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Commercial-off-the-Shelf DC-DC Converters for High Energy Physics Detectors for the s. LHC Upgrade S. Commercial-off-the-Shelf DC-DC Converters for High Energy Physics Detectors for the s. LHC Upgrade S. Dhawan, O. Baker, H. Chen, R. Khanna, J. Kierstead, F. Lanni, D. Lynn, A. Mincer, C. Musso S. Rescia, H. Smith, P. Tipton, M. Weber Yale University, New Haven, CT USA Brookhaven National Laboratory, Upton, NY USA Rutherford Appleton Laboratory, Chilton, Didcot, UK National Semiconductor Corp, Richardson, TX, USA New York University, New York, NY, USA 1 IEEE Nuclear Science Symposium, Orlando, FL USA 25 -31 October, 2009

Length of Power Cables = 140 Meters 10 Chip Hybrid – SCT Module for Length of Power Cables = 140 Meters 10 Chip Hybrid – SCT Module for LHC 20 Chip Hybrid – Si Tr Module for Hi Luminosity 3. 5 V Cable Resistance = 4. 5 Ohms 1. 5 amps Voltage Drop = 6. 75 V 1. 3 V Voltage Drop = 10. 8 V 2. 4 amps 1. 3 V 2. 4 amps 10. 25 V 4088 Cables X 10 DC-DC Power Converter 13 V Voltage Drop = 1. 08 V 0. 24 amps 12. 1 V Counting House 14. 08 V 2

Agenda § Learning from Commercial Devices § Buck > Voltage, EMI § Plug In Agenda § Learning from Commercial Devices § Buck > Voltage, EMI § Plug In Cards for ABCN 2. 5 Hybrids - Noise Tests @Liverpool § Require Radiation resistance & High Voltage operation § Thin Oxide § High Voltage with Thin Oxide ? § DMOS, Drain Extension 12 V @ 5 nm , 20 V @ 7 nm § HEMT has no Oxide – Higher Voltage ? 200 Mrads 20 V 3

Synchronous Buck Converter 100 nsec 10 V 900 nsec 1 V 4 Synchronous Buck Converter 100 nsec 10 V 900 nsec 1 V 4

Enpirion EN 5360 § Found out at Power Technology conference 0. 25 µm Lithography Enpirion EN 5360 § Found out at Power Technology conference 0. 25 µm Lithography § Irradiated Stopped on St. Valentines Day 2007 § No effects after 100 Mrads § Noise tests at Yale, RAL & BNL. § 20 µm Al is good shield for Air Coils § All other devices failed, even other part numbers from Enpirion § We reported @ TWEPP 2008 - IHP was foundry for EN 5360 § What makes Radiation Hardness ? § Chinese Company Devices 5

Empirical Evidence: Deep submicron But what why? 6 Empirical Evidence: Deep submicron But what why? 6

 We say thin Gate Oxide is a necessary Condition 7 We say thin Gate Oxide is a necessary Condition 7

IBM Foundry Oxide Thickness Lithography Process Operating Oxide Name Voltage Thickness 0. 25 µm IBM Foundry Oxide Thickness Lithography Process Operating Oxide Name Voltage Thickness 0. 25 µm nm 6 SF 5 3. 3 7 8 RF 0. 13 µm 2. 5 1. 2 & 1. 5 2. 2 & 3. 3 5. 2 8

Tunneling Region Thickness ~ 5 nm Oxide Trap Region + + + Fixed Charge Tunneling Region Thickness ~ 5 nm Oxide Trap Region + + + Fixed Charge States Switching Charge States V + + + Gate GND + + Oxide Si Book ‘Ionizing Radiation Effects in MOS Oxides’ Author Timothy R. Oldham 9

Can We Have High Radiation Tolerance & Higher Voltage Together ? ? ? Controller Can We Have High Radiation Tolerance & Higher Voltage Together ? ? ? Controller : Low Voltage High Voltage: Switches – LDMOS, Drain Extension, Deep Diffusion etc >> 20 Volts HEMT Ga. N on Silicon, Silicon Carbide, Sapphire 10

LDMOS Structure Laterally Diffused Drain Extension High Voltage / high Frequency Main market. Cellular LDMOS Structure Laterally Diffused Drain Extension High Voltage / high Frequency Main market. Cellular base stations High performance RF LDMOS transistors with 5 nm gate oxide in a 0. 25 μm Si. Ge: C Bi. CMOS technology: IHP Microelectronics Electron Devices Meeting, 2001. IEDM Technical Digest. International 2 -5 Dec. 2001 Page(s): 40. 4. 1 - 40. 4. 4 11

R. Sorge et al , IHP Proceedings of SIRF 2008 Conference High Voltage Complementary R. Sorge et al , IHP Proceedings of SIRF 2008 Conference High Voltage Complementary Epi Free LDMOS Module with 70 V PLDMOS for a 0. 25 μm Si. Ge: C Bi. CMOS Platform 12

Non IBM Foundry ICs Company Device Process Foundry Oxide Time in Dose before Observation Non IBM Foundry ICs Company Device Process Foundry Oxide Time in Dose before Observation Name/ Number Name Thickness Seconds Damage seen nm Country ASIC custom SG 25 V GOD IHP, Germany 5 53 Mrad Xy. Semi FET 2 amps HVMOS 20080720 China 7 52 Mrad Xy. Semi XP 2201 HVMOS 20080720 China 7 In Development Xy. Semi XPxxxx HVMOS 20080720 China 7 In Development Synch Buck Xy. Semi XP 5062 China TPS 54620 LBC 5 0. 35 µm IHP Damage Mode slight damage minimal damage 12. 3 800 44 krad loss of Vout regulation 20 420 23 krad abrupt failure TI loss of Vout regulation IR IR 3841 Enpirion EN 5365 CMOS 0. 25 µm Dongbu Hi. Tek, Korea Enpirion EN 5382 CMOS 0. 25 µm Enpirion EN 5360 #2 Enpirion EN 5360 #3 9 & 25 230 13 Krads 5 11, 500 85 krad Dongbu Hi. Tek, Korea 5 2000 111 Krads loss of Vout regulation SG 25 V (IHP) IHP, Germany 5 22 Days 100 Mrads Minimal Damage SG 25 V (IHP) IHP, Germany 5 10 Days 48 Mrads Minimal Damage Increasing Input Current, 13

14 14

Depletion Mode Normally ON Enhancement Mode Normally OFF 15 Depletion Mode Normally ON Enhancement Mode Normally OFF 15

Ga. N for Power Switching 16 Ga. N for Power Switching 16

Gallium Nitride Devices under Tests RF Ga. N 20 Volts & 0. 1 amp Gallium Nitride Devices under Tests RF Ga. N 20 Volts & 0. 1 amp v 8 pieces: Nitronex NPT 25015: Ga. N on Silicon ü Done Gamma, Proton & Neutrons ü 65 volts Oct 2009 v 2 pieces: CREE CGH 40010 F: Ga. N on si. C v 6 pieces: Eudyna EGNB 010 MK: Ga. N on si. C ü Done Neutrons Switch Ga. N v International Rectifier Ga. N on Silicon Under NDA Gamma: @ BNL Protons: @ Lansce Neutrons: @ U of Mass Lowell Plan to Expose same device to Gamma, Protons & Neutrons 17

200 Mrads of Protons had no effect – switching 20 V 0. 1 Amp 200 Mrads of Protons had no effect – switching 20 V 0. 1 Amp Parts still activated 18

Plug In Card with Shielded Buck Inductor Coupled Air Core Inductor Connected in Series Plug In Card with Shielded Buck Inductor Coupled Air Core Inductor Connected in Series 0. 35 mm 1. 5 mm Inductance ~ 0. 6 µH 12 V 2. 5 V @ 6 amps Spiral Coils Resistance in mΩ 3 Oz Replace pcb coil with copper foil 0. 25 mm Cu Top Bottom 57 46 19. 4 17 19

Noise Same with Linear or DC - DC Shield 20 µm Al Foil Sensor Noise Same with Linear or DC - DC Shield 20 µm Al Foil Sensor 1 cm from Coil Noise NO change with Plug in card on top 20

IR’s basic current Ga. N-on-Si based device structure is a high electron mobility transistor IR’s basic current Ga. N-on-Si based device structure is a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT), based on the presence of a two dimensional electron gas (2 DEG) spontaneously formed by the intimacy of a thin layer of Al. Ga. N on a high quality Ga. N surface as shown in Figure 1. It is obvious that the native nature of this device structure is a HFET with a high electron mobility channel and conducts in the absence of applied voltage (normally on). Several techniques have been developed to provide a built-in modification of the 2 DEG under the gated region that permits normally off behavior. Aside from providing high quality, reliable and a low-cost CMOS compatible device manufacturing process, the Ga. Npow. IR technology platform also delivers dramatic improvements in three basic figures of merit (FOMs), namely specific on- 21 resistance RDS(on), RDS(on)*Qg and efficiency*density/cost.

 Conclusions v. Learned from commercial Devices, Companies & Power conferences v. Can get Conclusions v. Learned from commercial Devices, Companies & Power conferences v. Can get high Radiation Tolerance & Higher Voltage v. High Frequency > Smaller Air coil > Less Material v. Goal: ~20 MHz Buck, MEM on Chip size 9 mm x 9 mm v. Power SOC: MEMs Air Core Inductor on Chip v. Study Feasibility 48 / 300 V Converters v. Irradiation: Run @ Max operating V & I. v. Limit Power Dissipation by Switching duty cycle v. Online Monitoring during irradiation for faster results v. Yale Plug Cards can be loaned for Evaluation v. Collaborators are Welcome 22

Working on Power Supply Is not Glamorous Neither it on Top of the World Working on Power Supply Is not Glamorous Neither it on Top of the World for ? More Details: www. Yale. edu/FASTCAMAC click on DC-DC 23