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Content Metadata and Search Remarks to the Dublin Core Workshop Marti Hearst SIMS, UC Content Metadata and Search Remarks to the Dublin Core Workshop Marti Hearst SIMS, UC Berkeley September 28, 2003

Resource Finding and the Web • Web search vs. collection search – When a Resource Finding and the Web • Web search vs. collection search – When a single page is all that’s needed, web search is fine • Although validity is an issue – Unsolved problem: • How to make source-focused search more intuitive on the web? • One idea (untested): task-based search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

What about Content? • Dublin Core takes stances on the “contentneutral” aspects of metadata What about Content? • Dublin Core takes stances on the “contentneutral” aspects of metadata • Q: What about content? – The Metadata Marsh • Getting agreement on metadata terms is difficult • Even worse when talking about content! • A: Domain-specific solutions – Don’t worry about cross-domain consistency (a necessary drawback) – Success: b-to-b protocols M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Hypothesis (as yet untested): Assuming we’ve focused on a domain, agreement on category assignment Hypothesis (as yet untested): Assuming we’ve focused on a domain, agreement on category assignment can converge much more quickly by: 1. Focusing on the applications that will use the category system. 2. Designing metadata to be used in interfaces that show items represented by many different categories in a highly flexible, but intuitive, manner. M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

One Example: Flamenco Project • Goal: create intuitive, inviting search interfaces that make use One Example: Flamenco Project • Goal: create intuitive, inviting search interfaces that make use of hierarchical faceted metadata • Challenge: How to provide flexibility and power without overwhelming? (Answer: careful interface design) M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

The Flamenco Project Team Brycen Chun Ame Elliott Jennifer English Kevin Li Rashmi Sinha The Flamenco Project Team Brycen Chun Ame Elliott Jennifer English Kevin Li Rashmi Sinha Kirsten Swearingen Ping Yee http: //flamenco. berkeley. edu Research funded by: NSF CAREER Grant IIS-9984741 IBM Faculty Fellowship 6

Our Approach • Integrate the search seamlessly into the information architecture. – Use proper Our Approach • Integrate the search seamlessly into the information architecture. – Use proper HCI methodologies. • Use faceted metadata: – More flexible than canned hyperlinks – Less complex than full search – Help users see where to go next and return to what happened previously • What’s new? – Putting hierarchical facets into a useable interface. M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Metadata: data about data Facets: orthogonal categories Geo. Region M. Hearst + Time/Date + Metadata: data about data Facets: orthogonal categories Geo. Region M. Hearst + Time/Date + Topic Faceted Metadata in Search

Hierarchical Faceted Metadata Example: Biological Subject Headings 1. Anatomy [A] 2. Organisms [B] 3. Hierarchical Faceted Metadata Example: Biological Subject Headings 1. Anatomy [A] 2. Organisms [B] 3. Diseases [C] 4. Chemicals and Drugs [D] 5. Analytical, Diagnostic and Therapeutic Techniques and Equipment [E] 6. Psychiatry and Psychology [F] 7. Biological Sciences [G] 8. Physical Sciences [H] 9. Anthropology, Education, Sociology and Social Phenomena [I] 10. Technology and Food and Beverages [J] 11. Humanities [K] 12. Information Science [L] 13. Persons [M] 14. Health Care [N] 15. Geographic Locations [Z] M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Hierarchical Faced Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System Hierarchical Faced Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System [A 02] 3. [C] Digestive System [A 03] 4. [D] Respiratory System [A 04] 5. [E] Urogenital System [A 05] 6. [F] …… 7. [G] 8. Physical Sciences [H] 9. [I] 10. [J] 11. [K] 12. [L] 13. [M] M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System [A 02] 3. [C] Digestive System [A 03] 4. [D] Respiratory System [A 04] 5. [E] Urogenital System [A 05] 6. [F] …… 7. [G] 8. Physical Sciences [H] 9. [I] 10. [J] 11. [K] 12. [L] 13. [M] M. Hearst Abdomen [A 01. 047] Back [A 01. 176] Breast [A 01. 236] Extremities [A 01. 378] Head [A 01. 456] Neck [A 01. 598] …. Faceted Metadata in Search

Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System [A 02] 3. [C] Digestive System [A 03] 4. [D] Respiratory System [A 04] 5. [E] Urogenital System [A 05] 6. [F] …… 7. [G] 8. Physical Sciences [H] Electronics 9. [I] Astronomy 10. [J] Nature 11. [K] Time 12. [L] Weights and Measures 13. [M] …. M. Hearst Abdomen [A 01. 047] Back [A 01. 176] Breast [A 01. 236] Extremities [A 01. 378] Head [A 01. 456] Neck [A 01. 598] …. Faceted Metadata in Search

Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] Abdomen [A 01. 047] Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] Abdomen [A 01. 047] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System [A 02] Back [A 01. 176] 3. [C] Digestive System [A 03] Breast [A 01. 236] 4. [D] Respiratory System [A 04] Extremities [A 01. 378] 5. [E] Urogenital System [A 05] Head [A 01. 456] 6. [F] …… Neck [A 01. 598] 7. [G] …. 8. Physical Sciences [H] Electronics Amplifiers 9. [I] Astronomy Electronics, Medical 10. [J] Nature Transducers 11. [K] Time 12. [L] Weights and Measures 13. [M] …. M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] Abdomen [A 01. 047] Hierarchical Faceted Metadata 1. Anatomy [A] Body Regions [A 01] Abdomen [A 01. 047] 2. [B] Musculoskeletal System [A 02] Back [A 01. 176] 3. [C] Digestive System [A 03] Breast [A 01. 236] 4. [D] Respiratory System [A 04] Extremities [A 01. 378] 5. [E] Urogenital System [A 05] Head [A 01. 456] 6. [F] …… Neck [A 01. 598] 7. [G] …. 8. Physical Sciences [H] Electronics Amplifiers 9. [I] Astronomy Electronics, Medical 10. [J] Nature Transducers 11. [K] Time 12. [L] Weights and Measures Calibration 13. [M] …. Metric System Reference Standard M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

The Interface Design • Chess metaphor – Opening – Middle game – End game The Interface Design • Chess metaphor – Opening – Middle game – End game M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

The Interface Design • Tightly Integrated Search • Supports Expand as well as Refine The Interface Design • Tightly Integrated Search • Supports Expand as well as Refine • Dynamically Generated Pages – Paths can be taken in any order – Links are idempotent • Consistent Color Coding • Consistent Backup and Bookmarking • Standard HTML – No javascript M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

What is Tricky About This? • It is easy to do it poorly – What is Tricky About This? • It is easy to do it poorly – Yahoo directory structure • It is hard to be not overwhelming – Most users prefer simplicity unless complexity really makes a difference • It is hard to “make it flow” – Can it feel like “browsing the shelves”? – Yes, but we iterated the design 3 times M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Usability Study • Participants & Collection – 32 Art History Students – ~35, 000 Usability Study • Participants & Collection – 32 Art History Students – ~35, 000 images from SF Fine Arts Museum • Study Design – Within-subjects • Each participant sees both interfaces • Balanced in terms of order and tasks – Participants assess each interface after use – Afterwards they compare them directly • Data recorded in behavior logs, server logs, papersurveys; one or two experienced testers at each trial. • Used 9 point Likert scales. • Session took about 1. 5 hours; pay was $15/hour M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

The Baseline System • Floogle • Take the best of the existing keywordbased image The Baseline System • Floogle • Take the best of the existing keywordbased image search systems M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

sword M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search sword M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Hypotheses • We attempted to design tasks to test the following hypotheses: – Participants Hypotheses • We attempted to design tasks to test the following hypotheses: – Participants will experience greater search satisfaction, feel greater confidence in the results, produce higher recall, and encounter fewer dead ends using FC over Baseline – FC will perceived to be more useful and flexible than Baseline – Participants will feel more familiar with the contents of the collection after using FC – Participants will use FC to create multi-faceted queries M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Four Types of Tasks – Unstructured (3): Search for images of interest – Structured Four Types of Tasks – Unstructured (3): Search for images of interest – Structured Task (11 -14): Gather materials for an art history essay on a given topic, e. g. • Find all woodcuts created in the US • Choose the decade with the most • Select one of the artists in this periods and show all of their woodcuts • Choose a subject depicted in these works and find another artist who treated the same subject in a different way. – Structured Task (10): compare related images • Find images by artists from 2 different countries that depict conflict between groups. – Unstructured (5): search for images of interest M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Other Points • Participants were NOT walked through the interfaces. • The wording of Other Points • Participants were NOT walked through the interfaces. • The wording of Task 2 reflected the metadata; not the case for Task 3 • Within tasks, queries were not different in difficulty (t’s<1. 7, p >0. 05 according to post-task questions) • Flamenco is and order of magnitude slower than Floogle on average. – In task 2 users were allowed 3 more minutes in FC than in Baseline. – Time spent in tasks 2 and 3 were significantly longer in FC (about 2 min more). M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Post-Interface Assessments M. Hearst All significant at p<. 05 except simple and overwhelming Faceted Post-Interface Assessments M. Hearst All significant at p<. 05 except simple and overwhelming Faceted Metadata in Search

Post-Test Comparison Which Interface Preferable For: Baseline FC Find images of roses Find all Post-Test Comparison Which Interface Preferable For: Baseline FC Find images of roses Find all works from a given period 15 16 2 30 Find pictures by 2 artists in same media 1 29 4 28 8 23 6 24 28 3 1 31 2 29 M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Post-Test Comparison Which Interface Preferable For: Baseline FC Find images of roses Find all Post-Test Comparison Which Interface Preferable For: Baseline FC Find images of roses Find all works from a given period 15 16 2 30 Find pictures by 2 artists in same media 1 29 4 28 8 23 6 24 28 3 1 31 2 29 Overall Assessment: More useful for your tasks Easiest to use Most flexible More likely to result in dead ends Helped you learn more Overall preference M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Study Results Summary • Strongly positive results for the faceted metadata interface. • Moderate Study Results Summary • Strongly positive results for the faceted metadata interface. • Moderate use of multiple facets. • Strong preference over the current state of the art. – Chair of Architecture Dept: “It felt like I was browsing the shelves!” – This kind of enthusiasm is not seen in similaritybased image search interfaces. • Hypotheses are supported. M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Study Summary • Usability studies done on 3 collections: – Recipes: 13, 000 items Study Summary • Usability studies done on 3 collections: – Recipes: 13, 000 items – Architecture Images: 40, 000 items – Fine Arts Images: 35, 000 items • Conclusions: – Users like and are successful with the dynamic faceted hierarchical metadata, especially for browsing tasks – Very positive results, in contrast with studies on earlier iterations – Note: it seems you have to care about the contents of the collection to like the interface M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Advantages of the Approach • Supports different search types – Highly constrained known-item searches Advantages of the Approach • Supports different search types – Highly constrained known-item searches – Open-ended, browsing tasks – Can easily switch from one mode to the other midstream – Can both expand refine • Allows different people to add content without breaking things • Can make use of standard technology M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Metadata Availability • Many collections already have rich metadata associated with them. • Automated Metadata Availability • Many collections already have rich metadata associated with them. • Automated methods are improving. • Have applied this to: – Tobacco documents archive – MEDLINE M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search

Back to the Hypothesis • This kind of tool may be helpful for resolving Back to the Hypothesis • This kind of tool may be helpful for resolving metadata creation wars. – Multiple paths to get to the same item – Different views on different subsets of items – No need to force everything into one hierarchy • What do you think? M. Hearst Faceted Metadata in Search