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Comparative Tort Law Mårten Schultz J. D. , Stockholm University Comparative Tort Law Mårten Schultz J. D. , Stockholm University

Todays Leture • • What is tort law? Different kinds of internationalization Developments in Todays Leture • • What is tort law? Different kinds of internationalization Developments in European tort law Comparative tort law research

Introduction: What is tort law? Introduction: What is tort law?

What is Tort Law? • The notion of a tort • ”Deliktsrecht”, skadeståndsrätt, the What is Tort Law? • The notion of a tort • ”Deliktsrecht”, skadeståndsrätt, the law of civil responsibility • The area of law where one person is held responsible for another person’s harm/damage. Responsibility means a responsibility to pay (damages)

What is Tort Law Not? • ”Compensation law” • Criminal law – criminal responsibility What is Tort Law Not? • ”Compensation law” • Criminal law – criminal responsibility • Insurance law

The Internationalization of Tort Law (and Private Law) The Internationalization of Tort Law (and Private Law)

Internationalization of Tort Law: Key Terms • • Globalization Internationalization ”Americanization” Europeanization Focus of Internationalization of Tort Law: Key Terms • • Globalization Internationalization ”Americanization” Europeanization Focus of today’s lecture: Europeanization

Factors in the development • A borderless Europe: European law firms, student exchange programs, Factors in the development • A borderless Europe: European law firms, student exchange programs, etc. • Growing interest in comparative law in courts, legislators and in the E. U. • Comparative law research at universities • -> New body of ”European private law literature” (European Tort Law)

The Europeanization of Tort Law: Different Developments • Hard unification: Europeanization through directives from The Europeanization of Tort Law: Different Developments • Hard unification: Europeanization through directives from the E. C. • Soft harmonization: Exchanges of ideas that influence European jurisdictions

Examples of Hard Unification • The directive on product liability • Environmental liability • Examples of Hard Unification • The directive on product liability • Environmental liability • Full mandatory civil code?

Examples of Soft Harmonization: Private Law in General • More comparative law research in Examples of Soft Harmonization: Private Law in General • More comparative law research in legislation? • More comparative law in the courts? • The growing importance of transnational law (E. C Law, CISG, etc) in private law matters • Lex mercatoria and other non-national legal sources

Concrete Examples from Tort Law • Comparative law in the courts, in Sweden and Concrete Examples from Tort Law • Comparative law in the courts, in Sweden and elsewhere • Comparative law in preparatory works • Comparative law in the academic discussion

Examples: Sweden • 2005: Inducement to breach of contract • Short remarks about Swedish Examples: Sweden • 2005: Inducement to breach of contract • Short remarks about Swedish tort law for pure economic loss • Inducement to breach of contract in English law • The Supreme Court’s decision

Examples: Fairchilds • • House of Lords case Claim for damages for injury from Examples: Fairchilds • • House of Lords case Claim for damages for injury from asbestos Uncertain causal link The law lord’s comparative investigation

Conclusions so far… • The growing importance of comparative law research in tort law: Conclusions so far… • The growing importance of comparative law research in tort law: Can be used to smoothen harmonization and to account for national differences • If a full code or comprehensive unification is wanted (or ”needed), it will need to be based in substantial comparative law research • Many research projects have started to investigate the possibility and feasibility of a fully harmonized European tort law

Introduction to the European Research Projects Introduction to the European Research Projects

Key Research Projects • The Study Group on a European Civil Code (the von Key Research Projects • The Study Group on a European Civil Code (the von Bar group) • European Group on Tort Law (Tilburg group) • The Trento project • A Common Frame of Reference

Differences Between the Projects • • • Working conditions Funding People Purposes Expected outcome Differences Between the Projects • • • Working conditions Funding People Purposes Expected outcome

Key Issues in the Comparative Projects • The problem of representation: Is everybody heard? Key Issues in the Comparative Projects • The problem of representation: Is everybody heard? • Restatement? Common core? • Level of abstraction: What room for differences? • From a Scandinavian perspective: Common law (judge made law) and continental civil law (codification). What about the Scandinavian tradition?

What Functions can the Proposals fulfill? • Important input in the European academic discussion What Functions can the Proposals fulfill? • Important input in the European academic discussion • May be used by courts and legislators that seeks a ”European solution” • Useful for the development of future directives, especially a civil code kind of project

References • Study Group: www. sgecc. net • EGTL: www. egtl. org • Artiklar: References • Study Group: www. sgecc. net • EGTL: www. egtl. org • Artiklar: European Review of Private Law, European Business Law Review, etc.

Uppgift: 2 scenarier 1: B har stulit pengar från A i ett villainbrott. Senare Uppgift: 2 scenarier 1: B har stulit pengar från A i ett villainbrott. Senare blir B rånad av C, under brutala former. B har enbart de pengar som han fått från stölden mot A. B yrkar skadestånd för de förlorade pengarna i brottmålet mot C. Är det möjligt att få ersättning? 2: A och B, 20 år gamla, har sett på Jackass på MTV. De beslutar sig för att göra ett ”stunt” framför en kamera, för att kunna sälja filmen senare. A sätter på sig skyddsväst och B skjuter A med ett hagelgevär. A blir svårt skadad. Skall skadestånd utgå, eller jämkas?

Uppgiften • Skriv promemoria utifrån scenariot, gruppvis. • Utgå från frågan: Hur behandlas problemet Uppgiften • Skriv promemoria utifrån scenariot, gruppvis. • Utgå från frågan: Hur behandlas problemet i svensk rätt. • Gör därefter en genomgripande jämförelse med antingen Study Groups förslag, eller EGTL: s förslag, eller båda. • Reflektera särskilt över: Är de europeiska förslagen förenliga med svensk inställning?

Formalia etc. • Promemorian i komparativ rätt författas på ett konkret angivet ämne och Formalia etc. • Promemorian i komparativ rätt författas på ett konkret angivet ämne och med utgångspunkt i av läraren angivet juridiskt material från olika rättsystem (lagstiftning, rättsfall, juridisk doktrin mm). • Promemorian författas individuellt, men presenteras i grupp av alla studenter som arbetar med samma uppgift vid ett av sammanlagt fyra seminarietillfällen. • Tio sidor (1, 5 linespace) är lämpligt format. Akademisk standard skall användas för formalia (källangivelse, fotnoter, mm. ) • Redovisning muntligt i grupp inför hela klassen. Bedömningen skall göras efter kriterierna: struktur, analys, formalia och muntlig presentation. • Skicka din pm till: marten. [email protected] su. se