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Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Chapter 3: Computer Software 1 Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Chapter 3: Computer Software 1

Chapter 3 Computer Software Section A: Software Basics Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja Chapter 3 Computer Software Section A: Software Basics Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja

Chapter Preview After this chapter, you should be able to: – Describe the software Chapter Preview After this chapter, you should be able to: – Describe the software components of a typical software package – Trace the development of a computer program – Describe the way an operating system manages each computer resource – Describe key features of popular software – List types of software available – Explain how to install and uninstall software – Describe rights associated with software: for users and programmers Chapter 3: Computer Software 3

What is software? • Software consists of computer programs and data files that work What is software? • Software consists of computer programs and data files that work together to provide a computer with the instructions and data necessary for carrying out a specific type of task Chapter 3: Computer Software 4

What kinds of files are included in a typical software product? • Software includes What kinds of files are included in a typical software product? • Software includes – A computer program is a set of detailed, instructions that tells a computer how to solve a problem or carry out a task – Executable files – Support modules – Data files Chapter 3: Computer Software 5

Programmers and Programming Languages: Who creates computer software? • Computer programmers write the instructions Programmers and Programming Languages: Who creates computer software? • Computer programmers write the instructions for the computer programs • Software publishers distribute the software, they specialize in packaging, marketing, and selling commercial software Chapter 3: Computer Software 6

How does a programmer “write” software? • Most software is designed to provide a How does a programmer “write” software? • Most software is designed to provide a taskrelated environment • Programmer defines the properties for each element in the environment – Its height – Its label – What happens when you click it • A computer language provides the tools that a programmer uses to create software – Source code – High-level languages Chapter 3: Computer Software 7

How does a programmer “write” software? Chapter 3: Computer Software 8 How does a programmer “write” software? Chapter 3: Computer Software 8

How are instructions converted to machine language? • A compiler translates all of the How are instructions converted to machine language? • A compiler translates all of the instructions in a program as a single batch • The resulting machine language instructions are called the object code Chapter 3: Computer Software 9

How does a high-level language relate to the microprocessor’s instruction set? • An alternative How does a high-level language relate to the microprocessor’s instruction set? • An alternative to a compiler is an interpreter, that converts one instruction at a time while program is running Chapter 3: Computer Software 10

So how does software work? Chapter 3: Computer Software 11 So how does software work? Chapter 3: Computer Software 11

Application Software and System Software: How is software categorized? • Software is categorized as Application Software and System Software: How is software categorized? • Software is categorized as either application software or system software – Application software is designed to be used for a purpose such as drawing designs, creating documents, etc – System software is designed to help the computer carry out the basic operating functions • Operating systems, utilities, and drivers Chapter 3: Computer Software 12

Chapter 3 Computer Software Section B: Personal Computer Operating Systems Computer Concepts 7 th Chapter 3 Computer Software Section B: Personal Computer Operating Systems Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja

Operating System Overview: What does an operating system do? • An operating system (OS) Operating System Overview: What does an operating system do? • An operating system (OS) is the master controller for all of the activities that take place within a computer. – Microsoft Windows XP, Mac OS, Linux, UNIX • The operating system also interacts with the application software. Chapter 3: Computer Software 14

What does an operating system do? Chapter 3: Computer Software 15 What does an operating system do? Chapter 3: Computer Software 15

Why does an operating system need to manage memory? • The OS must ensure Why does an operating system need to manage memory? • The OS must ensure that instructions and data from one area of memory don’t “leak” into an area allocated to another program • If it fails, data can get corrupted, programs can “crash” and your computer will display error messages Chapter 3: Computer Software 16

How does the OS keep track of storage resources? • The OS acts as How does the OS keep track of storage resources? • The OS acts as a filing clerk • It remembers the names and locations of all your files and keeps track of empty spaces where new files can be stored Chapter 3: Computer Software 17

Why does the operating system get involved with peripheral devices? • To ensure that Why does the operating system get involved with peripheral devices? • To ensure that they function correctly • OS controls peripherals to ensure input and output proceeds in an orderly fashion Chapter 3: Computer Software 18

How does the operating system affect the user interface? • A user interface can How does the operating system affect the user interface? • A user interface can be defined as the combination of hardware and software that helps people and computers communicate with each other – Graphical user interface (GUI) – Command-line user interface Chapter 3: Computer Software 19

Where is the operating system? • The OS’s small bootstrap program resides in ROM Where is the operating system? • The OS’s small bootstrap program resides in ROM and provides the instructions to load the core parts into memory when system boots • This component is called the kernel Chapter 3: Computer Software 20

Do I ever interact directly with the OS? • Yes, typically through helpful tools Do I ever interact directly with the OS? • Yes, typically through helpful tools called utilities – Launch programs – Manage files – Get help – Customize the user interface – Configures equipment Chapter 3: Computer Software 21

Are different operating systems needed for different computing tasks? • • • Single-user operating Are different operating systems needed for different computing tasks? • • • Single-user operating system Multi-user operating system Network operating system Multitasking operating system Desktop operating system Chapter 3: Computer Software 22

Is Mac OS similar to windows? • Developed several years before windows, it still Is Mac OS similar to windows? • Developed several years before windows, it still has a GUI interface • Both have windows, icons, menus and pointers Chapter 3: Computer Software 23

Is Mac OS similar to windows? Chapter 3: Computer Software 24 Is Mac OS similar to windows? Chapter 3: Computer Software 24

Are Unix and Linux the same? • UNIX was developed in 1969 at AT&T’s Are Unix and Linux the same? • UNIX was developed in 1969 at AT&T’s Bell Labs • Linux was developed in 1991 – Is distributed under the terms of a General Public License (GPL) • Red Hat Linux, Caldera Open. Linux, and Debian GNU/Linux Chapter 3: Computer Software 25

Are Unix and Linux the same? Chapter 3: Computer Software 26 Are Unix and Linux the same? Chapter 3: Computer Software 26

Why do I keep hearing about DOS? • First operating system that most people Why do I keep hearing about DOS? • First operating system that most people have used • DOS (Disk Operating System) was developed by Microsoft • Is in kernel of Windows 3. 1, 95, 98 and ME Chapter 3: Computer Software 27

What are the options for PDA operating systems? • Palm OS • Windows Mobile What are the options for PDA operating systems? • Palm OS • Windows Mobile OS Chapter 3: Computer Software 28

Chapter 3 Computer Software Section C: Application Software Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja Chapter 3 Computer Software Section C: Application Software Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja

Document Production Software: How can my computer help me with my writing? • Word Document Production Software: How can my computer help me with my writing? • Word processing software, such as Microsoft Word, is used for producing reports, letters, papers, and manuscripts • Desktop publishing software helps you use graphic design techniques to enhance the format and appearance of a document • Web authoring software helps you design and develop customized Web pages Chapter 3: Computer Software 30

How does document production software help me turn my ideas into sentences and paragraphs? How does document production software help me turn my ideas into sentences and paragraphs? Chapter 3: Computer Software 31

How do I get my documents to look good? • The format for a How do I get my documents to look good? • The format for a document refers to the way that all the elements of a document are arranged on the page – Font – Point size – Paragraph style – Paragraph alignment – Line spacing (leading) – Style Chapter 3: Computer Software 32

How do I get my documents to look good? Chapter 3: Computer Software 33 How do I get my documents to look good? Chapter 3: Computer Software 33

How do I get my documents to look good? • Page Layout refers to How do I get my documents to look good? • Page Layout refers to the physical position of each element on a page • Header is text that you specify to automatically appear in the top margin of every page • Footer is text that you specify to automatically appear in the bottom margin of every page • Page Numbers • Graphical elements are photos, diagrams, etc. • Tables are a grid-like structure that can hold text and pictures Chapter 3: Computer Software 34

How do I get my documents to look good? Chapter 3: Computer Software 35 How do I get my documents to look good? Chapter 3: Computer Software 35

Does document production software increase productivity? • Index and Table of Contents - automatically Does document production software increase productivity? • Index and Table of Contents - automatically produced by most document production software • Mail Merge - process of creating a series of personalized letters by combining information in a mailing list with a blank form letter • Automatically numbering footnotes and positioning them • Providing document templates • Exporting a document into HTML format Chapter 3: Computer Software 36

Spreadsheet Software: What is a spreadsheet? • Spreadsheet - numerical model or representation of Spreadsheet Software: What is a spreadsheet? • Spreadsheet - numerical model or representation of a real situation – Checkbook • To use spreadsheet software, you: – Enter numbers – Indicate how the computer should manipulate those numbers • Spreadsheet software is particularly useful for what-if analysis Chapter 3: Computer Software 37

What does a computerized spreadsheet look like? • Worksheets – An on-screen spreadsheet – What does a computerized spreadsheet look like? • Worksheets – An on-screen spreadsheet – Based on grid of columns and rows • Cell - intersection of columns and rows • A cell can contain – Numbers (values) – Text (labels) – Formulas (tells computer how to calculate) Chapter 3: Computer Software 38

What does a computerized spreadsheet look like? Chapter 3: Computer Software 39 What does a computerized spreadsheet look like? Chapter 3: Computer Software 39

How does spreadsheet software work? • Cell reference - unique address given to cell How does spreadsheet software work? • Cell reference - unique address given to cell – A 1 = column A, row 1 • You can modify a spreadsheet by – Changing text, numbers, formulas – Inserting rows and columns – Deleting rows and columns • Formulas can contain – Cell references – Mathematical operators – Numbers Chapter 3: Computer Software 40

How does spreadsheet software work? Chapter 3: Computer Software 41 How does spreadsheet software work? Chapter 3: Computer Software 41

What happens when I modify a worksheet? • Automatic recalculation – recalculates all formulas What happens when I modify a worksheet? • Automatic recalculation – recalculates all formulas whenever contents of any cell are changed • Relative reference - cell reference • Absolute reference - never changes when you insert rows or move formulas Chapter 3: Computer Software 42

What happens when I modify a worksheet? Chapter 3: Computer Software 43 What happens when I modify a worksheet? Chapter 3: Computer Software 43

Aside from spreadsheets, what other “number crunching” software is available? • Statistical software • Aside from spreadsheets, what other “number crunching” software is available? • Statistical software • Mathematical modeling software • Money management software – Personal finance software • Tax preparation software Chapter 3: Computer Software 44

Database Software: What is database software? • Database software helps you to enter, find, Database Software: What is database software? • Database software helps you to enter, find, organize, update and report information stored in a database Chapter 3: Computer Software 45

What is database software? Chapter 3: Computer Software 46 What is database software? Chapter 3: Computer Software 46

How do I create records? Chapter 3: Computer Software 47 How do I create records? Chapter 3: Computer Software 47

How do I locate specific data? • A query language is a set of How do I locate specific data? • A query language is a set of command words to direct the computer to: – Locate information – Sort records – Change data in records • SQL ( Structured Query Language) • Some software even allows a natural language query Chapter 3: Computer Software 48

How do I locate specific data? Chapter 3: Computer Software 49 How do I locate specific data? Chapter 3: Computer Software 49

How can I use search results? • You can do the following – Print How can I use search results? • You can do the following – Print reports – Export data to other programs – Convert the data to other formats – Transmit data to other computers Chapter 3: Computer Software 50

Graphics Software: What kind of software do I need to work with drawings, photos, Graphics Software: What kind of software do I need to work with drawings, photos, and other pictures? • Graphics – refers to any picture, drawing, sketch, photograph, image or icon that appears on your computer screen • Graphics Software – – Paint software Photo editing software Drawing software 3 -D graphics software Chapter 3: Computer Software 51

What kind of software do I need to work with drawings, photos, and other What kind of software do I need to work with drawings, photos, and other pictures? – CAD software (computer-aided design software) – Presentation software • Slides Chapter 3: Computer Software 52

Music Software: Why would I need music software? • Audio editing software – lets Music Software: Why would I need music software? • Audio editing software – lets you make your own digital voice and music recording – MP 3 • MP 3 Player • CD ripper • MP 3 encoding software – Ear training software • Notation software • Computer-aided software • Midi sequencing software Chapter 3: Computer Software 53

Music Software: Why would I need music software? Chapter 3: Computer Software 54 Music Software: Why would I need music software? Chapter 3: Computer Software 54

Video Editing Software: Is video editing software difficult to use? • Video editing software Video Editing Software: Is video editing software difficult to use? • Video editing software provides a set of tools for transferring video footage, editing video, adding special effects, and adding a sound track Chapter 3: Computer Software 55

Software Suites: What is a software suite? • A collection of application software sold Software Suites: What is a software suite? • A collection of application software sold as a single package – Microsoft Office – Star Office – Open Office – Word. Perfect Office Chapter 3: Computer Software 56

Educational and Reference Software: How can I use my computer to learn new things? Educational and Reference Software: How can I use my computer to learn new things? • Educational software – helps you to learn and practice new skills – Mind. Twister Math – 3 -D Froggy Phonics – SAT – GMAT – LSAT Chapter 3: Computer Software 57

What’s reference software? • Reference software – provides you with a collection of information What’s reference software? • Reference software – provides you with a collection of information and a way to access that information – Encyclopedias • • • Microsoft Encarta Grolier’s encyclopedia Comptons encyclopedia World Book Britannica – Dictionaries Chapter 3: Computer Software 58

Entertainment Software: What’s the best-selling entertainment software? • Over $6 billion of computer and Entertainment Software: What’s the best-selling entertainment software? • Over $6 billion of computer and video games are sold each year in the U. S. alone – 90% are people 18 and older – 13% are people over 50 – About 43% are women Chapter 3: Computer Software 59

What’s the best-selling entertainment software? • Computer games – Role-playing games – Action games What’s the best-selling entertainment software? • Computer games – Role-playing games – Action games – Adventure games – Puzzle games – Simulation games – Sports games – Strategy games Chapter 3: Computer Software 60

Business Software: Do businesses use specialized software? • Vertical market software • Horizontal market Business Software: Do businesses use specialized software? • Vertical market software • Horizontal market software – Payroll software – Accounting software – Project management software • Groupware Chapter 3: Computer Software 61

Chapter 3 Computer Software Section D: Software Installation and Copyrights Computer Concepts 7 th Chapter 3 Computer Software Section D: Software Installation and Copyrights Computer Concepts 7 th Edition Parsons/Oja

Installation Basics: What’s included in a typical software package? • The key ingredients necessary Installation Basics: What’s included in a typical software package? • The key ingredients necessary to install new software the files that contain the programs, support modules, and data modules • Usually supplied on distribution disks Chapter 3: Computer Software 63

How do I know if a software program will work on my computer? • How do I know if a software program will work on my computer? • System requirements specify the operating system and minimum hardware requirements necessary for a software product to work correctly Chapter 3: Computer Software 64

Why is it necessary to install most software? • When you install software, the Why is it necessary to install most software? • When you install software, the new software files are placed in the appropriate folders on your computer’s hard disk – – Copies files from distribution disk Uncompresses files Analyzes computer’s resources Analyzes hardware components and peripheral devices – Looks for any system files and players – Updates necessary system files Chapter 3: Computer Software 65

Installing from a Distribution Disk or CD: How do I install software from distribution Installing from a Distribution Disk or CD: How do I install software from distribution media? • A setup program guides you through the installation process • Following the program will make installation easy Chapter 3: Computer Software 66

Installing Downloaded Software: Is the installation process different for downloaded software? • Sometimes files Installing Downloaded Software: Is the installation process different for downloaded software? • Sometimes files are zipped, so they must be unzipped • Other types – Self-installing software – Self-executing zip file – Manual download and install Chapter 3: Computer Software 67

Is installing a software upgrade different from installing a full version? • Installing an Is installing a software upgrade different from installing a full version? • Installing an upgrade is similar to installing a full version • Update provides a setup file that checks to make sure that your computer contains a valid version of software to upgrade then it guides you through the rest of the upgrade process Chapter 3: Computer Software 68

Uninstalling Software: How do I get rid of software? • Uninstall routine deletes the Uninstalling Software: How do I get rid of software? • Uninstall routine deletes the software’s files Chapter 3: Computer Software 69

Software Copyrights: Is it legal to copy software? • A copyright is a form Software Copyrights: Is it legal to copy software? • A copyright is a form of legal protection – Purchaser has right to copy software to a computer’s hard disk in order to install it – Purchaser can make a backup copy – Purchaser is allowed to copy and distribute sections of a software program for use in critical reviews and teaching • Most software displays a copyright notice Chapter 3: Computer Software 70

Software Licenses: What is a software license? • A software license is a legal Software Licenses: What is a software license? • A software license is a legal contract that defines the ways in which you may use a computer program • A shrink-wrap license goes into effect as soon as you open the packaging Chapter 3: Computer Software 71

What is a software license? • An installation agreement is displayed on the screen What is a software license? • An installation agreement is displayed on the screen when you first install the software Chapter 3: Computer Software 72

Are all software licenses similar? • Commercial software – typically sold in computers or Are all software licenses similar? • Commercial software – typically sold in computers or a Web site • Shareware – copyrighted software that you “try before you buy” • Freeware – copyrighted software available for free • Open source software – makes the source code available to programmers • Public domain software – not copyrighted, and in public domain Chapter 3: Computer Software 73

Conclusion You should now be able to: – Describe the software components of a Conclusion You should now be able to: – Describe the software components of a typical software package – Trace the development of a computer program – Describe the way an operating system manages each computer resource – Describe key features of popular software – List types of software available – Explain how to install and uninstall software – Describe rights associated with software: for users and programmers Chapter 3: Computer Software 74