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Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Solar System Exploration UNI EN ISO Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Solar System Exploration UNI EN ISO 9001: 2008 http: //www. corista. eu

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. is Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. is a non-profit consortium. It is formed by one of the major European aerospace industries, Thales Alenia Space Italia and by the Second University of Naples Areas of technical expertise within remote sensing activity: definition and simulation of innovative airborne sensors and of prototypes of satellite subsystems development of satellite data processing algorithms. It deals with the design, prototype development and application of advanced sensors for remote sensing conceived to be installed on the ground, in the air and in space (ground devices, balloons, aircraft, helicopters and satellites). It conducts research and prototype development in the field of remote sensing systems, also including aspects of their control in operation and processing of data.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Solar System Exploration Mars and the Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Solar System Exploration Mars and the search for water: v v MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) SHARAD (SHAllow RADar) The European Space Agency and NASA have designed two missions to investigate the presence of past and present water on the surface of Mars, in its subsoil and in its atmosphere: • Mars Express mission • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Mars Express and MARSIS radar (Mars Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Mars Express and MARSIS radar (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) Mars Express is the first mission of the European Space Agency directed to another planet in the Solar System. Launch: 02 -Jun-2003 17: 45 UT Mission end: 31 December 2014 (extended mission) Launch vehicle: Soyuz-Fregat Launch mass: 1223 kg Mission phase: Operational Mars Express is equipped with seven instruments for remote sensing observation of Mars atmosphere, surface and subsoil, among them MARSIS radar MARSIS is an unique type of low-frequency (1. 3 -5. 5 MHz) ground penetrating radar. It can operate as a Subsurface Sounder at an altitude below 800 km (from the surface of Mars) and as a Ionosphere Sounder at an altitude below 1200 km (from the surface of Mars). MARSIS, with its 40 m antenna, has the task to sound Mars surface down to about 5 kilometers (3 miles) below. MARSIS project, in the responsibility of the Italian Space Agency, has been developed by Thales Alenia Space Italia in collaboration with NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory and it has an Italian Principal Investigator of the University of Rome "La Sapienza".

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. programs: Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. programs: • MARSIS (Mars Advanced Radar for Subsurface and Ionosphere Sounding) Phase E (2004/2006) : Planning Tool, Commanding Tool, Quick Look Tool, Level 2 Tool, Geographic Visualization Tool implementation • Continuation of the research activities of MARSIS radar - Phase E (2007) CO. RI. S. T. A. has been responsible for the activities concerning MARSIS Ground Segment, the element of the project devoted to the instrument control and monitoring, able to receive and process on the earth the scientific data sent by the radar onboard the orbiter. In particular : • Long Term PLANNING Tool - to be used in the Long Term Planning, to compute six months long instrument orbit timelines; • COMMANDING Tool - a tool to perform a detailed Short-Term Planning and to generate all the necessary commanding parameters; • Science Data QUICK LOOK Tool - This is an operational Tool to be used for a quick evaluation of the performances of the instrument after Science Data De-Formatting; • Science Data LEVEL 2 Tool - This tool has been added to satisfy the general planning requirements of the Scientific Community and to allow crosscorrelation between the observation activity of MARSIS and that of other instruments, also belonging to different missions.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission SHARAD Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati NASA Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter mission SHARAD – SHAllow RADar Launch - Aug. 12, 2005 Cape Canaveral Florida Cruise - Aug. 2005 - March 2006 Voyage through space to Mars Arrival - March 10, 2006 Extended Mission 2 - Oct. 2014 (in progress) SHARAD is designed to fulfill the tasks aimed at NASA's strategy "Follow the water“, in fact it has the potential to detect its presence in the subsurface of Mars to a depth of about one kilometer with a high resolution While other missions have demonstrated the evidence of past presence of water on the red planet surface, Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter has the task of determining how long the water remained on it and whether it has been able to create a habitat for some form of life SHARAD is a radar sounder, designed and funded by the Italian Space Agency, to explore the underground and the surface of Mars.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. Programs: Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. Programs: • • • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter Payload SHARAD (2002) Mars Echo Generator System (2002/2005) SHARAD MEGS (2004/2005) SHARAD - Phase E SHARAD Ground Data System (GDS) S/W Tools Design and Development (2005/2007) SHARAD scientific activities on MRO (2009/2013) In the first three programs CO. RI. S. T. A. has had a part in the definition and implementation of the requirements of the EGSE (Electrical Ground Support Equipment). In particular, in the implementation and validation of Mars Echoes Generation System (MEGS), which allows to simulate the echoes of the radar as received by Mars surface. Moreover, it collaborated with Thales Alenia Space Italia for the determination of the radar system definitions and performances, and to the data processing.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati SHARAD - Phase E SHARAD Ground Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati SHARAD - Phase E SHARAD Ground Data System (GDS) S/W Tools Design and Development The Ground Data System, which controls SHARAD radar, has three main functions: • planning and commanding, aimed at instrument operability definition (Planning Tool and Commanding Tool); • instrument checking, to verify the instrument engineering functionality (Monitoring Tool), and the instrument performances (Quick Look Tool); • data processing, to allow the scientific community a correct and uniform data interpretation in an unique standard format (Deformatting /Level 1 A Tool), and, subsequently, to carry out the processing and formatting of the Level 1 A data in successive products (Level 1 B/Level 2 Tool). In this project CO. RI. S. T. A. has been responsible for the implementation of specific tools, operative instruments of the Ground Data System, devoted to SHARAD data processing and to the estimate of the radar performances. In particular CO. RI. S. T. A. has been in charge of the development of the following tools: • Science Data Processing/ Level 1 B Tool • Science Data Quick Look Tool • Science Data Processing/ Level 2 Tool (optional)

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati SHARAD scientific activities on MRO (2009/2013) Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati SHARAD scientific activities on MRO (2009/2013) CO. RI. S. T. A. has participated in the activities on behalf of INFOCOM, Department of Information and Communication Science and Technique, of the University of Rome "La Sapienza", which has been team leader of the project CO. RI. S. T. A. had the responsibility for the development of "Operations Management" and "Mission Operations" activities, moreover it has been Deputy Team Leader with regard to SHARAD scientific activity. This graphic composition explains the use of SHARAD radar on NASA's Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter for the mapping of the subsurface soil layers at the north pole of Mar planet. (Image credit: NASA/JPLCaltech/University of Rome/Southwest Research Institute/University of Arizona)

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Saturn and its moon Titan: v. Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Saturn and its moon Titan: v. Cassini Radar • Study of the Moon; • use of the Moon as a platform for Universe observation; • use of the Moon for Earth observation. v. Italian Vision for Moon Exploration

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Cassini-Huygens mission and its radar Cassini Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Cassini-Huygens mission and its radar Cassini - Huygens is the first mission planned to explore Saturn system of moons and rings from a spacecraft in its orbit. It is an international collaboration between three space agencies with the contribute of seventeen nations. NASA Jet Propulsion Laboratory has realized and managed Cassini orbiter, the European Space Agency the Huygens probe Both the orbiter and the probe are equipped with a great deal of sophisticated instruments, 12 on Cassini and 6 on the Huygens probe. They are optical and microwave instruments able to work from a great distance: cameras, spectrometers, radar and radio. Launch: 15 October 1997 (Titan-IVB/Centaur at Cape Canaveral, United States) Earth-Saturn distance at arrival: 1. 5 billion km (934 million mi) (10 times Earth to Sun distance) Distance traveled to reach Saturn: 3. 5 billion km (2. 2 billion mi) Saturn arrival date: June 30, 2004 PDT(July 1, 2004, UTC) Mission: Cassini Solstice Mission up to 2017

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. : Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. : Cassini Radar - Processing Altimetric Data (PAD) (2005/2006) The scientific objectives of the Cassini RADAR involve the study of one of the 34 moons of Saturn, Titan, its largest moon. Bigger then the planets Mercury and Pluto, Titan is of great interest for scientists as it is the only moon in our solar system with its own atmosphere and like Earth's before life developed. CASSINI RADAR Scientific Objectives: • to determine whether oceans exist on Titan, and, if so, to determine their distribution; • to investigate the geologic features and topography of the solid surface of Titan; • to acquire data on non-Titan targets (rings, icy satellites) as conditions permit.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CASSINI RADAR can operate as: • Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CASSINI RADAR can operate as: • Synthetic Aperture Radar Imager [SAR] (13. 78 GHz Kuband; 0. 35 to 1. 7 km resolution) • Altimeter (13. 78 GHz Ku-band; 24 to 27 km horizontal, 90 to 150 m vertical resolution) • Radiometer (13. 78 GHz passive Ku-band; 7 to 310 km resolution) The Cassini PAD System (Altimetric Processing of Data) has been designed, developed and tested by CO. RI. STA and Thales Alenia Space, under ASI contract, in order to support the scientific data analysis of the radar onboard the Cassini orbiter. The main purpose of the system is the processing of the data acquired by the Radar in Altimeter mode.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Preliminary studies and projects on theme Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Preliminary studies and projects on theme "Italian Vision for Moon Exploration" CO. RI. S. T. A. research activities in the Electro-optical Sector (2007) CO. RI. S. T. A. research activities in the Microwave Sector (2006/2007) The Italian Space Agency has focused its attention on three principal subjects: • study of the Moon; • use of the Moon as a platform for Universe observation; • use of the Moon for Earth observation. The Moon, for its closeness to the Earth As the Moon surface has remained almost unchanged since about three billions years, this could allow to obtain new information on the Earth and the other rocky planets of the inner Solar System, about their formation and evolution. allows us to study the phenomena occurred following the big collisions in the first phases of the history of this part of the Solar System.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. participated Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. participated in the research activities, both in electro-optical and in microwave sector In the electro-optical sector CO. RI. S. T. A. took part in the team leaded by Galileo Avionica in relation to the following technical specifications of the Italian Space Agency: • study of electro-optical P//L for the lunar surface remote sensing • study of In Situ Sensing As for the first topic, the subject in CO. RI. S. T. A. responsibility has been "Analysis of the electromagnetic scenario“ while for the second topic, within the "Analysis of the electromagnetic scenario", the subjects have been "Active Instruments" and "Lidar Altimeters". In microwave sector CO. RI. S. T. A. participated, in Thales Alenia Space team, for “Remote Sensing Study of the Moon and from the Moon by microwaves”

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati "SABRINA-Large-Baseline Bistatic Algorithms" (2007/2008) It is a small only receiving satellite flying in formation with the satellites of COSMO/Sky. Med SAR mission. COSMO/Sky. Med is a constellation of satellites equipped with SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) and electro-optical sensors for the satellite observation of the Earth, according to the European Union strategies and aiming at disaster management, coastal and environment monitoring. SABRINA mission deals with the experimentation of algorithms relating to new applications by exploiting monostatic and bistatic data reflected by common covered areas or targets. CO. RI. S. T. A. has participated in the project in Thales Alenia Space Italia team for the definition of the products and their requirements.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Planetary Radar Operation Center - PROC Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Planetary Radar Operation Center - PROC (2008/2012) The Italian Space Agency has designed and realized three radars in a joint venture NASA / ESA / ASI in the context of three major space missions: • Mars Express - MARSIS • Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter - SHARAD • Cassini-Huygens - Cassini CO. RI. S. T. A. has participated in PROC project within the team of Thales Alenia Space Italia For each of these three radars the Italian Space Agency has realized an operative centre for their control, management, data processing and distribution. The Planetary Radar Processing Center (PROC) has been thought to unify these centres, to enable them to: continue to operate as before, but, at the same time, to strengthen their capacity in terms of trade and exploitation of data, ability to interpret and compare. For SHARAD and MARSIS, CO. RI. S. T. A. has had the responsibility of updating and improving the performances and the capability of the instruments For Cassini radar CO. RI. S. T. A. has developed a new tool dedicated to the processing of the radar data which has been integrated into the CASSINI PAD (Processing Altimetric Date).

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Exo. Mars RDA EGSE Echo Simulator Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Exo. Mars RDA EGSE Echo Simulator System (ESS) (Beginning activities 2012) Exo. Mars - RDA EGSE Echo Generator (Beginning activities 2010) Exo. Mars-RME-ATE (2012/2013) Exo. Mars is the first mission of ESA Aurora Exploration Programme. The European Space Agency has organized the Exo. Mars programme whose aim is the preliminary study of the Martian environment using the most advanced technologies. In the Exo. Mars Programme have been scheduled two missions in co-operation with the Russian Federal Space Agency Roscosmos. The one, to be implemented in 2016, which involves the launch of an Trace Gas Orbiter (TGO) and an Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module, the other, to be implemented in 2018, includes a rover which will carry a drill and a suite of instruments dedicated to exobiology and geochemistry research. Roscosmos will provide a Proton launcher for both missions. The mission to which these projects refer to, is the one of 2016.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati The EDM module, covered with a Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati The EDM module, covered with a special material that will protect it termically, will be equipped with technology capable of controlling the orientation and landing speed. Exo. Mars Trace Gas Orbiter and Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module Indeed the module will slow down its run by means of a parachute which will open after entering the Martian atmosphere and will complete its descent by means of a closecircuit Guide, Navigation and Control system based on a Radar Doppler Altimeter and Inertial Measurement Units. Copyright: ESA The Radar Doppler Altimeter is being realized by Thales Alenia Space Italia.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. is Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati CO. RI. S. T. A. is involved in the test activities of the EXOMARS Radar Doppler Altimeter (RDA). In particular it is responsible for the design, development and test of the two Echo Simulator Systems (ESS 1 and ESS 2) and it will provide two ATE (Automatic Test Equipment) units. The two Echo Simulator Systems will be integrated in the radar Electrical Ground Support Equipment (EGSE) and CO. RI. S. T. A. will support the integration phase into the EGSE of Thales Alenia Space Milano, as for the ESS 1, and into the GNC SCOE of Thales Alenia Space Torino, as for the ESS 2. Exo. Mars 2016 Mission - Trace Gas Orbiter and Entry, Descent and Landing Demonstrator Module. Credit: ESA-AOES Medialab CO. RI. S. T. A. is also responsible for the design and development of the "core" of the test system of the instrument, that is the Echo Generator, which allows to simulate the echoes coming from Mars surface and to inject them into the radar to test the instrument in various operating conditions.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Development of a simulation tool of Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Development of a simulation tool of SAR raw data for the SAOCOM project: RADASIM In the frame of the National Space Plan, the Argentine Space Agency CONAE is developing a system of Earth observation, dedicated to the use of remote sensing data for optimization of socio-economic and scientific studies. This project involves the launching of two constellations, SAOCOM 1 and SAOCOM 2, each of which is itself composed of two satellites. This project responds to CONAE need for "the development of a simulation tool of SAR raw data for the SAOCOM Project (Satellites for Observation and Communications) " able to generate SAOCOM simulated raw data based on observed scenarios definitions, and asks for the delivery of predefined raw data sets. CORISTA has proposed a software tool (RADASIM) to fulfill CONAE request for raw data SAR simulation. The simulation tool will be used to validate SAOCOM processing chain and to integrate it on the overall payload CAL/VAL facilities. RADASIM development goes through three main steps: • • • input definition and processing: is conceived to manipulate input data to extract information and parameters necessary to accomplish simulation tasks; Simulator core: is the core of simulation. It processes incoming data by means of assessed algorithms and returns simulated data; output data formatting: is conceived to format output data compliant to SAOCOM flight to ground segment interface. Main activities are: • • Requirements definition Core processing prototype & development Algorithm assessment Integration & coding Auxiliary Software implementation for test & coding SW test Support & training to simulator operation

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Exo. Mars- RDA EM Field Test Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati Exo. Mars- RDA EM Field Test Campaign ( Inizio attività 2014) As part of the verification activities developed to test the performances of Exo. Mars Radar Doppler Altimeter, the Field Test is an important step aimed at testing the instrument on the field during a flight path with environmental conditions similar to those of Mars. The test will be carried out in Morocco in the Merzane south of Erfoud, whose characteristics make it similar to the landing site of the Exo. Mars mission. The system used for this experimentation campaign will make use of a helicopter under which the RDA will be mounted together with a system of data acquisition and of measurement of position and aligment. CORISTA is responsible for the conduction of the field tests and the processing of the acquired data. The results of the data processing, with particular reference to the estimation of the backscattering from terrestrial analogues, will be used later in the laboratory by the ESS (Echo Simulator Systems). Exo. Mars Rover Copyright: ESA The activities of Field Test will be carried out on behalf of Thales Alenia Space Italy in collaboration with the 'IRSPS International Research School of Planetary Sciences, which will handle the logistics and the test site.

Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati For more information visit our website Consorzio di Ricerca su Sistemi di Telesensori Avanzati For more information visit our website www. corista. eu Images: Credit ESA and NASA