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Congress of Vienna
The Congress of Vienna (September 1, 1814 – June 9, 1815)
Coin Commemorating the Opening of the Congress of Vienna
Main Objectives e It’s job was to undo everything that Napoléon had done: V Reduce France to its old boundaries her frontiers were pushed back to 1790 level. V Restore as many of the old monarchies as possible that had lost their thrones during the Napoléonic era. e Supported the resolution: There is always an alternative to conflict.
Goal 1 – Containment of France Prevent French aggression by surrounding the country with strong countries. ØCreated the Kingdom of the Netherlands ØCombined 39 German states into the German Confederation (dominated by Austria) ØSwitzerland now independent nation ØKingdom of Sardinia (in Italy) adds Genoa
The Germanic Confederation, 1815
Goal 2 - Balance of Power §Did not severely punish France – might try to seek revenge §Do not break up the country – that could lead to another country becoming too strong §France is a major, but weakened European nation. §No Country Could Easily Overpower Another
Goal 3 – Legitimate Governments Return the monarchs to power in the countries in which Napoleon drove them out. The members of the Congress believed this would stabilize political relations among nations
Compensation and Legitimacy • Compensation – Napoleon’s enemies rewarded with land – Other nations compensated for land taken – Redrew the map of Europe • Legitimacy – – – Restoration of pre-Napoleon rulers House of Bourbon – France, Spain, and the two Sicilies House of Braganza – Portugal House of Orange – Netherlands House of Savoy – Sardinia German princes – territories in the Confederation of the Rhine – Pope and Catholic Church – Papal States
Key Players at Vienna Foreign Minister, Viscount Castlereagh (Br. ) Tsar Alexander I (Rus. ) The “Host” Prince Klemens von Metternich (Aus. ) King Frederick William III (Prus. ) Foreign Minister, Charles Maurice de Tallyrand (Fr. )
Metternich • “The first and greatest concern for the immense majority of every nation is the stability of laws – never their change. ”
Of course, there were hundreds of other minor princes, dukes, barons, and religious leaders all meeting in Vienna. They went to party after party. During the night they danced with great beauties—but during the day, they negotiated for their separate countries.
Key Principles Established at Vienna V Balance of Power V Legitimacy V Compensation e Coalition forces would occupy France for 3 -5 years. e France would have to pay an indemnity of 700, 000 francs.
Territorial Changes • Austria gained Lombardy, Modena, Parma, Tuscany, and Venetia (all areas in Italy) • England gained Cape Colony, Ceylon, Heligoland, Guiana, and Malta (areas in Africa, the Americas, and Asia) • Holland gained Austrian Netherlands (Belgium) • Prussia gained part of Poland, land along the Rhine River, 40% of Saxony, Swedish Pomerania, and Westphalia • Russia gained Finland part of Poland • Sweden gained Norway
Changes Made at Vienna (2) V V V V V Norway and Sweden were joined. The neutrality of Switzerland was guaranteed. Hanover was enlarged, and made a kingdom. Britain was given Cape Colony, South Africa, and various other colonies in Africa and Asia. Sardinia was given Piedmont, Nice, Savoy, and Genoa. The Bourbon Ferdinand I was restored in the Two Sicilies. The Duchy of Parma was given to Marie Louise. The slave trade was condemned (at British urging). Freedom of navigation was guaranteed for many rivers.
France’s borders were reduced to those of pre-revolutionary France (1789)
Fate of Nationalism • People had no say over territorial changes • Language, nationality, and religion weren’t taken into consideration • Ideas of democracy and self-government were rejected by European leadership
Italy remained a mix of Kingdoms, Republics and the Papal States.
Louis XVIII of France • No more divine right of kings • Charter (Constitution) granted in 1814 • Could not restore feudalism and serfdom • Continuing religious toleration guaranteed
Quadruple and Holy Alliances • Metternich desired to maintain the status quo and make the Vienna treaties permanent • Quadruple Alliance of 1815 – Austria, England, Prussia, and Russia – France joined in 1818 – Pledged to put down democratic or nationalistic revolts • Holy Alliance – Organized by Tsar Alexander I of Russia – Most European monarchs joined – Pledged to govern with charity, justice, and peace • But none of them did so
Results of the Congress of Vienna • Concert of Europe – group of leading nations which periodically met to discuss issues regarding stability • Temporary suppression of democratic and nationalistic ideals • International peace – no general war in Europe until World War I a hundred years later – Crimean War (1854 -1856) – Austro-Prussian War (1866) – Franco-Prussian War (1870 -1871)
Europe After the Congress of Vienna