Скачать презентацию Congress If progress is the advancement of society Скачать презентацию Congress If progress is the advancement of society

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Congress If progress is the advancement of society, what is congress? Congress If progress is the advancement of society, what is congress?

Congress US CAPITOL BUILDING Legislative Branch – “makes laws” Congress US CAPITOL BUILDING Legislative Branch – “makes laws”

Founders’ Intentions 1. Strongest branch 2. Separation of lawmaking power from executive 3. Bicameralism Founders’ Intentions 1. Strongest branch 2. Separation of lawmaking power from executive 3. Bicameralism balances large/small states • House – more connected to people (2 yr term) • Senate – allows for independent thinking (6 yr term)

Important Differences House • 435 members • 2 year term • 7 year citizen Important Differences House • 435 members • 2 year term • 7 year citizen Senate • 100 members • 6 year term • 9 year citizen • Initiate impeachment • Revenue bills • Tries impeachment • Approve presidential appointments • Approve treaties’ • Loose debate rules • Strict debate rules

Constitutional Powers Article I, Section 8 • To lay and collect taxes, duties, imports Constitutional Powers Article I, Section 8 • To lay and collect taxes, duties, imports • To borrow money • To regulate commerce (states and foreign) • To establish rules for naturalization • To coin money • To create courts (except Supreme Court) • To declare war • To raise and support an army and navy

Evolution of Powers Elastic clause has extended Congress powers • Oversight of budget – Evolution of Powers Elastic clause has extended Congress powers • Oversight of budget – can restrict the fed. budget prepared by executive branch • Appropriations – set amount of money made available for various activity in a fiscal year • Investigation – Congress can launch investigations (Watergate, Clinton-Lewinski hearings, Steroids in baseball)

House Leadership SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE MINORITY LEADER MINORITY WHIP MAJORITY LEADER MAJORITY WHIP House Leadership SPEAKER OF THE HOUSE MINORITY LEADER MINORITY WHIP MAJORITY LEADER MAJORITY WHIP

Senate Leadership PRESIDENT of the SENATE (VICE PRESIDENT) PRES. PRO TEMPORE MINORITY LEADER MINORITY Senate Leadership PRESIDENT of the SENATE (VICE PRESIDENT) PRES. PRO TEMPORE MINORITY LEADER MINORITY WHIP MAJORITY LEADER (MOST POWERFUL) MAJORITY WHIP

Leadership • Majority party controls the most significant leadership positions • House - Speaker Leadership • Majority party controls the most significant leadership positions • House - Speaker of the House • • Allows people to speak on floor Assigns bills to committees Influences which bills are brought to a vote Appoints members of special and select committees • Senate – Majority Leader • Schedules Senate business • Prioritizes bills

Elections • House members directly elected • Senators directly elected after 17 th Amend Elections • House members directly elected • Senators directly elected after 17 th Amend • House Incumbent advantage – Why? – Name recognition – Proven track record – Franking privileges – free mailing

Representation • Malapportionment – unequal population in districts – Wesberry v. Sanders (1963) – Representation • Malapportionment – unequal population in districts – Wesberry v. Sanders (1963) – found unequal district pop. unconstitutional – 14 th amend • Gerrymandering – district boundaries are redrawn in strange ways to make it easy for candidate of one party to win – Easley v. Cromartie (2001) – redistricting for political ideology was constitutional, led to increase in minority reps

How A Bill Becomes a Law • Create legislation, make laws • Founders believed How A Bill Becomes a Law • Create legislation, make laws • Founders believed in a SLOW process • Founders believed efficiency was a trait of an oppressive government

Step 1 – Introduce Bill • Introduced in Senate or House (except tax bills Step 1 – Introduce Bill • Introduced in Senate or House (except tax bills which always start in the House) • Single or multiple reps can introduce bills • Ideas come from constituents, representatives, senators, the President, special interest groups

Step 2 - Committee 1. Bill is assigned to a particular committee by topic Step 2 - Committee 1. Bill is assigned to a particular committee by topic (Ex. Tax bill – Ways and Means Committee, Farm bill – Agriculture Committee) 2. Bill is then placed in sub-committee (smaller group of reps/senators to study the bill more closely) 3. Bills are debated and “marked up” 4. Most bills die in committee, committee can vote to “report out” a bill, if not it just dies out

Step 3–Rules Committee • Before bill can go to floor in House, it must Step 3–Rules Committee • Before bill can go to floor in House, it must first set time limits and amendment regulations. – Closed rule – sets time limits, restricts amendments – Open rule – permits amendments – Restrictive rule – permits some amendments

Step 4 – Floor Debate Senate Debate • Less formal, no speaking limit • Step 4 – Floor Debate Senate Debate • Less formal, no speaking limit • Filibuster – practice of stalling a bill w/ debate – Senator can talk his/her head off • Cloture – 3/5 of the Senate votes to stop debate a filibuster House Debate • More formal, no filibuster, strict rules

Step 5 - Voting • Majority passes a bill • If the bill passes, Step 5 - Voting • Majority passes a bill • If the bill passes, it must go through the same process in the opposite chamber • If the bill passes one house and fails the other, it must start over (or dies in that chamber) • If the Senate and House cannot come to agreement over two versions of same bill, it goes to Conference Committee to iron out all differences so the bill can go on to executive for signature

Presidential Action President can: 1. Sign bill – bill becomes law! 2. Veto bill Presidential Action President can: 1. Sign bill – bill becomes law! 2. Veto bill – bill returns to Congress 3. Pocket Veto – President has 10 days to act on a piece of legislation. If he receives the bill within 10 days of the end of the Congressional session, and doesn’t sign, it dies Note: Congress can vote to Override a veto with 2/3 vote in both houses. This is part of Checks and Balances of the 3 branches system

Committees and Subcommittees • Most real work happens here • Bills are passed, changed, Committees and Subcommittees • Most real work happens here • Bills are passed, changed, ignored, or killed • http: //www. house. gov/committees/ • http: //www. senate. gov/pagelayout/committ ees/d_three_sections_with_teasers/commi ttees_home. htm

Types of Committees • Standing committee – handle bills in different policy areas – Types of Committees • Standing committee – handle bills in different policy areas – (ex. Appropriations, Agriculture, Armed Services, Science, etc. ) – most important and have been “standing” (existing) for a long time • Select committee – formed for specific purposes and usually temporary – run investigations (ex. Aging, Intelligence)

Types of Committees • Joint committee – consist of both House and Senate members Types of Committees • Joint committee – consist of both House and Senate members – similar in purpose to Select committee – Meant to draw attention to issues • Conference committee – consist of both House reps and Senators – formed to hammer out differences between House and Senate versions of similar bills • Congressional Committees and Subcommittees

Committee Membership • Controlled by majority party, committee membership divided proportionally • Committee Chairman Committee Membership • Controlled by majority party, committee membership divided proportionally • Committee Chairman – Senior member of committee – Controls membership and debate

Work of Committees • 11, 000 bills introduced yearly, most die • Committees can… Work of Committees • 11, 000 bills introduced yearly, most die • Committees can… – Report out favorably/unfavorably – Pigeonholed/table (do not discuss) – Amend / “mark up” (change or rewrite)

Congressional Caucuses • Groupings of members pushing for similar interests • Ex. – Sunbelt, Congressional Caucuses • Groupings of members pushing for similar interests • Ex. – Sunbelt, Northeast-Midwest, Congressional Black, Women’s, Democratic Study Group, Boll Weevils, Steel

Criticisms of Congress • “Pork” – aka “pork-barrel legislation” – bills to benefit constituents Criticisms of Congress • “Pork” – aka “pork-barrel legislation” – bills to benefit constituents in hope of gaining their votes • Logrolling – Congress members exchange votes, bills might pass for frivolous reasons • Christmas-tree bill –bill with many riders (pork) – in Senate, no limit exists on amendments, so Senators try to attach riders that will benefit their home state

Term-limits Debate • No current limit on how many terms members of Congress can Term-limits Debate • No current limit on how many terms members of Congress can serve 1. Some argue this has weakened popular control of Congress, reps might be unresponsive to their constituents 2. Some argue most experienced reps have the expertise to bring home more benefits (pork, riders, etc. )