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Cold War What is it? l Rivalry between the US and Soviet Union l Cold War What is it? l Rivalry between the US and Soviet Union l Two superpowers never faced each other directly l Fought on foreign soil never endangering own civilians l Never a total war like the world wars l

Potsdam Conference agreements Soviets get rights to collect war damages from its portion of Potsdam Conference agreements Soviets get rights to collect war damages from its portion of Germany l Stalin refused free elections in Eastern Europe l Truman left the conference believing that the Soviet Union was planning world conquest l

The Postwar World l l l They developed the United Nations a new organization The Postwar World l l l They developed the United Nations a new organization for world peace in 1945 The UN had a Security Council and General Assembly The Council settles political, economic and military disputes. It includes China, France, Britain, the Soviet Union (now Russia) and the U. S. Ten other seats are filled by rotating countries All UN member states belong to the Assembly. They discuss budget, policy and membership issues.

l l l l A Divided Europe Despite the peace efforts, tension was high l l l l A Divided Europe Despite the peace efforts, tension was high in Europe The U. S. and Soviet Union disagreed on the political future of Central and Eastern Europe Germany was a major sticking point Germany was divided into four zone controlled by U. S. /Britain/France/USSR (Soviet Union) at the Potsdam Conference in 1945 U. S. wanted Germany to be united and independent The Soviets kept its armies in Germany and Eastern Europe to create “satellite states” loyal to Soviet Union Soviets said they were protecting their borders, but western countries saw it as an attempt to take over the world

Containment Defined l l George Kennan is generally credited with defining Americas response to Containment Defined l l George Kennan is generally credited with defining Americas response to the aggressiveness of the Soviet Union Containment theory taught that the Soviets would never turn from their plans of world domination… Unless hindered by force at every turn Containment created the need for America to assist any country that was perceived to be falling under the influence of the Soviets

The Next Steps l l l Secretary of State George C. Marshall felt that The Next Steps l l l Secretary of State George C. Marshall felt that Europe’s economic recovery was crucial for world peace He also felt recovery would help the U. S. economy which needed trade with Europe The Marshall Plan: rebuilding the devastations of war-torn Europe with massive American aid The U. S. even offered to help the Soviet Union, but they refused saying that it was a plot to enslave Europe and make it dependent on the U. S. The USSR also kept its Eastern European satellites out

New Alliances Form l l l Many western countries were fearful of the Soviets New Alliances Form l l l Many western countries were fearful of the Soviets The concerns led to the U. S. , Canada, Iceland nine other western European countries to form NATO in 1945 NATO: North Atlantic Treaty Organization, alliance that vowed that an attack on one nation-member would be an attack on all The Soviet Union responded by forming the Warsaw Pact inn 1955, an alliance that included the Eastern European countries it controlled. With the Soviet development of its own atomic bomb in 1949… The world was on pins and needles wondering when World War III would start

Berlin Airlift l On June 24, 1948 the Soviets suddenly blocked all highway and Berlin Airlift l On June 24, 1948 the Soviets suddenly blocked all highway and rail traffic between West Berlin and Western Europe l This blockade effectively cut off West Berlin from all sources of supplies l Left with less than 40 days' worth of food, people in West Berlin feared a communist takeover l The U. S. decided to fly food, fuel, and other goods into the city l In June 1948, U. S. and British planes began the Berlin Airlift

Accomplishments of UN Aided the move away from colonialism in places like India l Accomplishments of UN Aided the move away from colonialism in places like India l Helped create the Jewish state of Israel l Provided food and other aid where it was needed in the world l Wrote the Universal Declaration of Human Rights l

War Criminals go on trial Geneva Convention- an international agreement governing the humane treatment War Criminals go on trial Geneva Convention- an international agreement governing the humane treatment of wounded soldiers and prisoners of war. l The Germans and the Japanese had violated the Geneva convention during the war l The Allies tried more than a thousand Japanese citizens for committing atrocities. Hundreds were condemned to death l

War Criminals Nuremberg Trials- the trials where the Allies prosecuted the Nazis for war War Criminals Nuremberg Trials- the trials where the Allies prosecuted the Nazis for war crimes. l The Nazis claimed they were just following orders. l The judges at Nuremberg did not accept their excuses, some of the Nazis were hanged; some received long prison sentences. l

Big Cold War Items l l l l Red Scare Mc. Carthyism HUAC Blacklisting Big Cold War Items l l l l Red Scare Mc. Carthyism HUAC Blacklisting of people like they tried to do to Lucille Ball Bomb shelters / duck and cover Draft for men fighting Korean War and later Vietnam War Huge budget for Defense Spending hiked taxes Nuclear Brinksmanship

Korean War l l l Corrupt Chiang Kai Shek regime and our aid was Korean War l l l Corrupt Chiang Kai Shek regime and our aid was squandered and people starved in China Mao won for communists When Americans left South Korea in 1949 N Korea built up military and invaded Pushed S Korea to bottom of country until Mac. Arthur counterattacked Mac. Arthur gambled China would not help N Korea. He lost and was outnumbered by close supply line and troops from China. Truman refused to take on China and Mac. Arthur was fired for insubordination for asking Congress directly

Korean War Effects 37, 000 Americans killed l l l 103, 000 Americans wounded Korean War Effects 37, 000 Americans killed l l l 103, 000 Americans wounded With no hope for victory Mash medical units and others saw unnecesssary waste Military spending was increased permanently to keep stalemate in effect US Presidents sent military into combat without Congressional approval repeatedly after that e. g. Viet Nam By 1960 50% US budget was military SEATO Southeast Asia Treaty Organization Australia, New Zealand, Philippines, Pakistan, Thailand, US, France and Britain

North Korea Invades South Korea l l l On June 25, 1950 North Korea North Korea Invades South Korea l l l On June 25, 1950 North Korea supplied with weapons from communist China & Soviet Union invades South Korea below the 38 th parallel Vote in the United Nations is to condemn l Soviets had boycotted U. N. since Jan over Communist China’s exclusion from U. N. In July of 1950, General Douglas Mac. Arthur took command of a 15 nation army of troops (mostly U. S. and S. Korea) to fight in Korea President Truman never actually declared war, instead he called it a “police action” By Sept. 1950, U. N. troops hold the perimeter around Pusan (southern tip of Korea) Sept. 15 U. N. forces land at Inchon, start pushing N. Korea back l By Sept. 26 Seoul is freed l Allied troops break out of Pusan and join troops moving south from Seoul

U. S. & U. N. go on Offensive l l By October 1950 Allied U. S. & U. N. go on Offensive l l By October 1950 Allied troops cross into North Korea Mc. Arthur has changed the aim of the war to uniting Korea under Democracy l l Oct. 19 Pyongyang, capital of North Korea, falls Oct. 25 Chinese communist officially enter war, send more troops to help North Korea Soviets didn’t officially enter war, but their Mig 15 missile was used Nov. 21 troops reach the Yalu river, the border of N. Korea & China

China Helps Push U. N Forces Back l Several hundred thousand Chinese soldiers cross China Helps Push U. N Forces Back l Several hundred thousand Chinese soldiers cross the Yalu into North Korea l l l Allied troops fall back south of the 38 th Parallel 20, 000 U. S. marines are cut off at the port of Hungnam U. S. actually has to perform an amphibious evacuation – similar to DDay landing, but in reverse

Mc. Arthur vs. Truman l Mc. Arthur wants to: l l l Bomb China Mc. Arthur vs. Truman l Mc. Arthur wants to: l l l Bomb China with nuclear bombs if necessary Encourage Chang Kai Shek to invades Chinese mainland from Taiwan “There is no substitute for victory” l Truman wants to l l l Keep war limited to Korea Fears a WWIII Orders Mc. Arthur to clear all statements with him Wrong time, Wrong place, Wrong Enemy When Mac. Arthur publicly criticizes Truman, Truman removes him from command in April 1951 Decision is very unpopular, Mac. Arthur returns home to parades

Eisenhower Nuclear arms race mutually assured destruction Eisenhower assumed next war would be nuclear Eisenhower Nuclear arms race mutually assured destruction Eisenhower assumed next war would be nuclear l Conventional forces downgraded for delivery systems for nuclear l Dulles brinksmanship policy l Stalin died in 1953 and Krushchev succeeded l Kruschev quashed violently Hungarian anti -communist revolt and US stood by l

End of War l l l l By 1951, it was clear no one End of War l l l l By 1951, it was clear no one would win the war, unless someone took a drastic measure like dropping an atomic bomb Soviet leader, Joseph Stalin had died in 1953 Eisenhower and the new Soviet leaders both wanted to end the war in Korea On July 27, 1953 North and South Korea agreed to a truce, but not a peace treaty Set up a 2 1/2 mile wide demilitarized buffer zone along 38 th parallel After years of fighting and 5 million casualties total the line that divided N. & S. Korea was still roughly the same Even today, U. S. soldiers still line up along the 38 th parallel and enforce the demilitarized zone