- Количество слайдов: 28
COM 3325 Technical Communication Audience and Task Analysis Presented by: Benqadi Irchad Miryam El basri Yasmina El Fethouni Soraya Oulad Benchiba
Outline Introduction ◦ Defining Audience and task analysis Body ◦ Who reads technical documents? ◦ Why do they read? ◦ What are their tasks? ◦ How do you identify tasks? ◦ How do you write for an audience? Conclusion ◦ How do you revise for an audience?
Defining Audience and task analysis “Audience and task analysis is the starting point for any study of technical communication as well as technical writing”
Who reads technical Documents? Technical audiences as defined by Houp K. and Pearsall: ◦ Laymen ◦ Technicians ◦ Executives ◦ Experts
Defining Audience Defining the relationship of the audience with the technology provides a useful hint in defining their knowledge about that technology
Defining Audience - Example Photoshop: ◦ Entry level ◦ Intermediate ◦ Joggers ◦ Experts
Task analysis focuses on: ◦ what kind of information the readers need ◦ which task they seek to accomplish ◦ What type of information they need to make decisions
Why do they read? Solve problems Accomplish important tasks Gather information
Task Analysis for Instructions Task analysis for instructions must be straightforward : In order to write a task analysis, you have to define the common uses of the concerned device and then write accordingly.
Non-instructural information Also called topic analysis, their readers are looking for a certain topic to meet their needs. Example: Global warming report for real-estate developers. This report should be written under this form: è The causes of Global Warming è The effects è Arguments against theory è Balanced view è Current research è Current efforts to combat global warming
After reading this task analysis, the readers will understand theory, its worst implications, see the other side of the argument, see your balanced view of the matter, and get better perspective from the report with which to make their own decisions.
How do you identify tasks? I. II. Real projects – real audience – real feedback Invented “hypothetical” projects and audiences
I. Real projects – real audience – real feedback In some technical-writing courses, you must find a real project and present it to a real audience
Example: Printer guide for the computer lab The steps to follow: Project including a topic and purpose 2. A list of people who will be using the doc 3. A list of tasks that must be performed 4. Identify amount of experience, knowledge and skills 1.
Example: Printer guide for the computer lab Observe the audience to identify the tasks for which they might need inforamtion 6. Concepts and terminology list 7. Create an audience description 5.
Audience: This guide is for the system administrator installing the printer on the network. This document covers only those features unique to Cognitive’s network e+Solutions™ printer line. Please refer to the specific printer’s user guide for information on using and maintaining the printer. Consult the Programmer’s Guide and Cognitive’s web site for additional configuration, setup and special feature functions.
II. Invented “hypothetical” projects and audiences Use your imagination and define a hypothetical audience
Example: Global warming report for real estate investors The steps to follow: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. A project which includes the topic and purpose Information about the individual requesting the report The audience interests and needs for the report Concepts and terminology list Topic you should discuss, and the details you should cover Audience description
How do you write for an audience? • You need to write with an audience fully in mind at all times. • Not a step-by-step process like audience and task analysis rather a frame of mind/ a mental perspective/ an attitude.
What is the issue? In a speech, the speaker and the listener engage in a give-and-take process. The listener may look exasperated, bored and may even interrupt to ask questions; the speaker reacts accordingly (by restating, clarifying and so on) When you write, the reader is not there to react. Nor are you, when the reader reads your document. 20
The in-person communication model Construct an imaginary audience with whom we engage in a mentalistic giveand-take right inside our own brains. Mentally engage in recreating the live, inperson situation 21
What do you mean by that? I don’t see how this relates to what you’ve told me so far I’m not majoring in this stuff…I just basic information! Where are you going with this? Questions from your “inner-audience” May I have an example, please? What does that big fancy word mean? Could you repeat that? But I thought you said earlier that… 22
What are the benefits? You write more detailed and more clearly. Imaginary audience match actual readers You carry on a much more active, more detailed dialog with those imaginary readers 23
How to make this easier? Remember the story of Pinocchio. Jimmy Cricket is Pinocchio’s imaginary audience. When he stops listening to that cricket, his nose growth (just like if he has strayed from his audience). Find something to hang over your computer and consider it as your reader. 24
How do you revise for an audience? Just as you listen to that internal voice as you write, you need it again as you review. Try to undergo a complete personality change and become your intended reader as you review your draft. 25
What’s an STS? A kilobase? A substrate? Readerbased questions and comments in the review process What are these markers every 100 kb? What’s a kb? What is it these people are actually doing? What does this activity mean to ordinary, non-science people? What’s the difference between a sequencer and a mapper? 26
Just in case… If the internal-voice metaphor just does not work for you, you might try something a bit more mainstream: the multiphase method of revising. It consists in: starting with high-level issues such as content, audience, and organization and work all the way down to grammar, usage, and punctuation. 27
Workshop Define an audience for a technical document: ◦ Imagine a technical document ◦ What is the technical document about? ◦ Define the audience relationship with the information in technical document ◦ Define the level of depth of information needed 28