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Community Gardening for Active Citizenship: Initial Report P. J. Frable 1 ND RN & Community Gardening for Active Citizenship: Initial Report P. J. Frable 1 ND RN & L. Dart 2 Ph. D RD LD Texas Christian University, 1 Harris College of Nursing & Health Sciences 2 Department of Nutritional Sciences

Objectives l Describe service learning as a teaching strategy to enhance practicum learning experience Objectives l Describe service learning as a teaching strategy to enhance practicum learning experience l Describe a community based participatory research, service learning initiative for fostering the citizenship model of “agent for social justice” and civic literacy skills among public health nursing students

Background Background

Inadequate physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and food insecurity are associated with Inadequate physical activity, inadequate fruit and vegetable consumption, and food insecurity are associated with overweight and obesity l Adequate consumption of fruits and vegetables l Daily moderate to vigorous physical activity along with strength building several times weekly l Food security: adequate quality and quantity of calories for their activities of daily living

Logic Model: Community Gardening for Active Citizenship 1 2 3 4 Logic Model: Community Gardening for Active Citizenship 1 2 3 4

In Community Gardening for Active Citizenship, community based participatory research serves as the catalyst In Community Gardening for Active Citizenship, community based participatory research serves as the catalyst that helps civic engagement and service learning create social capital

Community Gardens l Peer-reviewed literature limited, but suggests community gardens ¡ Increase access to Community Gardens l Peer-reviewed literature limited, but suggests community gardens ¡ Increase access to and consumption of fruits and vegetable ¡ Improve food security ¡ Increase physical activity, especially strength building activity ¡ Alter community spaces in positive ways ¡ Create social capital ¡ Help people develop job-related skills

Community Gardening and Public Health l Community gardening process offers numerous opportunities to develop Community Gardening and Public Health l Community gardening process offers numerous opportunities to develop skills including the four civic literacy skills Collective decision making ¡ Communication ¡ Critical thinking ¡ Organization ¡ l Community gardening offers opportunities for students to utilize the standards of public health nursing practice (ANA, 2007)

Program Description Program Description

Tarrant County Resource Connection (RC) Mission: Provide employment, education, health and human services in Tarrant County Resource Connection (RC) Mission: Provide employment, education, health and human services in a single environment that allows County citizens to efficiently utilize resources that promote self-sufficiency, selfreliance, and wellness l Unique public private collaboration operating as self-supporting entity of County government l

Tarrant County Master Gardeners Association (MGA) l Non-profit organization with 325 active, certified members Tarrant County Master Gardeners Association (MGA) l Non-profit organization with 325 active, certified members l Part of Texas Agri. Life (Texas Cooperative Extension) l Requires minimum of 50 hours of instruction plus 50 volunteer hours in first year after course work l Two Master Gardeners serve as main consultants and contacts for this project

Demonstration Community Garden l “dedicated to the creation and maintenance of a gardening environment Demonstration Community Garden l “dedicated to the creation and maintenance of a gardening environment designed to improve the health and quality of life for persons of all ages and abilities through education and the application of current horticultural practices. ” RC contributed 2 acres, ongoing grounds crew, water, and security support ¡ MGA contributed garden expertise, volunteer labor, supplies (plants, soil, greenhouse, materials for beds) ¡

Demonstration Community Garden RC and MGA collaborate. Landscape plan developed. 2005 RC and MGA Demonstration Community Garden RC and MGA collaborate. Landscape plan developed. 2005 RC and MGA formally commit to initiate project 2006 TCU Nursing and Nutritional Sciences faculty initiate relationship with Garden partners 2006, Fall Nursing and Nutritional Sciences students begin participation in project 2007, Spring Students continue participation. Collaborate with Nash 2007, Elementary to establish School Community Garden and Fall Composting Project Nursing and Nutritional Sciences students engage in Garden Outreach initiatives 2008, Spring

Nursing Courses l Community Health Nursing Practicum ¡ ¡ ¡ l Public Health Nursing Nursing Courses l Community Health Nursing Practicum ¡ ¡ ¡ l Public Health Nursing rotation, Reflective Practice III ¡ ¡ l Senior II BSN students Eleven to 12 weeks, one practicum day per week Spring and Fall 2007 Accelerated Baccalaureate Nursing Track students Spring 2008, 9 practicum days completed in one month Both courses ¡ ¡ Population focused Interventions dependent on faculty and student actions

Nutritional Sciences Courses l Supervised Practice in General Dietetics ¡ ¡ ¡ l Junior Nutritional Sciences Courses l Supervised Practice in General Dietetics ¡ ¡ ¡ l Junior Coordinated Program in Dietetics students Six weeks, 10 -12 hours each week Fall 2007 Supervised Practice in Community Nutrition ¡ ¡ ¡ Senior Coordinated Program in Dietetics students Seven weeks, 10 -12 hours each week Spring 2007 and 2008

Spring 2007 l Nursing and Nutritional Sciences students help establish garden ¡ Build beds, Spring 2007 l Nursing and Nutritional Sciences students help establish garden ¡ Build beds, establish rose berm, move soil, help with rain water harvesting system l Nursing students plan and implement Opening Day event to promote garden l Nutritional Sciences students complete initial outreach for Tarrant Area Food Bank, WIC, and Senior Citizen Services

Fall 2007 Nursing and Nutritional Sciences students complete Community Gardener certification, curriculum designed by Fall 2007 Nursing and Nutritional Sciences students complete Community Gardener certification, curriculum designed by MGA, in consultation with TCU faculty, specifically for TCU students l Nursing students implement “Build Day”, working with school children to build three raised beds and establish composting program l Nutritional Sciences students follow nursing students, providing classroom education on healthful eating and building additional beds l

Spring 2008 - Nursing Two student sections completed Community Gardening certification l Lessons l Spring 2008 - Nursing Two student sections completed Community Gardening certification l Lessons l ¡ ¡ ¡ Soil composition, fertilizers, mulching and watering Rain water harvesting Composting Plant propagation Native plants Entomology

Spring 2008: Demonstration Garden Cohort l Contributed to garden infrastructure: composting, planting, building 3 Spring 2008: Demonstration Garden Cohort l Contributed to garden infrastructure: composting, planting, building 3 new beds l Engaged pregnant and parenting adolescents in adopting 4 beds, planting flowers and vegetables, and walking to garden regularly l Connected Senior Citizen Service clients with MGA for container gardening classes l Established initial outreach with MHMR and Veterans Affairs l Provided in-service on therapeutic and enabling gardens for MGA interns building enabling garden

Spring 2008: Nash Elementary School Cohort l Planned, implemented, evaluated and documented Science and Spring 2008: Nash Elementary School Cohort l Planned, implemented, evaluated and documented Science and Gardening Fair for 4 th and 5 th grade students and their families Assisted in teaching 5 th grade science to help prepare students for TAKS and build relationships with students ¡ Five learning stations at fair ¡ l l l Digestive system Water cycle and soil composition Plant propagation Photosynthesis and fruit and veggie critters Tasting garden products and making better food choices

You Are What You Eat Science and Gardening Fair You Are What You Eat Science and Gardening Fair

You Are What You Eat Science and Gardening Fair You Are What You Eat Science and Gardening Fair

Results Results

Research Questions How effective is community gardening for fostering civic skills in collective decision Research Questions How effective is community gardening for fostering civic skills in collective decision making, communication, critical thinking, and organization? l Does engagement of students as partners in CBPR promote their development as active citizens? l How effective is the partnership among TCU faculty, TCU students, and the Demonstration Garden in achieving study objectives? l

Evaluation Plan l Journey Mapping event maps (Nutrition) and journals (Nursing), 2007 l Students’ Evaluation Plan l Journey Mapping event maps (Nutrition) and journals (Nursing), 2007 l Students’ meeting course objectives l Faculty – student conferences l Action plan progress l CDC Framework for Program Evaluation in Public Health, Donabedian’s Structure – Process – Outcome framework, ecological framework, and CBPR principles

Service Learning Results - Students l Met course objectives l Applied learning to personal Service Learning Results - Students l Met course objectives l Applied learning to personal lives l Contributed to community-identified needs at Demonstration Garden and Nash Elementary School l Traditional Track (2007) had more difficulty in understanding community gardening as mechanism for promoting public health than Accelerated (2008) ¡ Status of garden and CBPR may contribute to this relationship

Civic Literacy Results - Students Participation increased nursing students’ awareness of civic literacy skills Civic Literacy Results - Students Participation increased nursing students’ awareness of civic literacy skills and selfreported assessment of these skills l Fall 2007 students wrote Chancellor about ways TCU campus could incorporate rain water harvesting and composting l Spring 2008 students provided greatest outreach and response to community partners l

Journey Mapping Journals Fall 2007 % Compete nt Oct 07 % Not Applicabl e Journey Mapping Journals Fall 2007 % Compete nt Oct 07 % Not Applicabl e Oct 07 % Competen t Nov 07 Think constructively about how to improve political/civic life 20 50 70 Listen, judge, discuss, confer, and act to improve political/civic life 10 50 70 Work as a team 30 70 100 Explain, analyze, and synthesize information about political/civic life 30 40 80 Understand perspectives of others in the community 40 60 80 Build cooperative relationships/Interact with others to promote personal and common interest/Achieve compromise 20 70 90 Evaluate, take, defend positions on public events and issues 20 50 90 Identify and solve problems in context of conflict 30 50 80 Take on real responsibilities and challenging tasks 40 60 80 To what degree do you have mastery of these skills?

Civic Literacy Results - Faculty Made connections between public health nursing and civic literacy Civic Literacy Results - Faculty Made connections between public health nursing and civic literacy more visible l Facilitated more conversations with students about social justice, U. S. history and law, and American (US) narratives past and present l Included guest lecture on Constitution in companion Concepts course l

Community Based Participatory Research Results l The community-campus partnership developed for this project seems Community Based Participatory Research Results l The community-campus partnership developed for this project seems just now ready to begin serious dialogue about research opportunities ¡ Educate partners about value of the research component and encourage their participation ¡ Recruit Texas Agri. Life as a partner ¡ Facilitate nursing students’ interest in participating as research partners

Future Directions Future Directions

Next Steps l Formalize l Proposal l Continue CBPR relationship writing to support outreach Next Steps l Formalize l Proposal l Continue CBPR relationship writing to support outreach activities at Demonstration Garden and Nash Elementary School

Thanks to Our Community Partners l l l Tarrant County Resource Connection Tarrant County Thanks to Our Community Partners l l l Tarrant County Resource Connection Tarrant County Master Gardeners Nash Elementary School Senior II Nursing Students in the Community Health Nursing Practicum, Spring 2007 and Fall 2008 Accelerated Baccalaureate Nursing Students in the Public Health Nursing rotation, Spring 2008 Junior and Senior students in Coordinated Program in Dietetics

Acknowledgement of Funding Sources l Center for Civic Literacy, Texas Christian University l Center Acknowledgement of Funding Sources l Center for Civic Literacy, Texas Christian University l Center for Community Engagement and Service Learning, Texas Christian University l Harris College of Nursing and Health Sciences, Texas Christian University (inkind support)

For more information contact l Pamela Jean Frable ND RN ¡ ¡ Harris College For more information contact l Pamela Jean Frable ND RN ¡ ¡ Harris College of Nursing and Health Sciences Texas Christian University ¡ l Associate Professor, Nursing P. [email protected] edu Lyn Dart Ph. D RD LD ¡ Associate Professor ¡ Department of Nutritional Sciences Texas Christian University ¡ L. [email protected] edu

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