barns studied business at Brac University in Bangladesh. 97

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 1. The first word of a sentence. (a) There are 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 1. The first word of a sentence. (a) There are no clouds in the sky. It is a beautiful day. 98

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 1. The first word of a sentence. (a) There are 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 1. The first word of a sentence. (a) There are no clouds in the sky. It is a beautiful day. Capitalize = a BIG letter, not a small one 99

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 2. The names of people. (b) Jimi Hendrix was a 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 2. The names of people. (b) Jimi Hendrix was a rock musician in the 60’s. 100

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 3. Titles used with the names of people. (c) Dr. 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 3. Titles used with the names of people. (c) Dr. Gilroy lives near me. Were you in Professor Gilroy’s class? COMPARE I saw a professor. I saw Professor Gilroy. 101

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 4. Months, days, holidays (d) Zoe’s birthday is in December. 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 4. Months, days, holidays (d) Zoe’s birthday is in December. She was born on a Saturday. It was on New Year’s Eve. spring summer fall/autumn winter not capitalized 102

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 5. The names of places: city, state/province, country, continent (e) 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 5. The names of places: city, state/province, country, continent (e) Ottawa is the capital city of Canada, which is in North America. It is in the province of Ontario. 103

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 6. The names of school courses (f) Professor Mackey teaches 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 6. The names of school courses (f) Professor Mackey teaches my Women’s History course. 104

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 7. The titles of books, articles, movies (g) My favorite 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 7. The titles of books, articles, movies (g) My favorite movie is Shirley Valentine. My favorite book is The Sweetest Dream. 105

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 8. The names of languages and nationalities (h) I speak 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 8. The names of languages and nationalities (h) I speak Spanish. I love Mexican food. 106

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 9. The names of religions (i) Buddism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 9. The names of religions (i) Buddism, Christianity, Hinduism, Islam, and Judaism are some of the major religions of the world. One of my friends is a Muslim, and the other is a Buddhist. 107

11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 10. The pronoun “I” (j) I wish I had learned 11 -10 CAPITALIZATION CAPITALIZE 10. The pronoun “I” (j) I wish I had learned to type. 108

11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing day is a 11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing day is a holiday in canada. yes no 109

11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Why should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing Day is 11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Why should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing Day is a holiday in canada. first in sentence person holiday place course book language 110

11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing Day is a 11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing Day is a holiday in canada. yes no 111

11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Why should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing Day is 11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Why should the underlined word be capitalized? Boxing Day is a holiday in Canada. first in sentence person holiday place course book language 112

11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized? I taught information Systems 11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Should the underlined word be capitalized? I taught information Systems 202. yes no 113

11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Why should the underlined word be capitalized? I taught Information 11 -10 LET’S PRACTICE Why should the underlined word be capitalized? I taught Information Systems 202. first in sentence person holiday place course book language 114

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