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Company LOGO Counting the 7 Billion: The Future of Population and Housing Censuses Internet Company LOGO Counting the 7 Billion: The Future of Population and Housing Censuses Internet Option in the 2010 Census of Korea Ki-Jong Woo Commissioner Statistics Korea 1 Challenges and Benefits of Using Modern Technologies

Contents 1 Motivators 2 Internet Option for the 2010 Census 3 Internet Uptake Rates Contents 1 Motivators 2 Internet Option for the 2010 Census 3 Internet Uptake Rates 4 Data Quality 5 Lessons Learned 2

1. Motivators 3 1. Motivators 3

(1) More adverse census-taking environment Rising cost of census-taking - on average, cost increases (1) More adverse census-taking environment Rising cost of census-taking - on average, cost increases by 1. 5 times between censuses $157. 2 M $112. 1 M $72. 5 M A need to reduce the cost of census-taking $46. 8 M 1995 2000 2005 2010 1$ = 1, 150 Won 4

Changes in household patterns (2010) - one-person households : 23. 9% - dual-earner households Changes in household patterns (2010) - one-person households : 23. 9% - dual-earner households : 37. 2% - elderly aged 65+ : 11. 3% 23. 9% 20. 0% 15. 5% 12. 7% 164 Making it difficult to interview households 1995 222 414 317 (In ‘ 000) 2000 2005 2010 5

Growing awareness of privacy - Increasing non-response rate 3. 6% More and more people Growing awareness of privacy - Increasing non-response rate 3. 6% More and more people are reluctant to cooperate with 2. 8% 2. 2% 1. 7% government 2006 2007 2008 2009 < Economically Active Population Survey > 6

(2) Opportunities for introducing modern technologies Internet penetration rate: - 81. 6% (May, 2010) (2) Opportunities for introducing modern technologies Internet penetration rate: - 81. 6% (May, 2010) Improved quality of administrative data 78. 4% - Population register - Building register 80. 6% 81. 6% 72. 2% 70. 2% - New address system, etc. 2002 2004 2006 2008 2010 < Korea Internet Security Agency > 7

Ample experience of conducting electronic surveys by Statistics Korea 3 6 (2005) (2006) 25 Ample experience of conducting electronic surveys by Statistics Korea 3 6 (2005) (2006) 25 (2009) 27 (2010) 8

2. Internet Option for the 2010 Census 9 2. Internet Option for the 2010 Census 9

(1) Outline of the 2010 Census History Conducted every five years since 1925. 2010 (1) Outline of the 2010 Census History Conducted every five years since 1925. 2010 Population Census (18 th ) Census Day As of 0: 00, November 1, 2010 Enumeration Period November 1 – 15 (15 days) Census Questionnaire 50 items (short form: 19, long form: 31) (e-Census : Oct. 22 -31, 10 days) 10

Child care Citizenship Year/Month of Arrival Multicultural Family Low Birth Rate & Aging Society Child care Citizenship Year/Month of Arrival Multicultural Family Low Birth Rate & Aging Society Number of children mothers plan to have Impairment care Low Carbon Green growth Social Participation Digital Broadcasting Social activities IT facilities Heating facility Main means of commuting Use of transportation means 11

Workforce Results Release 119, 000: 6, 000 officials + 113, 000 enumerators Preliminary: Dec. Workforce Results Release 119, 000: 6, 000 officials + 113, 000 enumerators Preliminary: Dec. 2010 Short form: Jul. 2011 / Long form : Oct. 2011 $157. 2 M Budget * 1995: $46. 8 M, 2000: $72. 5 M, 2005: $112. 1 M. Publicity cost $11. 0 M 67. 5% Labor cost $106. 1 M 7. 0% 7. 6% Data processing $11. 9 M 17. 9% Census activity & supplies $28. 1 M 12

(2) Timeline for Internet Option Period Preparatory Period Oct. 19 -21 Internet Option Oct. (2) Timeline for Internet Option Period Preparatory Period Oct. 19 -21 Internet Option Oct. 22 -31 Door-to-door Visits Nov. 1 -15 13

(3) Work Flow of the Internet Option Preparation Address DB, Household list, Housing DB (3) Work Flow of the Internet Option Preparation Address DB, Household list, Housing DB Public Campaign Create Internet Access Code Pull & Push Strategy Give Internet Access Code Intent to participate Thank You Note (e-mail) Confirm No Yes Fill Out the Form Yes Finished? Yes DB Automatic editing No Electronic management Re-contact those who haven’t completed the form • Send SMS to encourage response 14

(4) Internet Access Code Country Internet Access Code Canada * Internet Access Code(15 -digit) (4) Internet Access Code Country Internet Access Code Canada * Internet Access Code(15 -digit) Australia * Census Form Number(13 -digit) * E-Census Number(12 -digit) * Government approval number(4 digit) * Questionnaire ID(11 -digit) * Verification Number(8 -digit) Japan Digit 15

(5) Accessing the Online Form Access the Internet Begin the e-Census For foreigners Enter (5) Accessing the Online Form Access the Internet Begin the e-Census For foreigners Enter Internet Access Code 16

(6) Census Questionnaire for the Internet Cover Household Members Housing 17 (6) Census Questionnaire for the Internet Cover Household Members Housing 17

(7) Input and Automatic Editing Range and logic checks Number of edit specifications : (7) Input and Automatic Editing Range and logic checks Number of edit specifications : 88 for short form, 227 for long form 18

(8) Automated Response Management Automatically manage the input process and report the status Shown (8) Automated Response Management Automatically manage the input process and report the status Shown here these households have completed the form This household has not completed the form 19

(9) Ensure Security e-Census System Internet Router External Firewall Web Firewall WEB Firewall External (9) Ensure Security e-Census System Internet Router External Firewall Web Firewall WEB Firewall External Network Internet WAS Firewall DB Firewall Internal Firewall EXT WEB WAS DB User Security Encoding SSL WEB Sever WAS Sever DB Sever User Security Network Security Web Service Server Security DB Security (Level 1) (Level 2) (Level 3) (Level 4) (Level 5) PC Security § PC keyboard § Web browser § No capture § Encoding SSL Access Control § Separating internal and external network § Control irregular traffic Web Service Security § Web Firewall Security OS Encoding Data § Controlling accesses § Encoding personal to server information 20

3. Internet Uptake Rate 21 3. Internet Uptake Rate 21

(1) Overall Internet Uptake Rate : 47. 9% (2) By questionnaire and region 100% (1) Overall Internet Uptake Rate : 47. 9% (2) By questionnaire and region 100% Short 100% Urban 47. 7% 49. 6% 100% Long 49. 3% 100% Rural 40. 4% 22

(3) Characteristics of Internet Participants Daily internet response rate Beginning period 5. 4%, Ending (3) Characteristics of Internet Participants Daily internet response rate Beginning period 5. 4%, Ending Period 5. 0% (Thousand Households) 1, 000 943 900 Beginning Period 866 Ending Period 800 655 700 595 600 491 500 400 546 464 619 580 408 Weekend effect 300 209 329 258 172 200 100 611 194 146 101 115 56 0 10/19 10/20 10/21 10/2210/23 10/24 10/25 10/26 10/27 10/28 10/29 10/30 10/31 11/2 11/3 11/4 11/5 11/6 11/7 Preparation Internet option period Extension 23

Response rate by the time of day 8 pm~10 pm(16. 4%), 10 pm~midnight(12. 6%), Response rate by the time of day 8 pm~10 pm(16. 4%), 10 pm~midnight(12. 6%), 10 am~noon(12. 1%) (%) 18 16. 4 16 14 11. 6 11. 0 12 12. 6 12. 0 12. 1 10. 7 10 7. 9 8 6 4 3. 6 1. 3 2 0. 6 0. 3 0 0 -2 2 -4 4 -6 6 -8 8 - 10 10 - 12 12 - 14 14 - 16 16 - 18 18 - 20 20 - 22 22 - 24 24

Age group (Internet respondents) Age 59. 8% 54. 9% 48. 2% 35. 3% 35. Age group (Internet respondents) Age 59. 8% 54. 9% 48. 2% 35. 3% 35. 7% ~19 20~29 34. 5% 30~39 40~49 50~59 60~ 25

Education of household head (Internet respondents) Education 59. 8% 46. 3% 33. 4% 33. Education of household head (Internet respondents) Education 59. 8% 46. 3% 33. 4% 33. 9% Elementary Middle School High School College+ 26

Size and type of household Size Type 64. 1% 64. 4% 62. 1% 53. Size and type of household Size Type 64. 1% 64. 4% 62. 1% 53. 9% 39. 2% 38. 3% 31. 3% 1 -person hhs 2 -person hhs 3 -person 4 -person 5+person hhs hhs Married couple w/ children w/o children 27

Type of housing and occupancy Housing Occupancy 59. 3% 47. 9% 51. 7% 47. Type of housing and occupancy Housing Occupancy 59. 3% 47. 9% 51. 7% 47. 1% 49. 8% 47. 5% 43. 5% 37. 3% 36. 0% Detached Apartment Row house Apartment Others dwelling unit in a house Owned Tenement Rent-free 28

4. Data Quality 29 4. Data Quality 29

(1) Coverage Error Post-enumeration Survey of the 2010 Census The Internet option shows lower (1) Coverage Error Post-enumeration Survey of the 2010 Census The Internet option shows lower omission and duplication rates Internet Interview Net omission rate 0. 06 0. 80 Omission rate 0. 20 1. 24 Duplication rate 0. 14 0. 44 30

(2) Content Error Edit and Imputation The Internet responses show lower error rates <Error (2) Content Error Edit and Imputation The Internet responses show lower error rates 31

ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) analysis Controlling for age, education, sex, occupancy, and the type ANCOVA (Analysis of Covariance) analysis Controlling for age, education, sex, occupancy, and the type of living quarters, Internet responses show less errors. 32

5. Lessons Learned 33 5. Lessons Learned 33

(1) Prove to be a cost-effective tool for census Reduce personnel expenditure: by $14. (1) Prove to be a cost-effective tool for census Reduce personnel expenditure: by $14. 2 M - 10, 000 fewer enumerators: $3. 9 M saved - Shorter enumeration period: 19 days $10. 3 M saved 16 days Save data processing cost: by $3. 5 M 1, 774 fewer data capture operators : $3. 5 M saved 34

(2) Proven to be a convenient tool for surveys Reduce enumerator’s visits to households (2) Proven to be a convenient tool for surveys Reduce enumerator’s visits to households < Reasons for choosing the Internet option > 72. 2% 11. 7% 10. 5% 2. 5% Convenience Dislike visit by enumerators Incentive Safety (from add-on questionnaire on Internet option in 2010 Census) 35

Most participants were satisfied with the Internet option 70. 9% (5. 72 M households) Most participants were satisfied with the Internet option 70. 9% (5. 72 M households) of the Internet participants responded. - Of them, 73. 5% responded “Satisfied” (Unit: %) Overall Degree of Satisfaction 1 -5 Scale Very Satisfied Neither Satisfied Nor dissatisfied Dissatisfied Very dissatisfied No response Total 4. 01 29. 9 43. 6 20. 4 2. 3 1. 3 2. 4 Short 4. 06 31. 7 44. 1 19. 1 1. 8 1. 0 2. 3 Long 3. 60 16. 2 40. 4 30. 1 6. 6 4. 0 2. 7 36

(3) Prove to obtain more accurate responses The range and logic check functions of (3) Prove to obtain more accurate responses The range and logic check functions of the Internet option worked effectively to secure accurate response. # of edit specifications : Long-form 227, Short-form 88 - # of mean error in short-form : 0. 08 for Internet response vs 1. 83 for Interview - # of mean error in long-form : 1. 27 for Internet response vs 3. 56 for Interview Higher coverage according to the PES Respondents with higher education are more likely to choose the Internet option 37

(4) Success Factors As of 2010, the highest level in the world 0. 5% (4) Success Factors As of 2010, the highest level in the world 0. 5% in the 2005 Korean Census Singapore(15. 0%, 2000; 38. 0%, 2010), Canada(18. 5%, 2006), Norway(9. 9%, 2001), Australia(9. 0%, 2006; 37%, 2011), New Zealand(7. 0%, 2006), Switzerland(4. 2%, 2000) Seven months later, 54. 4% in the 2011 Census of Canada 47. 9% 37. 0% 4. 2% 7. 0% Switzerland New Zealand (2006) (2000) 8. 0% Japan (2010) 38. 0% 9. 9% Norway (2001) Australia (2011) Singapore (2010) Korea (2010) Canada (2011) 38

(4) Success Factors High Internet penetration rate for households : 81. 6% as of (4) Success Factors High Internet penetration rate for households : 81. 6% as of 2010 User-friendly, well-designed questionnaire → convenient to respond Stability of e-Census system Competitive sprit for higher Internet participation among provinces 39

(4) Success Factors Strategy for enhancing Internet responses Pull Incentives - Hand out gifts (4) Success Factors Strategy for enhancing Internet responses Pull Incentives - Hand out gifts by drawing : LED TV(20), Notebook (80), Bicycle(240) … - Give students two hour credits for volunteer work Publicity Campaign - Campaign for e-Census Push Internet first Internet Interview 40

Thank you! Thank you!