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Consumption and market developments – global or local perspectives? March 2009 Events in Globalising Consumption and market developments – global or local perspectives? March 2009 Events in Globalising World 2008 -09 David Litteljohn 1

Aims and structure • To set a background for discussions about the global and Aims and structure • To set a background for discussions about the global and the local for cities and globalisation, in particular Ritzer • To consider cities as places for consumption in relation to debates on globalisation 2

Main references • • • Ko de Ruytera, Marcel van Birgelena and Martin Wetzels, Main references • • • Ko de Ruytera, Marcel van Birgelena and Martin Wetzels, 1998, Consumer ethnocentrism in international services marketing, International Business Review, Volume 7, Issue 2, April 1998, Pages 185 -202 Djursaa, Malene and Kragh, Simon Ulrik (1998) Central and Peripheral Consumption Contexts: The Uneven Globalization of Consumer Behaviour, International Business Review, special issue (ed. J. -C. Usunier) on Culture and International Business, Vol. 7, pp 23 -38. Ritzer, http: //proquest. umi. com/pqdweb? RQT=512&query. Syntax=PQ&search. Interface=1&TS=1204891871&more. Opt. State=CLOSED& client. Id=6297&h_pub_title=&h_pub_title 1=&h_pub_title 2=&h_pub_title 3=&h_pub_title 4=&h_pub_title 5=&h_pub_title 6=&h_ pub_title 7=&h_pmid 1=&h_pmid 2=&h_pmid 3=&h_pmid 4=&h_pmid 5=&h_pmid 6=&h_pmid 7=&SQ=Ritzer&FO=AU& OP 1=AND&SQ 1=globalization&FO 1=CITABS&OP 2=AND&SQ 2=something&FO 2=CITABS&OP 3=AND&SQ 3=&FO 3=CITABS&OP 4=A ND&SQ 4=&FO 4=CITABS&OP 5=AND&SQ 5=&FO 5=CITABS&OP 6=AND&SQ 6=&FO 6=CITABS&DBId=1&date=ALL&on. Date=&before. Date=&after. Date=&from. Date=&to. Date=&Peer. Reviewd=1&Oppubtitle=AND&pubtitle=&Opsubje ct=AND&subject=&Opcompany=AND&company=&Opname=AND&name=&Opgeo=AND&geo=&Opcc=AND&cc=&Opsic=AND&s ic=&Op. SF=AND&SF=any&Op. AT=AND&AT=any&rev. Type=review&rev. Pos=all&STYPE=all&sortby=REVERSE_CHRON&Page. Size=1 0 3

Refs - continued • Fainstein, S. S. and Judd, D. R. , (1999) Refs - continued • Fainstein, S. S. and Judd, D. R. , (1999) "Cities as places to play" from Judd, D. R. and Fainstein, S. S. (eds. ), The tourist city pp. 261 -264, 266 -272, New Haven, : Yale University Press. http: //www. gcal. ac. uk/library/digitisation_archive/08_09/ML LSM 04/MLLSM 04_64816. pdf • Mind Maps on Economics and Culture from: – Short, John Rennie and Kim, Yeong-Hyun, 1999, Globalization and the City, Pearson/Prentice Hall 4

Simple limits to globalisation of consumption • Both models emphasise cultural inhibitors to homogenisation Simple limits to globalisation of consumption • Both models emphasise cultural inhibitors to homogenisation form a business perspective • de Ruytera, van Birgelena and Wetzels – Consumer ethnocentrism • Djursaa and Kragh – Cultural ties in relation to the nature of object 5

Ruyter et al, 1998 Consumer Ethnocentrism Antecedents -Openness to F. Cs --Patriotism --Conservatism --Collectivism/ Ruyter et al, 1998 Consumer Ethnocentrism Antecedents -Openness to F. Cs --Patriotism --Conservatism --Collectivism/ Individualism Consumer Ethnocentric Tendencies Attitudes Toward Using Foreign Services Demographics Moderating Factors -Age -gender -Education -Income Professional Sector -Perceived necessity of the Service -Economic Threat (ET) -Personal ET -Domestic ET 6

Djursaa & Kragh, 1998: Contexts of Consumption Food Clothing Consumer Durables Industrial Components 7 Djursaa & Kragh, 1998: Contexts of Consumption Food Clothing Consumer Durables Industrial Components 7

Ritzer’s approach • Commentary on globalisation in general • Looks at production and consumption, Ritzer’s approach • Commentary on globalisation in general • Looks at production and consumption, often in visitor settings • Is highly subjective • Contributes towards an agenda on the nature of globalisation 8

Ritzer, 2003 - looks at meanings • Globalisation = homogenisation of cultures • Nothing Ritzer, 2003 - looks at meanings • Globalisation = homogenisation of cultures • Nothing - a social form … devoid of of distinctive substantive content • Something - a social form … rich in substantive content Market Square from Digital Past Horton Plaza in 2001 Mission Valley Shopping Center 1961, from SDHS http: //history. sandiego. edu/gen/soc/shoppingcenter. html#03 9

Ritzer • Glocaliszation – The interpretation of the local and the global in unique Ritzer • Glocaliszation – The interpretation of the local and the global in unique outcomes in different geographic areas • Grobalization – The imperialistic ambitions of nations, corporations, organizations and the like, and their desire and need to impose themselves on various geographic areas 10

Ritzer • “Grobalization involves. . The mass distribution of a minimalist phenomenon. . [easy Ritzer • “Grobalization involves. . The mass distribution of a minimalist phenomenon. . [easy to] centrally create, reproduce and disseminate. . ” 11

Ritzer • Glocal goods. . Are an idiosyncratic and spontaneous mix of the global Ritzer • Glocal goods. . Are an idiosyncratic and spontaneous mix of the global and the local … By their nature …[they] are produced and marketed in limited geographic areas and in small batches http: //www. btinternet. com/~grow. communities/farmers-market. htm 12

Ritzer ? ? 13 Ritzer ? ? 13

As it continues …… Cities & Globalisation • Cities are important players in globalisation As it continues …… Cities & Globalisation • Cities are important players in globalisation - need to understand them for events – Mind map 1 - Globalisation and Cities - economics – Mind map 2 - Globalisation and Cities - culture Ref: Short, John Rennie and Kim, Yeong-Hyun, 1999, Globalization and the City, Pearson/Prentice Hall Hong Kong, 2007 14

City Examples In the UK • London • Edinburgh • Glasgow And of course City Examples In the UK • London • Edinburgh • Glasgow And of course • Singapore 15