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Constructivism Martin Valcke Martin. Valcke@UGent. be http: //users. ugent. be/~mvalcke/CV/CVMVA. htm Constructivism Martin Valcke Martin. Valcke@UGent. be http: //users. ugent. be/~mvalcke/CV/CVMVA. htm

Structure • • Activity 1: Successful learning Jonassen & constructivism Activity 2: Collaborative learning Structure • • Activity 1: Successful learning Jonassen & constructivism Activity 2: Collaborative learning prep Scripting Activity 3: application of scripting Activity 4: Assessment prep Rubrics Activity 5: application rubrics

Activity 1 • Describe your most successful teaching & learning experience • Cluster keywords Activity 1 • Describe your most successful teaching & learning experience • Cluster keywords on flipover

Constructivism: Jonassen (1994) Constructivism: Jonassen (1994)

Constructivism: Jonassen (1994) • • Active/manipulative Constructive Intentional Complex Contextualized Reflective Conversational Collaborative Constructivism: Jonassen (1994) • • Active/manipulative Constructive Intentional Complex Contextualized Reflective Conversational Collaborative

Manipulative Manipulative

Constructive Constructive

Intentional Intentional

Complex http: //neurosurgery. ucla. edu/body. cfm? id=774 Complex http: //neurosurgery. ucla. edu/body. cfm? id=774

Contextualized Contextualized

Reflective Reflective

Conversational Conversational

Collaborative Collaborative

Collaborative work • Activity 2: positive and negative experiences with group work • Structure: Collaborative work • Activity 2: positive and negative experiences with group work • Structure: learner, group, task related

Collaborative learning: conditions Slavin (1996) Johnson & Johnson (1996) 15 Collaborative learning: conditions Slavin (1996) Johnson & Johnson (1996) 15

Need for « scripting » • Collaboration does not lead automatically to high quality Need for « scripting » • Collaboration does not lead automatically to high quality learning. • There is a need guidance and support (…) that is comparable to the need of classroom support (Lazonder, Wilhelm, & Ootes, 2003). • Example: CSCL (chat, discussion board, discussion groups, wikis, …) 16

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CSCL: scripting • Scripting ~ adding structure to the task: – adding specific goals CSCL: scripting • Scripting ~ adding structure to the task: – adding specific goals for the learners, classifying task types, adding task prescriptions, or pre-structuring the task. • Scripting effective to improve collaboration (Pfister & Mühlpfordt, 2002). 20

Example scripting: roles • • Pharmacy education 5 th year students 5 months internship Example scripting: roles • • Pharmacy education 5 th year students 5 months internship Lack of integrated pharmaceutical knowledge (see Timmers, Valcke, De Mil & Baeyens, 2008) 21

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CSCL scripting: roles • Content roles: – – – Pharmacyst assistant Theorist Researcher Intern CSCL scripting: roles • Content roles: – – – Pharmacyst assistant Theorist Researcher Intern • Communication roles: – – Moderator Question-asker Summarizer Source researcher 23

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Exchange 25 Exchange 25

ICS Integrated Curriculum Score 26 ICS Integrated Curriculum Score 26

LKC Level knowledge Construction 27 LKC Level knowledge Construction 27

CSCL scripting: tagging 28 CSCL scripting: tagging 28

CSCL scripting: tagging • Aims of tagging: –obliges students to reflect on nature of CSCL scripting: tagging • Aims of tagging: –obliges students to reflect on nature of contribution –taggs improve outline of discussion and indicate predominance or absence thinking type • Example: De Bono’s (1991) thinking hats to develop critical thinking 29

CSCL scripting: tagging • Garrison (1992) identifies five stages of critical thinking: – Problem CSCL scripting: tagging • Garrison (1992) identifies five stages of critical thinking: – Problem identification – Problem definition – Problem exploration – Problem evaluation/ applicability – Problem integration 30

De Bono’s (1991) thinking hats Critical Thinking hats Problem identification White hat Problem definition De Bono’s (1991) thinking hats Critical Thinking hats Problem identification White hat Problem definition Blue hat Problem exploration Green hat Problem applicability Black hat Problem integration Yellow hat Red hat 31

CSCL scripting: tagging • 3 th-year university students • ‘Instructional Strategies’ (N=35) • 6 CSCL scripting: tagging • 3 th-year university students • ‘Instructional Strategies’ (N=35) • 6 groups of 6 team members Experimental condition Control condition 4 groups 23 students 2 groups 12 students Tag posts by a thinking hat 32 No tags to posts required

CSCL scripting: tagging • Evidence for critical thinking in both conditions • Significant deeper CSCL scripting: tagging • Evidence for critical thinking in both conditions • Significant deeper critical thinking in experimental condition (F(1, 416)=364. 544; p<. 001) 33

Tagging • Experimental condition – more focused discussions (F(1, 415)=1550. 510; p<. 001) – Tagging • Experimental condition – more focused discussions (F(1, 415)=1550. 510; p<. 001) – more new info and ideas (F(1, 352)=21. 955; p<. 001) – more linking facts ideas (F(1, 31)=3. 024; p<. 092) 34

Activity 3 • Develop “role” or “script” that could guide collaborative work in the Activity 3 • Develop “role” or “script” that could guide collaborative work in the collaborative execution of a medical task/activity

Activity 4 • Prep work: How do assessors come to a reliable and valid Activity 4 • Prep work: How do assessors come to a reliable and valid assessment of student work? • How does teaching staff they come to adequate decisions about mastery of student competences?

http: //rubistar. 4 teachers. org/ http: //rubistar. 4 teachers. org/

Activity 5 • Pairwise development of a rbric (criteria and indicators) to assess a Activity 5 • Pairwise development of a rbric (criteria and indicators) to assess a critical medical skill: – Communicating bad news to family and patient – Referral to a specialist –… • All pairs develop a rubric for the same complex skill.

Constructivism Martin Valcke Martin. Valcke@UGent. be http: //users. ugent. be/~mvalcke/CV/CVMVA. htm Constructivism Martin Valcke Martin. Valcke@UGent. be http: //users. ugent. be/~mvalcke/CV/CVMVA. htm