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Closing the Recycling Loop in University Halls of Residence Victoria Hands Environmental & Sustainability Closing the Recycling Loop in University Halls of Residence Victoria Hands Environmental & Sustainability Coordinator, London School of Economics London’s University Halls of Residence Recycling Project Founder

Outline Background Why halls of residence Reuse - end of term schemes Recycling – Outline Background Why halls of residence Reuse - end of term schemes Recycling – win win scenarios Purchasing • Reuse to reduce purchasing • Buy recycled to close the loop

Benefits for Halls of Residence • Potential waste management cost savings • Response to Benefits for Halls of Residence • Potential waste management cost savings • Response to increased student demand for recycling facilities • Empowering residents to be aware • Reducing end of term waste peak • Providing low or no cost items

Benefits for Universities • Competitive advantage for attracting students and staff • Contributing to Benefits for Universities • Competitive advantage for attracting students and staff • Contributing to high environmental standards • Demonstrating social responsibility • Backing up academic expertise with everyday practice

Benefits for Local Authorities • Meeting government recycling targets • Extending recycling provision • Benefits for Local Authorities • Meeting government recycling targets • Extending recycling provision • Creating a healthier environment

Why Halls of Residence? • • • High density Waste audit - 50 -70% Why Halls of Residence? • • • High density Waste audit - 50 -70% recyclable Life change Contractual obligations Established communications Backing up teaching Habitual behaviour Vocal active students Role out across campus!!

The Waste Hierarchy REDUCE Halls can reuse & buy recycled content REUSE Halls save The Waste Hierarchy REDUCE Halls can reuse & buy recycled content REUSE Halls save on waste disposal & purchasing and extend service provision RECYCLE Halls can access free or low cost recycling LAST OPTION LANDFILL

A Practical Approach • • • Identification of stakeholders Background research Initial contact Interviews A Practical Approach • • • Identification of stakeholders Background research Initial contact Interviews / questionnaires / reports Partnership building & dialogue Contact sheet & monitoring

Key Stakeholders • Local Authorities (recycling officers) • Waste management division • Universities (environmental Key Stakeholders • Local Authorities (recycling officers) • Waste management division • Universities (environmental manager) • Academic • Operational • Students union • Halls of Residence (management) • Cleaners • Students

Project Origins Experiences from: • Students • Cleaning staff (including contractors) • Hall management Project Origins Experiences from: • Students • Cleaning staff (including contractors) • Hall management • Universities • Local Authorities • Reuse charities

The Waste Paper, issue 68 October 2000 The Waste Paper, issue 68 October 2000

Reuse Schemes • Reuse Implementation Plan – (RIP Waste) • Notices • Collection points Reuse Schemes • Reuse Implementation Plan – (RIP Waste) • Notices • Collection points • Sorting and volunteers – Types of donations • Liaison with charities – Hostels, reuse, London Remade • Cleaning up

Reuse Donations • • 1 box of cutlery, 1 box of utensils 3 boxes Reuse Donations • • 1 box of cutlery, 1 box of utensils 3 boxes of plates, 4 boxes of pans 40 black bin bags of men’s clothing 10 toasters, 11 kettles 2 computers, 8 screens 30 drying racks, 40 dish drainers 8 computer chairs

Reuse Scheme 2005 • 10 halls of residence – 3, 748 students • Estimated Reuse Scheme 2005 • 10 halls of residence – 3, 748 students • Estimated reuse participated rate: 10% - 300 students • 6 tonnes diverted from landfill – 20 kg per student (textiles, IT equipment, furniture)

Textiles 2005: 650 kgs from 650 students Estimated 65 participants = 10 kg of Textiles 2005: 650 kgs from 650 students Estimated 65 participants = 10 kg of textiles per student

Recycling • Waste audit – 20% paper/card – 18% compostable – 14% glass – Recycling • Waste audit – 20% paper/card – 18% compostable – 14% glass – 13% plastic – 4% cans Start of term most effective

Design Challenges • Micro kitchens and source separation – Same as other urban MODs Design Challenges • Micro kitchens and source separation – Same as other urban MODs – Small on floorspace – Could look good/trendy/cool – Reuse is real use!! – Standard source separation does not respond to the reality of micro living

Design Challenges • Design of new halls of residence and greening the campus – Design Challenges • Design of new halls of residence and greening the campus – Sustainable living – Energy, water, waste – Responsibility and empowerment • Refurbishment of older halls of residence – Often without lifts

Action Plan 1. Recycle • Facilities and collections (external & internal) 2. Reuse • Action Plan 1. Recycle • Facilities and collections (external & internal) 2. Reuse • End of term schemes and collaborations 3. Raise Awareness • Communication materials (kitchen posters, student tips leaflet) • Events with users (freshers fayres) and staff training 4. Reduce • Green procurement • Influence student purchasing power

Findings Issues Findings Responsibility to take out recycling materials given to students. Results in Findings Issues Findings Responsibility to take out recycling materials given to students. Results in full learning experience and responsible actions. Cleaners and all hall staff have a new learning experience to take into their non-working lives. Ease Recycling is not difficult if good infrastructure and effective awareness raising is provided. In fact, waste is easier to manage. The benefits of segregated waste include reduced odour. Costs Low or no cost because of recycling targets set for local authorities by Europe Kitchen space Most kitchens do have space for recycling containers. There are many designs of bins. New builds must design in recycling provision. External space In many central London halls space is limited to the pavement (also used by public-difficult to assess). Wheelie bins may be an option here. Champions High rotation of students and local authority staff but continuity can be found through wardens, managers and local councillors.

Closing the Loop Reuse - end of term schemes Recycling – win win scenarios Closing the Loop Reuse - end of term schemes Recycling – win win scenarios Purchasing • Reuse to reduce purchasing • Buy recycled to close the loop • National support? ?

London’s University Halls of Residence Recycling Project www. crispej. org. uk/hallsrecycling Victoria Hands v. London’s University Halls of Residence Recycling Project www. crispej. org. uk/hallsrecycling Victoria Hands v. e. [email protected] ac. uk

Closing the loop by procuring higher recycled content in paper and construction EAUC Annual Closing the loop by procuring higher recycled content in paper and construction EAUC Annual Conference - 11 April 2006 Jim Wiltshire - Procurement Project Manager Kara Jones – WRAP Paper Advocate

Outline ● About WRAP ● Materials resource efficiency - why recycled ● Using procurement Outline ● About WRAP ● Materials resource efficiency - why recycled ● Using procurement ● The opportunities in paper ● The opportunities in construction ● WRAP assistance

WRAP exists to l Create stable and efficient markets for recycled materials and products, WRAP exists to l Create stable and efficient markets for recycled materials and products, and l Remove barriers to waste minimisation re-use and recycling

Closing the loop – why specifying recycled is so important Business investment and development Closing the loop – why specifying recycled is so important Business investment and development Specifying recycled in procurement of goods, works and services Product development Waste segregation, home composting etc. CREATING ECONOMIC VALUE FOR RECOVERED MATERIALS Waste awareness and minimisation

Materials resource efficiency Materials resource efficiency

Materials resource efficiency cycle Materials efficiency Reduce raw material use Save resources Materials with Materials resource efficiency cycle Materials efficiency Reduce raw material use Save resources Materials with recycled content Recycling Reduce waste Reduce landfill A two thirds reduction in consumption of fossil fuels and virgin materials is needed to achieve a sustainable and globally equitable level WWF – “One planet living study” - 2004

What are we talking about? Reclaimed materials Waste minimisation, segregation & recycling Materials Resource What are we talking about? Reclaimed materials Waste minimisation, segregation & recycling Materials Resource Efficiency Renewables Recycled Content

Procurement policy drivers Landfill Tax (1996) ODPM-PPS 1 Govt. Sustainable Procurement Group Scottish Executive Procurement policy drivers Landfill Tax (1996) ODPM-PPS 1 Govt. Sustainable Procurement Group Scottish Executive Policy Commitment 2003 OGC-AE 11 SBTG Buying into Sustainable Procurement (WPI) 2004 Code for Sustainable Homes Scottish Executive Policy Proposal 2005 Increasing thrust of sustainability policy 2006

Where do we start ? - major applications to consider l Construction l Estates Where do we start ? - major applications to consider l Construction l Estates management l Printed matter l Tissue – catering and hygiene

Using procurement Identifying need Requirement specification Supplier selection Tender evaluation Contract management Key point Using procurement Identifying need Requirement specification Supplier selection Tender evaluation Contract management Key point of intervention European Commission handbook on environmental public procurement: “As a contracting authority, you have the right…to demand a minimum percentage of recycled and reused content where possible”. OGC AE 11: “The (project) brief should include an outcome-based requirement for overall materials efficiency, such as a minimum requirement for recycled content in the project. ”

Kara. Jones@wrap. org. uk Recycled content office & publication papers for your organisation Why? Kara. [email protected] org. uk Recycled content office & publication papers for your organisation Why? 11 th Apr-06

To cover: • • Paper waste context Why? . . environmental Why? . . To cover: • • Paper waste context Why? . . environmental Why? . . CSR / marketing Why? . . quality and cost • Product range • How the Advocate Team can help

Paper waste in context • UK > 100, 000 T commercial, industrial & municipal Paper waste in context • UK > 100, 000 T commercial, industrial & municipal waste per year. • UK consumes approx 12, 800, 000 T paper & board • We recycle approx 7, 000 Tpa of paper & board • But……. . More than 5, 000 Tpa still goes into landfill • Landfill over 1, 500, 000 T of paper from offices per year • Less than 4% of office / marketing / business papers have any recycled content

Landfill / incinerate or recycle ? • Landfill sites are filling up • Landfilled Landfill / incinerate or recycle ? • Landfill sites are filling up • Landfilled paper produces methane and leakage contributes to global warming • Waste incineration not optimum and a long planning cycle • Landfill or incineration is a waste of a valuable resource • Most LCA’s show recycling is best • We can recycle - economically • Now a legal requirement to reduce landfill = Recycle

Your customers are aware. . • National and EU push to increased recycling • Your customers are aware. . • National and EU push to increased recycling • Increased recycling and promotion: – Rolling out more kerbside collection – National advertising – Local advertising • Government announcements on environmental issues and sustainability • Increasing central and local government sustainable procurement • Constant press coverage on all things environmental

In the media… In the media…

In the media… In the media…

In the media… In the media…

Why buy recycled content paper? . . Recycling = “collection” + “buy-recycled” Your impact Why buy recycled content paper? . . Recycling = “collection” + “buy-recycled” Your impact

The prime “buy-recycled” argument is not about…. saving trees …is about avoiding…. landfill The prime “buy-recycled” argument is not about…. saving trees …is about avoiding…. landfill

Why? . . Environmental Landfill, methane production… also: • Recycled paper also typically: – Why? . . Environmental Landfill, methane production… also: • Recycled paper also typically: – uses less energy in production – creates less VOC’s, – uses less transport miles – has a significantly smaller “environmental footprint” – reduces pressure on forest resources

Why? . . CSR / marketing Your customers: • Your “customers” are increasingly being Why? . . CSR / marketing Your customers: • Your “customers” are increasingly being asked to recycle • 50% of the population describe themselves as “committed recyclers” (source NOP tracking survey Mar 2005) • Recycled / recycling is seen as “good”. Opportunity to be associated with a positive feelings such as: – – • caring future looking ethical doing your bit… Universities, and other higher education authorities, are seen as exemplars, providing education, values and the future for the next generation

Why? . . CSR / marketing Stakeholders / Investors • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) Why? . . CSR / marketing Stakeholders / Investors • Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) a necessity for high profile organisations • Purchasing recycled materials is a positive action. • >50% of your staff are committed recyclers, positive reinforcement of your organisational values • Supporting government commitment to sustainable procurement • Recycled content paper is: – a “quick” win – A demonstration you are doing something

So what is available? • • Paper for printed publications Magazine papers Envelopes Copier So what is available? • • Paper for printed publications Magazine papers Envelopes Copier / printer paper Tissue papers Boxes ………. .

Why? . . . . quality and cost • You do not need to Why? . . . . quality and cost • You do not need to compromise “quality” by procuring recycled content papers – full colour publication papers – office papers • Technical developments have significantly improved the performance and cost of recycled papers – brands are readily available which match the performance of virgin papers. – need not pay more • You can have a “traditional recycled look” if you want

It doesn’t have to be 100% recycled Suggested minimum specification for recycled content. • It doesn’t have to be 100% recycled Suggested minimum specification for recycled content. • Copier / Office paper 70% • Printing Papers 50% (for marketing and publications) • Tissue 100% What is recycled content? • Post & pre-consumer waste. • Not mill broke

How WRAP can help you • Advocacy team one 2 one support – Advice How WRAP can help you • Advocacy team one 2 one support – Advice on product availability – On effective specification and policy for recycled content – Technical advice – Facilitate trial material. – Free – Provided by a team experienced in paper and print • Procurement guides: – Recycled content Office and publication papers – Recycled content Tissue papers – Recycled content Business process papers • Case studies • Technical information sheets • ……

Summary Recycling = “collection” + “buy-recycled” Recycled paper: – Same quality – Need not Summary Recycling = “collection” + “buy-recycled” Recycled paper: – Same quality – Need not cost more – Reduces landfill – Supports your CSR and marketing

You could say…. …. using recycled paper is a no brainer! You could say…. …. using recycled paper is a no brainer!

The case for recycled in construction The case for recycled in construction

Materials efficiency in construction M tonnes Overall material consumption by construction industry (~420 Mt Materials efficiency in construction M tonnes Overall material consumption by construction industry (~420 Mt per year) Quantity of construction and demolition waste generated (~90 Mt per year) Waste construction materials that are recycled (~45 Mt per year)

Headline Construction Figures l One of the UK’s most productive sectors, contributing almost 9% Headline Construction Figures l One of the UK’s most productive sectors, contributing almost 9% to the GDP l 50% UK energy consumption associated with buildings – construction & use l 90% non-energy minerals extracted used in construction - <1% new buildings uses reclaimed materials l Biggest consumer of material resources: 420 million tonnes/year

KEY SUSTAINABILITY GOALS Energy Materials Minimising environmental Efficient use of finite damage natural materials KEY SUSTAINABILITY GOALS Energy Materials Minimising environmental Efficient use of finite damage natural materials Material & Product selection Water Material use & waste management Using locally sourced CDW Waste avoidance and minimisation Use products with high recycled content Return packaging & reduce over-ordering Use of renewable materials Collection segregation & recycling Specifying materials with low env impact

Mainstream, not green l Many mainstream products already include recycled content l A range Mainstream, not green l Many mainstream products already include recycled content l A range of products offer above-average recycled content at no extra cost l The potential for diversion from landfill is substantial Mainstream brands 0% Recycled content Eco-brands

Quick Wins Where will we find Quick Wins that are. . l cost-effective l Quick Wins Where will we find Quick Wins that are. . l cost-effective l with comparable performance l and readily available? Many examples in Concrete blocks Asphalt Paving slabs Bricks Flooring Various aggregate Ceiling tiles Chipboard Plasterboard Insulation Roof tiles products

Examples of mainstream products available Product type Option with lower recycled content Dense block Examples of mainstream products available Product type Option with lower recycled content Dense block 0% Hanson Conbloc - Up to 70% Wall insulation 0% Superglass Superwall Cavity Slab > 80% Concrete roof tile 0% Lafarge – various, e. g. Grovebury - 17% Ceiling tiles Intermediate floors, e. g. timber Option with higher recycled content >10% Armstrong – various – 28 to 52% 50 -70% Sonae – Sonaefloor – 90 to 95% Project specific example Floor coverings – safety 0% BSW Regupol Everroll rubber flooring - 80%

Using your procurement strategy to drive resource efficiency l Sustainable Buildings Task Group: Ø Using your procurement strategy to drive resource efficiency l Sustainable Buildings Task Group: Ø Specify 10% or higher minimum requirement for recycled content as a proportion of the value of materials for the whole project Ø You can also encourage higher performance e. g. through tender evaluation criteria

What is being achieved without asking for good practice? Type of project Detached/terraced house What is being achieved without asking for good practice? Type of project Detached/terraced house Commercial office School, hospital Road reconstruction Bridge reconstruction * Excluding building services Baseline/ actual practice % 6 - 26 10* - 22 12* - 20 8 - 16 18 - 23 Cost neutral good practice % 16 -29 12*-30 15*-27 27 -29 33 -49

Housing example Standard/actual practice Good practice Timber-framed house, Hillcrest HA 7% 15% Timber-framed house, Housing example Standard/actual practice Good practice Timber-framed house, Hillcrest HA 7% 15% Timber-framed house, Milnbank HA 12% 21% Brick/block house, Taylor Woodrow 16% 20% – 28% (cost-neutral)

Steel framed housing example Standard practice 20 – 23% As built specification 23 - Steel framed housing example Standard practice 20 – 23% As built specification 23 - 25% Good practice 26 – 29% Best practice 30 – 31% Product type Base case Insulation – Roof 0% General fill 0% Insulation wool – 50% external walls facing Brick 5% Quick Win 80% 50 - 100% 70% 11 – 20%

Evidence base - Df. ES Exemplar designs for schools Design S 2 - Suburban Evidence base - Df. ES Exemplar designs for schools Design S 2 - Suburban edge of town setting Design S 5 - Inner city sites City Academy, Brent – Recently completed Design S 2 Design S 5 City Academy, Brent Build cost of school £M 14. 1 15. 1 12. 2 Approx value of materials £M 3. 3 3. 7 3. 6 % recycled content – Standard practice 15. 5% 17. 3% 12. 9% % recycled content – Product substitution 18. 1% 21. 2% 15. 6% 400 490 830 3100 4800 4300 Tonnage avoiding landfill – Standard practice Tonnage avoiding landfill – Product substitution

Case study – Glasgow school Best opportunities to increase recycled content Where Glasgow When Case study – Glasgow school Best opportunities to increase recycled content Where Glasgow When 2004 Building General fixtures, furnishings and equipment, flooring (inside) Plasterboard dry lining, partitions, ceiling (inside) Camstradden Primary School Asphalt Total £ 3. 4 m construction works value Total materials value £ 2 m Excavating and filling Interlocking brick, block roads, paving Mixing, casting, curing in-situ concrete Drainage below ground

Quick Wins Top Quick Wins Coated macadam/Asphalt roads/Pavings Rubber/Plastics/Lino/Carpet tiling Actual (£) Readily achievable Quick Wins Top Quick Wins Coated macadam/Asphalt roads/Pavings Rubber/Plastics/Lino/Carpet tiling Actual (£) Readily achievable (£) Mixing/Casting/Curing in Situ concrete Excavating and filling Interlocking brick/Block roads/Pavings Plasterboard dry lining/partitions/ceilings Drainage belowground 0 10000 20000 Recycled Content Value £ 30000 40000

Who is taking action? Adopted minimum 10% value requirement l Glasgow City Council l Who is taking action? Adopted minimum 10% value requirement l Glasgow City Council l Bristol City Council l Aberdeen City Council l Whipps Cross Hospital l Dundee City Council l Lancashire County Council l Newcastle City Council l Building Schools for the Future (BSF) l Solihull MBC l Raploch URC l Sheffield CC

Who is taking action? Increasing the use of recycled content l BAA l British Who is taking action? Increasing the use of recycled content l BAA l British Land l Ely Bridge l Worcestershire CC l Yorkshire Forward l Major supermarkets l Major housebuilders - Redrow l Glamorgan Gwent HA

How WRAP can help How WRAP can help

WRAP assistance l RC Toolkit l Case studies l Procurement advice l Site waste WRAP assistance l RC Toolkit l Case studies l Procurement advice l Site waste management l Demolition guidance l Web resources Ø Agg. Regain, tools, research reports l Trailblazer projects l Events

Toolkit – data requirements Toolkit – data requirements

Material Resource Efficiency in Construction www. wrap. org. uk/construction Material Resource Efficiency in Construction www. wrap. org. uk/construction

Publications & guidance Quick Win & Procurement guidance documents l Housing Quick Wins l Publications & guidance Quick Win & Procurement guidance documents l Housing Quick Wins l Preliminary works l General building l Office & commercial refurbishment l Highways maintenance l Councillor briefing documents

Resources for procurement l Construction procurement template wording: Ø Ø Appointment of design team Resources for procurement l Construction procurement template wording: Ø Ø Appointment of design team Ø Supplier pre-qualification and audit Ø Tender specification (D&B, traditional) Ø l Design/project brief Contract clauses Construction product listing

For further information Thank you! www. wrap. org. uk/construction jim. wiltshire@wrap. org. uk For further information Thank you! www. wrap. org. uk/construction jim. [email protected] org. uk