- Количество слайдов: 28
Code-breakers: deciphering the languages and writing systems of the ancient world کﺪ ﺷکﻨﺎﻥ: کﺸﻒ ﺭﻣﺰ ﺯﺑﺎﻥ ﻫﺎ ﻭ ﺷیﻮﻩ ﻫﺎی ﻧگﺎﺭﺵ ﺟﻬﺎﻥ ﺑﺎﺳﺘﺎﻥ
Writing systems • Hieroglyphs: Egypt, Anatolia, Crete • Cuneiform (Wedge-shaped script): Sumerian, Akkadian, Old Persian, Babylonian, Elamite, Luwian. • Linear A (Syllabograms? ) Unknown language Minoans not Greek • Linear B (Syllabograms for Greek) Mycenaeans were Greek • Ogham (Irish system): Gaelic/Irish
Hieroglyphic Scripts • Hieros - sacred • Glyphein - to carve • Egyptian • Anatolian or Hittite or Luwian • Cretan • Mayan
Egyptian Hieroglyphs • • 3, 300 bc Logograms (word) Ideograms (idea) Alphabetic letters
The Rosetta Stone • Napoleon in Egypt 1798 -1801 • Jean-François Champollion 1822 Translation • 3 scripts – Greek – Hieroglyphic Egyptian – Demotic Egyptian (easier to write on papyri)
Luwian Language • Hittites • Hieroglyphs & Cuneiform • Trojans? Seal with Luwian Hieroglyphics
From Pictogram to Cuneiform
The Behistun Inscription • Old Persian, Elamite, Babylonian • Darius I (521 -486 bc) • Henry Rawlinson, Edward Hincks
Interlude… • Stop it, you little monster, or I’ll go out to the barn, and tell your father! • Pasiphae and Minotaur • RF vase, Etruria, c. 340 bc
Cretan Hieroglyphics: The Phaistos Disk Related scripts, partly syllabic, partly logographic: – Linear A – Anatolian hieroglyphs – Egyptian hieroglyphs.
The Minoans: Linear A • Arthur Evans • Unknown language (NOT Greek) • Minoan, Eteocretan? • Linear B syllabograms derived from Linear A • Linear A = Luwian? • Linear A = Phoenician? • John Younger
The Mycenaeans: Linear B • Arthur Evans effect • Linear B & Etruscan? • Syllabograms & Logograms • Total of 200 signs
Michael Ventris • Michael Ventris 1922 -1956 • John Chadwick • Inflected Language Declensions Conjugations • Cretan Place names? • Greek!
Greek in Syllabograms
Linear B & Mycenaean Social Order • WA-NA-KA [wanax] The King • RA-WA-KE-TA [lawagetas] Leader of the People = Prince? • E-QE-TA [heqetas] Companion or Member of Warrior Caste? • KE-RO-SI-JA [geronsia] Council of Elders? • DA-MO [damos] village • KO-RE-TE, PO-RO-KO-RE-TE [koreter, prokoreter] Official & Deputy • DO-E-RO, DO-E-RA [doeros, doera] Slave/Servant (doulos=slave)
Phoenician Alphabet • Semitic letter names • Aleph - ox - alpha • Bet - house - beta
Alphabet in History… • Herodotus: “The Phoenicians who came with Cadmus introduced into Greece …a number of accomplishments, of which the most important was writing, an art till then, I think, unknown to the Greeks.
Or Is it Pure Myth? • Cadmus, brother of Europa • Founder of Thebes • Date?
Family Tree of Danaos & Cadmus POSEIDON_______LIBYA I _____I_____ I I AGENOR BELUS I _____I______ CADMUS I I AEGYPTUS DANAOS I I 50 SONS 50 DAUGHTERS
Cadmus Myth • Cadmus, founder of Thebes, preceded Trojan War by several generations • Conventional date of Trojan War: early C 12 th bc • Cadmus C 14 th bc • Cadmeian alphabet not found in Greece before about the middle of C 8 th bc.
Writing in Homer: Iliad 6. 197 -202 • He (Proetus, King of Argos) balked at killing the man (Bellerophon) - he’d some respect at least. • But he quickly sent him off to Lycia, gave him tokens, • Murderous signs, scratched in a folded tablet, • And many of them, too, enough to kill a man. • He told him to show them to the father of Antea (wife of Proetus, false accuser of B): • That would mean his death…
Baleful Signs • When the tenth dawn shone with her rose-red fingers, • He began to question him, asked to see his credentials, • But then, once he received that fatal message • Sent from his own daughter’s husband, first • He ordered Bellerophon to kill the Chimaera
Memory of Linear B or New Phoenician Alphabet? • Uluburun shipwreck writing tablets • late C 14 th bc • Cypriot or Levantine Origin? • LHIIIA 2 pottery • Cargo from entire Aegean world: Mycenaean, Cypriot, Canaanite, Kassite, Egyptian, and Assyrian.
Ogham carved & read from bottom to top • 5 th century Ireland (Wales, Cornwall, Scotland, Isle of Man, Shetland Islands). • letters consist of 1 -5 perpendicular or angled strokes, meeting or crossing a center line. • letters easily carved on wood or stone objects, with edge of object forming the center line. • Irish had no other written alphabet until Christian missionaries introduced Latin (C 8 th) • Ogham died after first few centuries of Christian era, as use of inscription languages was reviled as a pagan practice.