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Combining Sentences Chapter 6, pg 96
Why combine sentences? Why not write like this? n n n See Spot run. Spot chases Mitten. See Mittens runs fast. See Mittens climb a tree.
Two Ways to Combine Sentences n Coordination n Subordination
What is coordination n Co-ordination is the pairing of similar elements – words, phrases, or clauses – to give equal weight to each.
Use Coordination when n n you have two sentences that contain ideas of equal importance. The clauses are independent (simple sentences).
Combining Sentences Using Co-ordination n You can combine sentences by using punctuation and/or connecting words called conjunctions.
What is co-ordination? n n Co-ordination can link two independent clauses to form a compound sentence. There are three ways to combine sentences.
How to combine sentences to produce a compound sentence 1. Use a comma & a coordinating conjunction Everyone needs what the farmers produce, so we should be concerned about their problems. n n n A conjunction is a connecting or joining word. What is the conjunction in this sentence? Name the seven co-ordinating conjunctions.
Comma + Coordinating Conjunction n Name the seven coordinating conjunctions. And for or but so yet nor
Do I have to have a comma? n You can leave it out in a short compound sentence but it is never wrong to include it
Caution n When using a comma in this type of compound sentence, be sure it truly is a compound sentence. n IC , conjunction I left early, for IC the bus is often late.
Caution n Don’t use a comma if the second part of the sentence is not an independent clause. n I left early, for work. WRONG n I left early for work. RIGHT
Identifying co-ordinating conjunctions Identify the subject and verb for each independent clause. Then circle the comma and coordinating conjunction. Pg 98, “Practice” The speaker rose to his feet, and the room became quiet. 1. The audience was packed, for this was a man with an international reputation.
Option 2: Semicolon + 2. Use a semicolon, an adverbial conjunction, and a comma (Pg 101) I worked hard; therefore, I expected results. n What is the adverbial conjunction in this sentence?
How to combine sentences n Name some other common adverbial conjunctions. Pg 102 In addition however instead accordingly likewise indeed meanwhile
Identifying adverbial conjunctions Identify the subject and verb for each independent clause. Then circle the semicolon, adverbial conjunction, and comma. n n n The jet was the fastest way to get there; moreover, it was the most comfortable. The land was not for sale; however, the house could be rented. Pg 102, Practice
Caution n Don’t use a comma instead of a semicolon. The land was not for sale, however, the house could be rented. WRONG The land was not for sale; however, the house could be rented. RIGHT
Caution n The land was not for sale; however the house could be rented. WRONG n The land was not for sale; however, the house could be rented. RIGHT
Option 3: Use a Semicolon 3. Use a semicolon I used to watch the Toronto Blue Jays play baseball at Exhibition Stadium; tonight I’m going to watch them play in the Skydome. n Here the semicolon takes the place of a conjunction.
Semicolons (continued) n n Use a semicolon only when the content of two clauses is closely related. When sentences are combined using a semicolon, the grammatical structure of each sentence should be similar (parallel). The women pitched the tents; the men cooked dinner. Exercise 7 on pg 105
Review n n n As a writer, why would you want to use co-ordination? When do you use co-ordination? Name three ways to combine sentences using co-ordination.
Practice: Relay Race n n Get into 2 groups Decide your order
Go! n Each sentence that appears, your group’s representative will have to 1. underline the subject 2. highlight the verb 3. Identify the combination or combine the sentences. 4. The person who answered, initial it! 5. Check your answer with Mrs. T to move on to the next sentence!
Combining Sentences using Subordination Chapter 7, pg 113
Subordination n Method of combining two clauses that contain ideas that are not equally important
Subordination n Combines an INDEPENDENT clause and a DEPENDENT clause. n IC: I drank the water DC: When I drank the water… n
Exercise 2, pg 114 n DC 1. DC 2. IC IC 3. 4. IC or DC? Before the show began While Betty bought the tickets I played some video games The line at the concession stand was too long
Using Subordinating Conjunctions Pg 116 n After in order that Although once As, as if provided that As long as rather than Because since Even though so that Before though n unless until when, whenever where, wherever whereas whether while
Subordinating Conjunctions (117) n n To introduce a condition I will go as long as you go with me To introduce a contrast I will go even though you wont go with me To introduce a cause I will go because the meeting is important To show time, place or purpose when, until, wherever, so that
Exercise 5 pg 119 1. He was eating breakfast. The results of the election came over the radio. 1. While he was eating breakfast, the results of the election came over the radio. 2. The town council voted against the plan. They believed the project was too expensive. 2. The town council voted against the plan because they believed the project was too expensive.
Subordination using Relative Pronouns n Sentences can be combined using a relative pronoun. The researcher had a breakthrough. He was studying diabetes. The researcher who was studying diabetes had a breakthrough. Incorrect would be: The researcher had a breakthrough who was studying diabetes.
Exercise 8 pg 124 1. Stress can do a great deal of harm. We experience stress every day. 1. Stress, which we experience every day, can do a great deal of harm. 2. People often use food to help them cope. Some people’s jobs are demanding. 2. People whose jobs are demanding often use food to help them cope.