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Cognitive Orientation and Management: Predicting and Changing Behavior in Management Shulamith Kreitler, Ph. D. Cognitive Orientation and Management: Predicting and Changing Behavior in Management Shulamith Kreitler, Ph. D. Department of Psychology Tel-Aviv University Tel-Aviv, Israel Tel: +972 -3 -5227185 Fax: +972 -3 -5225371 E-mail: [email protected] net. il

What is Cognitive Orientation and what it can do for management? What is Cognitive Orientation and what it can do for management?

Reasons for the complexity of management behavior: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Multiplicity of Reasons for the complexity of management behavior: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Multiplicity of goals, contexts, teams interacting, combining, replacing each other at unpredictable rates. Constant dependence on and need to respond adequately to external circumstances over which one has little or no control. Constant evaluation by external standards that could lead to lowered status up to the point of being fired. Requirement for creativity coupled with the need to conform to reality-conditioned circumstances Absence of any specific behavior which could be identified as demonstrating good management.

Three approaches to overcoming the difficulties of management: n n n Shaping external reality Three approaches to overcoming the difficulties of management: n n n Shaping external reality (markets, consumers, other businesses) Shaping internal reality (within the business itself, employees, atmosphere) Shaping management: Selecting and Training individuals with the adequate potential

Three common, possible approaches to overcoming the difficulties of management: n n n Shaping Three common, possible approaches to overcoming the difficulties of management: n n n Shaping external reality (markets, consumers, other businesses) Shaping internal reality (within the business itself, employees, atmosphere) Shaping management: Selecting and Training individuals with the adequate potential We are going to focus on shaping management. There have been many theoretical and applied approaches to selecting managers.

Common approaches to selecting managers: 1. Focusing on characteristics considered to be relevant for Common approaches to selecting managers: 1. Focusing on characteristics considered to be relevant for the position, e. g. , n n Considering the job requirements (stimulus properties), e. g. , elegance, expertise, verbal ability Considering the personality (response properties), e. g. , self-esteem, flexibility, locus of control

Common approaches to selecting managers: 2. Level of characteristics n n General: e. g. Common approaches to selecting managers: 2. Level of characteristics n n General: e. g. , Adaptors versus Innovators (Kirton), Leadership, Emotional intelligence Specific: e. g. , Ability to concentrate under noise conditions Readiness to get specific instructions for performance

Common approaches to selecting managers: 3. Means of assessment n n n n Self-report Common approaches to selecting managers: 3. Means of assessment n n n n Self-report Peers evaluation Supervisors’ evaluation Verbal Behavioral General items Situational items

Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 1. 2. Too specific Limited to particular Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 1. 2. Too specific Limited to particular context job behavior needs OR

Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 2. Too general Do not relate to Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 2. Too general Do not relate to any particular context job behavior needs

Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 3. Selection not coordinated with training Major shortcomings of the common selection procedures 3. Selection not coordinated with training

Principles of selection on the basis of cognitive orientation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Principles of selection on the basis of cognitive orientation 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. Selecting on the basis of a set of characteristics Selecting in view of multiple needs Selecting on the basis of motivational tendencies (and not traits) Selecting on the basis of tendencies related directly to behavior Selecting on the basis of tendencies related to a broad spectrum of behaviors in a given domain Selecting on the basis of motivational tendencies that allow for change and training Selection and training open to extension to any preferred type of manager

Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n A theory Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n A theory for understanding n predicting n changing n behavior

Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n A body Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n A body of data – in regard to predicting behavior n changing behavior n conceptual and empirical tools generated by theory n

Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n A methodology Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n A methodology – for predicting behavior n changing behavior in desired direction n

Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n Major domain Cognitive Orientation Theory Developed in 1962 Hans Kreitler and Shulamith Kreitler n Major domain of application Molar behaviors n Cognitive behaviors n Health behaviors n Medical disorders n Psychopathological disorders n Emotional behaviors n

Basic Assumption of the Cognitive Orientation Theory : Cognition plays an active-dynamic role in Basic Assumption of the Cognitive Orientation Theory : Cognition plays an active-dynamic role in regard to behavior

Cognitive Orientation Theory (Kreitler & Kreitler) Major Theses : n Behavior is a function Cognitive Orientation Theory (Kreitler & Kreitler) Major Theses : n Behavior is a function of a motivational disposition (=directionality of behavior) and performance Motiv dis (W po her siti atio e to ? ) on nal Performance (How? ) Behavior Cognition affects behavior by contributing differentially to motivation and performance n The cognitive impact is neither conscious nor voluntary n

The rationale for the impact of cognitions on behavior is their meaning-based relation to The rationale for the impact of cognitions on behavior is their meaning-based relation to behavior

Cognitive Orientation Theory Major Stages “Question” Process “Answer” INPUT 1. What is it? or Cognitive Orientation Theory Major Stages “Question” Process “Answer” INPUT 1. What is it? or response 2. What does it mean in general to me? 3. What action? Meaning Action Meaning Generation 4 types of beliefs; CO Cluster 4. How to perform Program Retrieval; action? Planning Unconditioned Action required and Behavioral Intent Behavioral Program OUTPUT

Input identified Meaning action What is the input? Input identified for molar action Input Input identified Meaning action What is the input? Input identified for molar action Input not identified What does it mean for me? Action required Reflex, CR, etc. Input dealt with Exit Input not dealt with Action not required Exit What action? Behavioral 4 types of beliefs: Intent How to Cog. Orientation Cluster perform action? Behavioral Program Behavior

Four Types of Behavioral Programs 1) Innately determined programs e. g. , reflexes 2) Four Types of Behavioral Programs 1) Innately determined programs e. g. , reflexes 2) Programs determined partly innately and partly by learning 1) 3) Programs acquired through learning 1) 4) e. g. , instincts, language e. g. , culturally shaped behaviors (running elections, etc. ) or personal habits (making friends, relaxing, etc. ) Programs constructed by the individual ad hoc

Structure of Beliefs BELIEF Self Norms Goals General SUBJECT I non-I RELATION Factual Desirable Structure of Beliefs BELIEF Self Norms Goals General SUBJECT I non-I RELATION Factual Desirable Desired Factual

Examples of the Four Types of Beliefs about self: “I am an easy-going person” Examples of the Four Types of Beliefs about self: “I am an easy-going person” “I often lie” “I hate disorder” Beliefs about goals: “I wish to be a tough person” “I would like to be free of any obligations” “I want to be loved by everybody”

Examples of the Four Types of Beliefs about rules and norms: “One should never Examples of the Four Types of Beliefs about rules and norms: “One should never lie” “People ought to consider first of all their own interests” “Don’t ever expect to be loved by everybody” General beliefs: “It is impossible to do everything to perfection” “Obligations weigh heavily on most people” “Most people lie even to their friends”

Identifying Themes by Meaning Generation Interpersonally-shared meaning of behavior or disorder Key-words Level 1 Identifying Themes by Meaning Generation Interpersonally-shared meaning of behavior or disorder Key-words Level 1 : Personal meanings of key-words Level 2 : Personal meanings of responses on level 1 Level 3 : Personal meanings of responses on level 2

Examples of Themes of Achievement : n n n Rejection of limitations All facts Examples of Themes of Achievement : n n n Rejection of limitations All facts can be changed All results depend on the individual Strength of the individual Commitment Themes of Punctuality : n n n Acceptance of limitations Compromising concerning one’s needs Concern with controlling events and situations

Predictive Matrix of Beliefs Themes 1) 2) 3) : . n) Beliefs about Self Predictive Matrix of Beliefs Themes 1) 2) 3) : . n) Beliefs about Self Norms Beliefs about General Goals Beliefs

Beli efs a bou t Sel f eliefs about Norms B als Go ut Beli efs a bou t Sel f eliefs about Norms B als Go ut bo fs a fs ie el lie B Be al er en G Behavioral Intent

Predicting Behavior on the Basis of the CO Theory 1. 2. 3. Constructing a Predicting Behavior on the Basis of the CO Theory 1. 2. 3. Constructing a CO questionnaire for the behavior of interest Administrating the CO questionnaire, examining the availability of the behavioral program and assessing the behavior If the behavioral program is available, then Examining the relations between the scores of the CO questionnaire and the behavior, in terms of n n CO index scores (0 -4) Analyses of variance Continuous scores for the 4 belief types Regression or Discriminant Function Analyses

Behavior Predictions on the basis of the CO Theory n n n n Achievement Behavior Predictions on the basis of the CO Theory n n n n Achievement Being late n Responses to success n Responses to failure Conformity Assertiveness n Curiosity n Impulsivity Handling stress n Orderliness Intolerance of ambiguity n Planning Applying different defense mechanisms n Accuracy Pain tolerance Compliance with treatment regimen (diabetics) Communicability Cleanliness (schizophrenics) Taking medication (schizophrenics) Paranoid reactions (schizophrenics) Rigidity (IQ 50 -60) n n n Speed of performance (schizophrenics) Reactions to success (IQ 50 -60) Reactions to failure (IQ 50 -60) Responsiveness to tangible an intangible rewards (IQ 50 -60) Quitting smoking Undergoing tests for the early detection of breast cancer

Cognitive Orientation of Creativity: CLUSTERS OF THEMES n n n n n Openness to Cognitive Orientation of Creativity: CLUSTERS OF THEMES n n n n n Openness to the environment, to possibilities, to others, curiosity Openness to one’s inner world, one’s experiences, emotions Playfulness, imagination, fantasy, thinking freely about problems, freedom from limited functionality Emphasis on the application of ideas, making things work, changing things in reality Focus on the self, one’s internal world, investing in the self, exploring the self, remaining faithful to oneself Readiness to contribute to the public welfare, doing things for the public, awareness of social and public issues Freedom, cognitive freedom, insistence on doing things one’s own way Need for firm framework, ability to conform to regulations and instructions Openness to others, sharing emotions with others Social shyness, readiness to differ from others, readiness to do one’s thing regardless of good or bad evaluation on the part of others

Cognitive Orientation of Creativity: CLUSTERS OF THEMES n n n Sticking to internal standards Cognitive Orientation of Creativity: CLUSTERS OF THEMES n n n Sticking to internal standards of excellence, without compromising, readiness to sacrifice a lot in order to attain one’s goals as one sees them Emphasizing one’s uniqueness, original contribution Dynamism, becoming, moving ahead, changing Readiness to make efforts, work hard, invest in whatever one is doing Readiness for risk-taking, and functioning under uncertainty No or low limiting boundaries between different domains (private and public, personal and interpersonal, subjective and objective, work and family, moral and esthetic)

Cognitive Orientation of team-work versus loner’s-work TEAM WORK LONER’S WORK Emphasis on Process Product Cognitive Orientation of team-work versus loner’s-work TEAM WORK LONER’S WORK Emphasis on Process Product Viewing others As source of benefits (e. g. , enjoyment, relaxation, support, admiration, inspiration) As burden, chore, requiring attention and other resources Attitude to others Trusting others Opening oneself up to others Defending against others Keeping things away from others Exploitation No fear of being exploited, not caring about being exploited Fear of being exploited One’s experiences and emotions Sharing, exposing Keeping to oneself Being understood by others Sense of being understood Others cannot understand one Rivalry, competition, jealousy Low High Getting the maximum out of oneself Sometimes Always Achievement considered As augmenting the available goods As aggrandizing oneself

Cognitive Orientation of Marketing and Salesmanship Orientation n n Development of the individual (or Cognitive Orientation of Marketing and Salesmanship Orientation n n Development of the individual (or of a unit such as, family or society) entails expansion of needs Needs need to be satisfied (it is socially and psychologically healthy to satisfy needs) Loving oneself means doing things for yourself (such as, purchasing) Satisfying needs promotes one’s independence When you produce and sell you promote openness, free flow; Freedom consists in openness, free flow

Study on Creativity in Management n n Participants: 62 managers 40 men, 22 women Study on Creativity in Management n n Participants: 62 managers 40 men, 22 women Mean age : 41. 6 High-tech businesses Dependant variable: Creativity in management Rating on 1 -7 scale Rated by supervisors Rated by co-managers Rated by subordinates

Study on Creativity in Management n Predictors: Cognitive orientation – n n n 4 Study on Creativity in Management n Predictors: Cognitive orientation – n n n 4 belief types Themes Regression analysis: R 2 =. 85 Order of contributing factors Goals. 97 Norms. 92 General. 90 Self. 84 :

Study on Creativity in Management Major contributing themes n Openness to environment n Openness Study on Creativity in Management Major contributing themes n Openness to environment n Openness to inner world n Emphasis on application n Readiness to contribute to public welfare n Dynamism n Risk-taking, uncertainty

Further predictions based on applying the CO questionnaire of creativity: n Creativity in resolving Further predictions based on applying the CO questionnaire of creativity: n Creativity in resolving engineering problems n n Creativity in resolving interpersonal conflicts in the plants n n Participants: 120 engineers in different employments Participants: 28 supervisors in plants producing construction materials Creativity in design n Participants: 25 design experts in advertisement (rating of products)

Study on team-work n Participants: 51 managers 30 men, 21 women Mean age : Study on team-work n Participants: 51 managers 30 men, 21 women Mean age : 37. 4 Pharmaceutical and electricity businesses n Dependant variable: Team-work functioning Rating on 1 -5 scale Mean rating by team members No. of raters per subject: 3 -5

Study on team-work n Predictors: Cognitive orientation – n n n 4 belief types Study on team-work n Predictors: Cognitive orientation – n n n 4 belief types Themes Regression analysis: R 2 =. 82 Order of contributing factors Norms. 95 Goals. 91 Self. 88 General. 80 :

Study on team-work n Correspondence between cognitive orientation scores of team-work: n n Cognitive Study on team-work n Correspondence between cognitive orientation scores of team-work: n n Cognitive Orientation (CO) scores : 0 – 4 Correspondence : Assessed in terms of gaps [absolute numbers] Range of gaps: |4| |3| |2| |1| Participants: n n 15 teams 2 -5 members per team Variables for each team: n n n Correspondence in CO scores (mean) Cohesion of team (mean of ratings) Correlation coefficient : r =. 70

Changing Behavior on the Basis of the CO Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. Administering Changing Behavior on the Basis of the CO Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. Administering the CO questionnaire for the behavior of interest Identifying themes and belief types in which there are not enough supporting beliefs (“weak cells”) Promoting belief evocation or construction in the “weak cells”, focusing on themes If an adequate behavioral program is not available, promote its acquisition

Advantages of the CO Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The CO Advantages of the CO Theory 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. The CO theory is an empirically supported theory and methodology of predicting and changing behaviors Each CO questionnaire predicts a broad range of behaviors in the relevant domain May be applied to participants of different ages, cultures, and IQs Applying the procedures of prediction or change does not require any “mind set” or other conditions and no addition of further variables Procedures may be applied in regard to any behavior Participants are unable to “adjust” responses to questionnaire to fit or not their behavior Procedures of predicting and changing behaviors are related (i. e. , economical)

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