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Communications & Tracking Plan Development Workshops July 9, 11 & 13 2007 1 Communications & Tracking Plan Development Workshops July 9, 11 & 13 2007 1

Communication Reality WV SB 247 and the Miner Act did not revoke the laws Communication Reality WV SB 247 and the Miner Act did not revoke the laws of physics WV § 56 -4 drafted with all the laws in mind 2

WV § 56 -4 • Wireless – miner not connected by wire • Two-way WV § 56 -4 • Wireless – miner not connected by wire • Two-way communications to each miner in at least two separate airways • Tracking each miner in relation to known points prior and in escapeways after • Operators submit Communication/Tracking Plan by July 31, 2007 – Understand needs and thought through risks – Survive accident or be quickly repairable – Communication center operator min. red-hat 3

Electro-Magnetics for Miners Enough so you can ask the right questions … not so Electro-Magnetics for Miners Enough so you can ask the right questions … not so much it hurts your head 4

Frequencies Wave Lengths & Rates Analog Digital Baud Rate = Number of clock cycles Frequencies Wave Lengths & Rates Analog Digital Baud Rate = Number of clock cycles per second Bit Rate = Number of bits transmitted per second 5

Available Frequencies Practical options are limited by physics and existing uses 6 ELF-LF MF Available Frequencies Practical options are limited by physics and existing uses 6 ELF-LF MF VHF-UHF Wi. Fi

Band Definitions Abbreviation Frequency Band ELF Extremely Low Frequency 30 - 300 Hz VLF Band Definitions Abbreviation Frequency Band ELF Extremely Low Frequency 30 - 300 Hz VLF Very Low Frequency 3 – 30 KHz LF Low Frequency 30 – 300 KHz MF Medium Frequency 300 – 3000 KHz VHF Very High Frequency 30 MHz – 300 MHz UHF 7 Name Ultra High Frequency 300 – 3000 MHz

Bandwidth • Analog bandwidth is frequency range • Digital bandwidth is amount of information Bandwidth • Analog bandwidth is frequency range • Digital bandwidth is amount of information in a given amount of time Voice = 300 -3400 Hz Analog bandwidth = 3100 Hz Digital bandwidth = 18, 600 bps 8

Decibels (d. B) • Decibels are measure of power signal and noise Gain is Decibels (d. B) • Decibels are measure of power signal and noise Gain is d. B level ratio given by: − 30 d. B = 1/1000 = 0. 001 #d. B = 10 log 10 Pout Pin • When negative means loss 9 − 20 d. B = 1/100 = 0. 01 − 10 d. B = − 3 d. B = 10 d. B = 20 d. B = 30 d. B = 1/10 = 0. 1 1/2 = 0. 5 (approx. ) 2 (approx. ) 10 1000

Losses in Wires and Cables Metal Wires & Cable Fiber Optic Cable Resistance + Losses in Wires and Cables Metal Wires & Cable Fiber Optic Cable Resistance + Skin Affect Material Absorption Splice Losses Material Scattering Bending Losses 10

Losses in the Entry • Path loss – Increase as square of the distance Losses in the Entry • Path loss – Increase as square of the distance 11 • Other Losses – Materials – Multi-path

Material Effects Material Dry wood LF RF-lucent MF VHF/UHF RFabsorben RF-lucent t Wi. Fi Material Effects Material Dry wood LF RF-lucent MF VHF/UHF RFabsorben RF-lucent t Wi. Fi RFabsorbent Wet wood RF-lucent RFRFRFabsorbent t Coal RF-opaque RF-lucent RF-opaque Metal RF-lucent RF-opaque RF-lucent lets radio waves pass through it. RF-opaquesubstantial loss without any RF-absorbent allows radio waves to pass but with substantial loss RFRF-opaque blocks, reflects, and scatters RF waves Water RF-lucent absorben t 12 absorbent

Multi-Path Propagation R S D R= Reflection D= Diffraction S=Scattering 13 Multi-Path Propagation R S D R= Reflection D= Diffraction S=Scattering 13

Reflective Effects Reflected waves interact to form new patterns These may not be recognized Reflective Effects Reflected waves interact to form new patterns These may not be recognized by the receiver as useful information 14

Ideal Waveguide Effects Confines and guides path of electromagnetic wave X 1 st 2 Ideal Waveguide Effects Confines and guides path of electromagnetic wave X 1 st 2 nd Y 8 th 15

d. B Realistic Waveguide Effects Reflective losses and absorption increase attenuation modes 16 d. B Realistic Waveguide Effects Reflective losses and absorption increase attenuation modes 16

Noise Effects • All communications systems have Distortion noise – Radio frequency interference (RFI) Noise Effects • All communications systems have Distortion noise – Radio frequency interference (RFI) – Electromagnetic interference (EMI) – Laser noise Masking 17

Antenna Choices Antenna design offers many coverage pattern options Critical that the correct one Antenna Choices Antenna design offers many coverage pattern options Critical that the correct one is used for each location 18

Leaky Feeder Antennas Propagated Signal Internal Propagation Internal Wire Outside Sheath w/openings 19 Leaky Feeder Antennas Propagated Signal Internal Propagation Internal Wire Outside Sheath w/openings 19

Transmission Modes • Simplex – One direction • Half duplex – Either direction, but Transmission Modes • Simplex – One direction • Half duplex – Either direction, but only one way at a time • Full duplex – Both directions at the same time 20

RFID Radio Frequency Identification Software matches Tag ID database Radio command signal issued from RFID Radio Frequency Identification Software matches Tag ID database Radio command signal issued from reader Antenna Reader Tag holds unique ID 164 B 28 F 34 21 Signal containing data returned

Types of Tags – Passive • Power scavenged from reader – Active • Transmitter/ Types of Tags – Passive • Power scavenged from reader – Active • Transmitter/ battery in tag UHF (850 MHz to 950 MHz) – Ranges to 3 meters and high reading speeds 22 HF (13. 56 MHz) – Ranges to 1. 5 meters - not susceptible to interference from water or metal

Wireless Communication and Tracking System Options 23 Wireless Communication and Tracking System Options 23

Through The Earth (TTE) 200 Hz-4000 Hz Greatest Potential No In-Mine Backbone 24 Current Through The Earth (TTE) 200 Hz-4000 Hz Greatest Potential No In-Mine Backbone 24 Current Reality Commercial One-Way w/Text Off-Axis Reception Problematic Large Antenna Loops Non-Permissible Power Levels Emergency Shelter Option

Medium Frequency (MF) 300 k. Hz - 3 MHz CABLE BELT Greatest Potential Use Medium Frequency (MF) 300 k. Hz - 3 MHz CABLE BELT Greatest Potential Use Existing Metal as Backbone Interoperability 25 Current Reality Prototype Demonstrated Unknown Safety

Wi-Fi Mesh Nodes 2. 4 GHz Greatest Potential Wide Bandwidth Flexibility Interoperability 26 NODE Wi-Fi Mesh Nodes 2. 4 GHz Greatest Potential Wide Bandwidth Flexibility Interoperability 26 NODE Current Reality Initial units demonstrated Limited Node-to-Node Range Line-of-Sight Only Handsets not yet commercial Requires Redundancy & Hardening

Leaky Feeder (VHF) 150 -170 MHz Distributed Antenna System LEAKY FEEDER AMPLIFIER Greatest Potential Leaky Feeder (VHF) 150 -170 MHz Distributed Antenna System LEAKY FEEDER AMPLIFIER Greatest Potential Available and Upgradeable Interoperability 27 Current Reality Multiple Installations Commercial Handsets Limited Beyond Sight of Feeder Limited Data Capability Requires Redundancy & Hardening

Leaky Feeder (UHF) 400 -500 MHz Distributed Antenna System LEAKY FEEDER AMPLIFIER Greatest Potential Leaky Feeder (UHF) 400 -500 MHz Distributed Antenna System LEAKY FEEDER AMPLIFIER Greatest Potential Available and Upgradeable Interoperability 28 Current Reality Multiple Installations Commercial Handsets Some Beyond Sight of Feeder Moderate Data Capability Requires Redundancy & Hardening

Leaky Feeder Enhancements Distributed Antenna System SPECIALTY ANTENNA RADIATING CABLE EXTENSION Greatest Potential Mine Leaky Feeder Enhancements Distributed Antenna System SPECIALTY ANTENNA RADIATING CABLE EXTENSION Greatest Potential Mine Wide Coverage Multiple Pathways 29 2 ND LEAKY FEEDER RUN Current Reality Limited Installation Experience Some Needed Devices in Prototype

Future Technologies = Survivability 30 Greatest Potential Multiple Pathways System Integration Signal Takes Whatever Future Technologies = Survivability 30 Greatest Potential Multiple Pathways System Integration Signal Takes Whatever Survives Current Reality Standard Telecom Practice Site Specific Best Solution Interoperability Limited Device Development Required Adoptable to Current Technology

Tracking Where GPS Won't Go Know the Location Proximity signal strength Acknowledgement Communicate the Tracking Where GPS Won't Go Know the Location Proximity signal strength Acknowledgement Communicate the Location Dedicated backbone Shared backbone Show Information Map display Data analysis Threshold alarms 31 Current Reality Zone Systems RFID Active Tag Systems Ethernet Backbone and Leaky Feeder Backbone Signal Triangulation Near

WV § 56 -4 Functionality Reviews After the evaluation of the documentation submitted and WV § 56 -4 Functionality Reviews After the evaluation of the documentation submitted and with the recommendation of our technical reviewers the Office of Miner’s Health Safety and Training verifies that _____ has demonstrated functionality such as would allow W. Va. underground mining permit holders to meet all or part of their requirements for emergency communications and tracking in outlined the West Virginia Emergency Rule Governing Protective Clothing And Equipment, § 56 -4 -8 and will be included in the listing of reviewed devices. 32 Pre-Application Meeting Application Received Reviewed Data Augmentation Requested Re-Reviewed Functionality Determination Letter MSHA IS Approval

Active Applications Varis Communications 150 -170 MHz Leaky Feeder Kenwood Radios Digital – 56 Active Applications Varis Communications 150 -170 MHz Leaky Feeder Kenwood Radios Digital – 56 kbs Hughes Supply 150 -170 MHz Leaky Feeder 400 -500 Mhz Leaky Feeder Kenwood Radios Digital – 56 kbps Marco North-America 900 MHz RFID Tracking Leaky Feeder or Ethernet Hannah Engineering 2. 4 GHz 802. 11 Nodes Vo. IP Phones and Wi. Fi Tags Digital – 11 mbps Matrix Design Group 433 MHz Tag Tracking Fiberoptic Ethernet Backbone Leaky Feeder Backbone Helicomm, Inc (Venture Development) 33 2. 4 GHz 802. 15. 4 Nodes RS 845 Ring of Subnet Controllers Digital 250 kbs Text Messaging 400 -500 Mhz RFID Tracking Active Control Technology 2. 4 GHz 802. 11 Nodes Vo. IP Phones and Wi. Fi Tags Digital 11 mbps 2. 4 Ghz Signal Strength Tracking Mine. Comm (Pyott Boone Electronics) 150 -170 MHz Leaky Feeder 400 -500 Mhz Leaky Feeder Kenwood Radios Digital – 56 kbps Mine Site Technology (CSE) 150 -170 MHz Leaky Feeder LF Through the Earth 2. 4 GHz 802. 11 Tag Tracking Mine Radio System 150 -170 MHz Leaky Feeder Kenwood Radios Digital – 56 kbps Ranjant Corporation 2. 4 GHz 802. 11 Nodes Wireless Backbone Only Northern Lights 2. 4 GHz 802. 11 Nodes Fiber or CAT 5 Ethernet Backbone Wi. Fi Tags and Vo. IP Phones

Quality of Communications “ Can you hear me now? ” Turns out not to Quality of Communications “ Can you hear me now? ” Turns out not to be a trivial question Copyright Verizon Adapted a standard reporting format from ARRL 34 Accepted Reception Reporting Systems

Quality of Reporting has been done in distances Provides limited information Adopted minimal information Quality of Reporting has been done in distances Provides limited information Adopted minimal information requirements for reporting Example of tabular reporting 35

Ability to Relate Still need more information to make design decisions 36 Ability to Relate Still need more information to make design decisions 36

Developing Your Plan Intended to be used by: • Operators to perfect system design Developing Your Plan Intended to be used by: • Operators to perfect system design • Miners to understand how the systems work • Mine Inspectors to ensure adequate coverage • Mine Rescue to understand how to contact and track in an emergency 37 Our Plan

Why Write a Plan • To organize your thoughts and identify gaps • To Why Write a Plan • To organize your thoughts and identify gaps • To provide guidance to those that implement your plan – Miners and emergency responders – Contractors • To demonstrate that you have chosen a workable solution • No points off for grammar or spelling 38 Our Plan

Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Emergency Contact Information 39 Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Emergency Contact Information 39 Our Plan

Emergency Contact Information Mine Name Mine Address Physical Location Mine ID – State Mine Emergency Contact Information Mine Name Mine Address Physical Location Mine ID – State Mine ID – MSHA General Manager/Superintendent Name Daytime Phone # Emergency Phone # Email address Safety Manager/Director Daytime Phone # Emergency Phone # Email address 40 Communication System Manufacturer Communication System Vendor Emergency Phone # Email address Tracking System Manufacturer Tracking System Vendor Emergency Phone # Email address Our Plan

Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Communication-Tracking System Description 41 Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Communication-Tracking System Description 41 Our Plan

Description • Overview of structure and operations of the final separate or integrated communication/ Description • Overview of structure and operations of the final separate or integrated communication/ tracking system(s) • Including actions you have or will have to take to meet § 56. 4 requirements – Text description of the components that are currently in place and those that are planned to be added – How each contributes to meeting the requirements 42 Our Plan

Coverage • Explain how your plan will allowing for wireless tracking and wireless two Coverage • Explain how your plan will allowing for wireless tracking and wireless two way communications with each miner providing coverage in at least two separate air courses, at least one of which shall be an intake. • And for knowing the location of miners and direction of travel at key points in the escapeways, at a minimum at junctions (section, section-submain/mains intersections), so that all options of travel are covered. 43 Our Plan

Survivability • Explain what has been or will be done to ensure survivability such Survivability • Explain what has been or will be done to ensure survivability such that the communication-tracking system will be functional after an accident – What provisions are made for rapidly reestablishing coverage – Maintain communication/tracking after loss of outside power 44 Our Plan

Shelter(s) • Description of the communication system that is or will be used in Shelter(s) • Description of the communication system that is or will be used in shelters – Provisions made to rapidly reestablish communication if lost in the accident 45 Our Plan

Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Communication-Tracking System Operations 46 Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Communication-Tracking System Operations 46 Our Plan

Installation and Maintenance • Explain how the communications/tracking system will be: – Installed (who Installation and Maintenance • Explain how the communications/tracking system will be: – Installed (who and how) – Tested (who and how) – Maintained (who and how) • Provide the manufacturer’s checklists for each type of inspection, routine, relocation, annual, etc 47 Our Plan

Operating Instructions • Provide copies of the operating instructions for each component of the Operating Instructions • Provide copies of the operating instructions for each component of the communicationtracking system to be provided for the miner and for emergency personnel 48 Our Plan

Comm Center Operations • Describe the communication center • Include procedures for communication center Comm Center Operations • Describe the communication center • Include procedures for communication center operators covering at least: – Monitoring at all times when one or more miners are underground – Knowing the location of all miners, in relation to pre-determined points – Check-in and check-out procedures for seldom used areas – Emergency response actions 49 Our Plan

Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Proof of order and Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Proof of order and compliance dates 50 Our Plan

Proof of Order 51 • Copy of purchase orders to implement plan – Communication-tracking Proof of Order 51 • Copy of purchase orders to implement plan – Communication-tracking equipment – Installation – Routine and emergency maintenance – If in-house then proof of qualified staff al ov pr – Documentation should specify: ap er • Order date: ft a • Delivery date: ed uir eq • Operational Date: r y nl O Our Plan

Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Training 52 Our Plan Tab 1 Tab 2 Tab 3 Tab 4 Tab 5 Training 52 Our Plan

Training • Explain how miners, supervisors and likely emergency responders will be trained in Training • Explain how miners, supervisors and likely emergency responders will be trained in the use, limitations and inter-operability of communication/tracking system – Initial training dates for implementation of the communication-tracking system – How communication/tracking incorporated in other required training – Where training will be recorded 53 Our Plan

Time Line August OMHST Markups September – October Approvals > WV Communication Plan Approvals Time Line August OMHST Markups September – October Approvals > WV Communication Plan Approvals > July 31 Mine Submittal August – September Re-writing October + Order-Installation > MSHA Electrical Approvals > OMHS&T Communications Plan Team One inspector from each Regional office + Member(s) of the Approval Review Team 54 Our Plan

Results, Status and Guidance Go to: wvminesafety. org Click on: Emergency Communications and Tracking Results, Status and Guidance Go to: wvminesafety. org Click on: Emergency Communications and Tracking 55

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