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COMS 4118 Operating Systems Spring 2005 Abhinav Kamra kamra@cs. columbia. edu http: //www. cs. COMS 4118 Operating Systems Spring 2005 Abhinav Kamra [email protected] columbia. edu http: //www. cs. columbia. edu/~kamra/teaching/ Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 1 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Course Contents n Processes F F F n n n Process Management Inter-process Communication Course Contents n Processes F F F n n n Process Management Inter-process Communication Process Scheduling Process Synchronization (to access very popular data) Deadlocks Memory Management Virtual Memory File Systems I/O Systems Interrupt Handling Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 2 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Logistics n Lectures F Tuesdays and Thursdays 4 9: 30 am – 10: 45 Logistics n Lectures F Tuesdays and Thursdays 4 9: 30 am – 10: 45 am n Exams F No mid-term exam F 4 -5 “Quizzes” F A Comprehensive Final Exam Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 3 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Logistics (continued) n Homework Assignments F None n Grading F Quizzes: 25% F Programming Logistics (continued) n Homework Assignments F None n Grading F Quizzes: 25% F Programming Assignments: 50% F Final Exam: 25% Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 4 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Logistics (continued) n Programming Assignments F 2 -3 small assignments F One “big” assignment Logistics (continued) n Programming Assignments F 2 -3 small assignments F One “big” assignment (A Real OS) 4 OSKit and VMWare 4 An MP 3 CD Player OS Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 5 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Chapter 1: Introduction n What is an Operating System? n Mainframe Systems n Desktop Chapter 1: Introduction n What is an Operating System? n Mainframe Systems n Desktop Systems n Multiprocessor Systems n Distributed Systems n Clustered System n Real -Time Systems n Handheld Systems Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 6 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

“I think that there is a world market for five computers” - Thomas J. “I think that there is a world market for five computers” - Thomas J. Watson (1945) Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 7 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

What is an Operating System? n A program that acts as an intermediary between What is an Operating System? n A program that acts as an intermediary between a user of a computer and the computer hardware. n Operating system goals: F Execute user programs and make solving user problems easier. F Make the computer system convenient to use. F Use the computer hardware in an efficient manner. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 8 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Why Study Operating Systems? n We want to have an efficient O/S because it Why Study Operating Systems? n We want to have an efficient O/S because it F consumes more resources than any other program. F is the most complex program. F is necessary for any use of the computer. F is used by many users. n Efficiency is measured through F Functionality F Performance: Time and Utilization F Convenience and Cost Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 9 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Goals of This Course n Understand what an operating system is n Understand the Goals of This Course n Understand what an operating system is n Understand the key components of an operating system n Have a deeper understanding of common operating systems in the market (e. g. Windows, Unix, MS-DOS) and the issues associated with them n To be able to use performance measures Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 10 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Computer System Components 1. Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). Computer System Components 1. Hardware – provides basic computing resources (CPU, memory, I/O devices). 2. Operating system – controls and coordinates the use of the hardware among the various application programs for the various users. 3. Applications programs – define the ways in which the system resources are used to solve the computing problems of the users (compilers, database systems, video games, business programs). 4. Users (people, machines, other computers). Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 11 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Abstract View of System Components Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. Abstract View of System Components Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 12 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Operating System Definitions n Resource allocator – manages and allocates resources. n Control program Operating System Definitions n Resource allocator – manages and allocates resources. n Control program – controls the execution of user programs and operations of I/O devices. n Kernel – the one program running at all times (all else being application programs). Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 13 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Operating Systems Ease the Pain n Performs the interface task with the hardware (file Operating Systems Ease the Pain n Performs the interface task with the hardware (file operations, memory n n paging, etc. ) which should have been done by the user if the OS did not exist High-level interface (GUI, command line a. k. a. CUI) The O/S’s capability for multi-user and multi-tasking utilize the hardware efficiently Makes visible the “virtual” component of the system Allows program interaction Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 14 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Why are Operating Systems Difficult to Create and Maintain? n Size F Too big Why are Operating Systems Difficult to Create and Maintain? n Size F Too big for one person; current systems have millions of lines of code and involve 10 -100 man years to build n Lifetime F Operating systems remain longer than the programmers who originally wrote them. Code is written and rewritten and original intent is forgotten (Unix designed to be cute, small system - now several volumes thick!) Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 15 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Why are Operating Systems Difficult to Create and Maintain? n Complexity F The system Why are Operating Systems Difficult to Create and Maintain? n Complexity F The system must do difficult things -- deal with ugly I/O devices, multiplexing/juggling act, handle errors n Multitasking F Must do several things at once. n General purpose Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 16 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

A Brief History: Early 1950’s, Mainframes Rule! n Early systems F No O/S! Programmer A Brief History: Early 1950’s, Mainframes Rule! n Early systems F No O/S! Programmer is also operator F Large machines run from a console; programs loaded through switches and card readers n Simple batch systems were the first real OS F Setup time was a problem -> hire an operator F Operator ran related jobs together F O/S was a simple program stored in one part of memory 4 Loads a single job from card reader into memory 4 Transfers control from one job to the next Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 17 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne Memory Layout for a Simple Batch System Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 18 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Offline Processing Allowed jobs to be read ahead of time onto tape Card Reader Offline Processing Allowed jobs to be read ahead of time onto tape Card Reader Line printer CPU On-line processing Card Reader Tape Drive Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 Tape Drive CPU Off-line processing 1. 19 Line printer Tape Drive Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

History: Spooling n Allowed jobs to be read ahead onto disk n Spool (Simultaneous History: Spooling n Allowed jobs to be read ahead onto disk n Spool (Simultaneous Peripheral Operation On-Line) disk Card Reader Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 CPU 1. 20 Line printer Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Multiprogrammed Systems n Multiprogrammed batch systems provided increased utilization F Keeps several jobs in Multiprogrammed Systems n Multiprogrammed batch systems provided increased utilization F Keeps several jobs in memory simultaneously F I/O processing of one job overlaps with computation of another F Analogy: Lawyer working on several cases; while waiting to go to trial on one, can work on another F Needs CPU scheduling Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 21 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Multiprogrammed Batch Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, Multiprogrammed Batch Systems Several jobs are kept in main memory at the same time, and the CPU is multiplexed among them. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 22 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Timesharing/Multitasking Systems n Timesharing supported interactive use F Each user feels as if he/she Timesharing/Multitasking Systems n Timesharing supported interactive use F Each user feels as if he/she has the entire machine F Tries to optimize response time F Based on time-slicing; divide CPU equally among others Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 23 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Desktop Systems n Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a n n single Desktop Systems n Personal computers – computer system dedicated to a n n single user. I/O devices – keyboards, mice, display screens, small printers. User convenience and responsiveness. Can adopt technology developed for larger operating system. Often individuals have sole use of computer and do not need advanced CPU utilization of protection features. May run several different types of operating systems (Windows, Mac. OS, UNIX, Linux) Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 24 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Parallel Systems n Multiprocessor systems with more than one CPU in close communication. n Parallel Systems n Multiprocessor systems with more than one CPU in close communication. n Tightly coupled system – processors share memory and a clock; communication usually takes place through the shared memory. n Advantages of parallel system: F Increased throughput F Economical F Increased reliability 4 graceful degradation 4 fail-soft systems (shut down non-essential components) Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 25 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Parallel Systems (Cont. ) n Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) F Each processor runs and identical Parallel Systems (Cont. ) n Symmetric multiprocessing (SMP) F Each processor runs and identical copy of the operating system. F Many processes can run at once without performance deterioration. F Most modern operating systems support SMP n Asymmetric multiprocessing F Each processor is assigned a specific task; master processor schedules and allocated work to slave processors. F More common in extremely large systems Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 26 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 27 Abhinav Symmetric Multiprocessing Architecture Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 27 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Distributed Systems n Distribute the computation among several physical processors. n Loosely coupled system Distributed Systems n Distribute the computation among several physical processors. n Loosely coupled system – each processor has its own local memory; processors communicate with one another through various communications lines, such as highspeed buses or telephone lines. n Advantages of distributed systems. F Resources Sharing F Computation speed up – load sharing F Reliability F Communications Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 28 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Distributed Systems (cont) n Requires networking infrastructure. n Local area networks (LAN) or Wide Distributed Systems (cont) n Requires networking infrastructure. n Local area networks (LAN) or Wide area networks (WAN) n May be either client-server or peer-to-peer systems. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 29 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

General Structure of Client-Server Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 30 General Structure of Client-Server Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 30 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Clustered Systems n Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. n Provides Clustered Systems n Clustering allows two or more systems to share storage. n Provides high reliability. n Asymmetric clustering: one server runs the application while other servers standby. n Symmetric clustering: all N hosts are running the application. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 31 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Real-Time Systems n Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such Real-Time Systems n Often used as a control device in a dedicated application such as controlling scientific experiments, medical imaging systems, industrial control systems, and some display systems. n Well-defined fixed-time constraints. n Real-Time systems may be either hard or soft real-time. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 32 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Real-Time Systems (Cont. ) n Hard real-time: F Secondary storage limited or absent, data Real-Time Systems (Cont. ) n Hard real-time: F Secondary storage limited or absent, data stored in short term memory, or read-only memory (ROM) F Conflicts with time-sharing systems, not supported by general-purpose operating systems. n Soft real-time F Limited utility in industrial control of robotics F Useful in applications (multimedia, virtual reality) requiring advanced operating-system features. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 33 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Handheld Systems n Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) n Cellular telephones n Issues: F Limited Handheld Systems n Personal Digital Assistants (PDAs) n Cellular telephones n Issues: F Limited memory F Slow processors F Small display screens. Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 34 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University

Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 Migration of Operating-System Concepts and Features Operating System Concepts Silberschatz, Galvin and Gagne 2002 1. 35 Abhinav Kamra Computer Science, Columbia University