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Congress Theories of Representation Congress Theories of Representation

Redistricting l l Reapportionment vs. Redistricting Gerrymandering – – Political gerrymandering – favoring the Redistricting l l Reapportionment vs. Redistricting Gerrymandering – – Political gerrymandering – favoring the party in power in the state legislature Racial gerrymandering – efforts to increase or limit the influence of racial minorities

Racial Gerrymandering l “Cracking” – l Drawing district lines so that the minority racial Racial Gerrymandering l “Cracking” – l Drawing district lines so that the minority racial group is diffuse, spread out over many districts, so they have no influence in any one district “Packing” – Drawing district lines to that the minority racial group is concentrated into one or two districts, with no influence in any of the others

Redistricting: A Modern Gerrymander Redistricting: A Modern Gerrymander

History of North Carolina’s 12 th Congressional District History of North Carolina’s 12 th Congressional District

Congressional Organization: The Two Chambers of Our Bicameral Legislature l The House of Representatives Congressional Organization: The Two Chambers of Our Bicameral Legislature l The House of Representatives (“The House”) – – – l 435 members 2 -year terms Members represent a distinct geographic district D. C. , American Samoa, Guam, and U. S. Virgin Islands (delegates) Puerto Rico (Resident Commissioner – 4 yrs) Northern Mariana Islands – nothing! Senate – – – 100 members 6 -year terms Members represent entire state (2 per)

Who Represents Us? l House – – l UNT is in the 26 th Who Represents Us? l House – – l UNT is in the 26 th Congressional District for Texas Michael Burgess, R Senate – Kay Bailey Hutchison, R (1993 - ? ) l – Reelected in 2006 John Cornyn, R (2002 - ? ) l Up for election in 2008

Marking Time in Congress l l l A “Congress” is a two-year period Consists Marking Time in Congress l l l A “Congress” is a two-year period Consists of two sessions (each one year) Right now, 110 th Congress, 1 st Session

Herding Cats l l l “Congress” = 535 elected officials + thousands of staff Herding Cats l l l “Congress” = 535 elected officials + thousands of staff members How do they get anything done? Structure: – – Party Structure / Leadership Committee Structure

Party Leadership in the House l l Selected by the House Conference (Reps) and Party Leadership in the House l l Selected by the House Conference (Reps) and Caucus (Dems) – all House members of that party Majority Party (Democrats) – – – l Speaker of the House – Nancy Pelosi, CA Majority Leader – Steny Hoyer, MD Majority Whip – James Clyburn, SC Minority Party – – Minority Leader – John Boehner, OH Minority Whip – Roy Blunt, MO

Party Leadership in the House l l Selected by the House Conference (Reps) and Party Leadership in the House l l Selected by the House Conference (Reps) and Caucus (Dems) – all House members of that party Majority Party (Democrats) – – – l Speaker of the House – Nancy Pelosi, CA Majority Leader – Steny Hoyer, MD Majority Whip – James Clyburn, SC Minority Party – – Minority Leader – John Boehner, OH Minority Whip – Roy Blunt, MO

Party Leadership in the Senate l Majority Party (Democrats) – – – l President Party Leadership in the Senate l Majority Party (Democrats) – – – l President Pro Tempore – Robert Byrd, WV Majority Leader – Harry Reid, NV Majority Whip – Dick Durbin, IL Minority Party (Republicans) – – Minority Leader – Mitch Mc. Connell, KY Minority Whip – Trent Lott, MS

Party Leadership in the Senate l Majority Party (Democrats) – – – l President Party Leadership in the Senate l Majority Party (Democrats) – – – l President Pro Tempore – Robert Byrd, WV Majority Leader – Harry Reid, NV Majority Whip – Dick Durbin, IL Minority Party (Republicans) – – Minority Leader – Mitch Mc. Connell, KY Minority Whip – Trent Lott, MS