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· Click to edit Master text styles Beyond Particle Sizing · Second level Arab. · Click to edit Master text styles Beyond Particle Sizing · Second level Arab. LAB 2008 DUBAI Glen Mc. Lellan - Opus Plus Ltd drs. ing Jacco Schipperen- Ankersmid Intl. Robert Stevens – Ankersmid Intl. Slide 1 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE Oil-in-Water Monitoring , February 2008

This presentation discusses: · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level · This presentation discusses: · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level · The importance & benefits of gathering good quality data on the characteristics of produced water at off-shore oilrigs. · How informed decisions can be made about process optimisation & oil/water separation technology · The Eye. Tech particle sizing instrument · Verification trials and the applicability of the technology to the oil & gas industry Slide 2 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 1 Introduction

· · · Produced water at an oil-rig is a complex mixture Click to · · · Produced water at an oil-rig is a complex mixture Click to edit Master text styles containing: Second level - Dispersed & dissolved organic components - Inorganic components & dissolved formation minerals - Traces of production chemicals - Produced solids & dissolved gas · Factors such as shear history, salinity, anion/cation balance, oil type, pressure & temperature can all influence the characteristics of the produced water All of the above influence decisions about processing options Slide 3 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 1 The characteristics of produced water

Produced Water Characterisation · Click to edit Master text styles Second level · PWC Produced Water Characterisation · Click to edit Master text styles Second level · PWC aims to understand the characteristics of the fluids and the interaction of the process upon them · Only then can we tackle the core issues of process trouble shooting or production optimisation · PWC provides valuable data in the selection of appropriate treatment technology · Less waste (good for OPEC savings!!) Slide 4 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 1 The characteristics of produced water

· What to edit Master text styles · Click can we measure? · Second · What to edit Master text styles · Click can we measure? · Second level - Oil droplet size distribution analysis - Oil in water concentration - Suspended solids size distribution - Suspended solids concentration - Other, including water in oil analysis Slide 5 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 2 Produced Water Characterisation

Typical process · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 6 Typical process · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 6 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 2 Applying Eye. Tech technology in an oil/water separation process train

· Oil droplet shear in a process visualised by dropletsize · Click to edit · Oil droplet shear in a process visualised by dropletsize · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Upstream Median droplet size 26. 79 µm Slide 7 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 3 The Benefits - examples

· Oil droplet shear visualised in a process by droplet size · Click to · Oil droplet shear visualised in a process by droplet size · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Downstream Median droplet size 10. 98 µm Slide 8 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 3 The Benefits - examples

· Mapping of oil droplet size can identify sources of shear · Small oil · Mapping of oil droplet size can identify sources of shear · Small oil droplet size distribution may be indicative of high · shear conditions Click to edit Master text styles · Second level · · Allows operators to make informed decisions about choice of treatment technologies · Slide 9 Chemical dosing can be optimised and dosing reduced in relation to the impact it has on water quality - can lead directly to OPEX savings Can be used as a tool to optimise existing process trains by giving real-time feedback on the impact of changes in operational conditions, such as: - Separator interface level - Processing rates - Chemical dose rates, which can lead directly to OPEX savings OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 3 The Benefits

Single Instrument – Dual Measurement Channels · Click to edit Master text styles and Single Instrument – Dual Measurement Channels · Click to edit Master text styles and Dynamic Video Scanning Laser Obscuration · Second level Slide 10 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 11 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 11 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle

Laser Obscuration Time (LOT) · Click to A B Master text styles The rotating Laser Obscuration Time (LOT) · Click to A B Master text styles The rotating laser beam edit C D E F scans single particles within · Second level its focus. Scanning Laser The diameter of the particle is directly correlated to the duration of the obscuration. V The principle measurement is a time interval, not an intensity measurement. Ta Slide 12 Tb Tc Td Te Tf Time The time domain is independent of particles’ optical or physical properties OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Laser)

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Opaque Particles Translucent Particles · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Opaque Particles Translucent Particles Transparent Particles Pulse Profile Particle Size Measurement is independent of particle’s transparency Slide 13 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Laser)

Using Pulse Shape to Discriminate in Oil /Sand Mixtures !!!!! · Click to edit Using Pulse Shape to Discriminate in Oil /Sand Mixtures !!!!! · Click to edit Master normally rejected as corresponding to • Asymmetric pulses aretext styles · highly irregular shapes, chords, or out-of-focus particles. Second level • • Slide 14 This capability allows discrimination oil droplets and sand particles. SELECTION OF ONLY OILDROPLETS !!!! OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Laser)

Advantages • · • • • No calibration required • Slide 15 Data is Advantages • · • • • No calibration required • Slide 15 Data is collected on single particles or oil-droplets Click to edit Master text styles Detection of Second levelminor fractions Concentration measurement Direct measurement of correct oil-droplet – or particle size, not influenced by physical or optical properties Robust measurement, no alignment required by user OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Laser)

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level · Video Channel collects · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level · Video Channel collects digital images used for: - Visualisation during laser measurement - Dynamic Shape Analysis - Grabbing Images and Recording Movie Slide 16 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Slide 17 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE · Click to Slide 17 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level

Dynamic Shape Analysis • For each individual text styles · Click to edit Master Dynamic Shape Analysis • For each individual text styles · Click to edit Master particle, size and shape parameters are detemined. · Second level • The Eye. Tech Image Analysis software automates set-up and measurement. • Eye. Tech software includes many IA procedures such as: q q q Slide 18 Pre-processing procedures Image Filters Out-of-focus Rejection Morphology Operations Grouping according to size/shape (Re-)processing of stored images and movies OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Dynamic Shape Analysis A Click to for characterisation · solutionedit Master text styles of Dynamic Shape Analysis A Click to for characterisation · solutionedit Master text styles of non-spherical materials: · Second level • • No assumptions about particle’s sphericity. • Random orientation of particles. No preferred orientation as in microscopy. • Grouping & sselection of particles based upon size or shape. • Slide 19 Multiple size & shape parameters to adapt to any application. Visualisation for measurement validation/verification. OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Feret Diameters Determination of distributions of: F F · Click to edit Master text Feret Diameters Determination of distributions of: F F · Click to edit Master text styles - Minimum Feret · F Second level - Maximum Feret - Average Feret 3 4 2 Average Feret diameter: F 1 + F 2 + F 3 + F 4 … F 36 36 For a sphere size = diameter [ min Feret diam. ] Aspect Ratio = -------------[ max Feret diam. ] Shape Factor = Slide 20 [Area * 4 ] --------- (= Circularity) [Perimeter]2 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Comparing Shape Factor to Aspect Ratio · Click to edit Master. Shape Factor text Comparing Shape Factor to Aspect Ratio · Click to edit Master. Shape Factor text styles 1 · Second level <0, 1 Aspect Ratio 1 1 0, 785 0, 604 0, 577 0, 436 Slide 21 0, 707 0, 250 0, 160 0, 100 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Additional Parameters: • · • • • Slide 22 All ISO parameters text styles Additional Parameters: • · • • • Slide 22 All ISO parameters text styles Click to edit Master Legendre Ellipse Second level Ellipse Ratio Elongation Curl Modification Ratio Compactness Roughness Wadell’s Shericity Solidity Convexity Average Concavity Fractal Dimensions OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Summary · • · • Feret Diameters, Shape Factor and Aspect Ratio for shape Summary · • · • Feret Diameters, Shape Factor and Aspect Ratio for shape characterisation. • Isolation of classified particles using strategic Shape Filter options. • Validation of particle size results: “SEEING IS BELIEVING” • More accurate characterisation of non-spherical materials • Slide 23 Click to edit Master text styles Two dimensional analysis of video images enables the Second level of different shape parameters. determination Re-processing of stored data OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Measurement Principle (Video)

Features · Click to edit Master text styles · Laser and video in one Features · Click to edit Master text styles · Laser and video in one program · Second level · Easy setup and measurement using software wizards (one click operation) · · Results stored in SQL database · Hardware Diagnostics · Calibration and verification tools available · Multiple data display of graphs, tables etc · On-Line cycle compare · Slide 24 Automated Report Generator On-Line help OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 25 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 25 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 26 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 26 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 27 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 27 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 28 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 28 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 29 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 29 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

Advantages · Click to edit Master text styles • Easy setup and measurement · Advantages · Click to edit Master text styles • Easy setup and measurement · Second level • Advanced preprocessing algoritmes • Size and Shape grouping/selection of oildroplets • Automated report generator • Storage of real raw data (un processed images) • Re-processing of raw data (movie files) • Concentration measurement including calibration • Integrated laser and video software • Simultaneous laser and video results Slide 30 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – Advantages

Objectives · • · Click to edit Master text styles To verify this technology Objectives · • · Click to edit Master text styles To verify this technology against a range of typical Second level process conditions experienced offshore • Parameters varied included oil concentration & droplet size, solids concentration and particle size and varying combinations of both. • To compare the technology to existing industry standard particle size analysers Slide 31 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 5 System Trials - Objectives

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 32 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 32 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 33 OIL IS · Click to edit Master text styles · Second level Slide 33 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 4 The Eye. Tech – The Analysis Package

· Very close size correlation with the reference analysers with equal or better reproducibility · Very close size correlation with the reference analysers with equal or better reproducibility · Click to edit Master text styles · The raw data suggest successful discrimination of oil · droplets levelsolids particles with the laser channel Second and · Applicability of the technology to produced water characterisation confirmed · Trials highlighted the flexibility of both the dual channel capabilities and the data presentation software · The ability to identify specific particles and their characteristic parameters will enable the technology to be simply applied to additional areas of characterisation such as the identification of Calcium Naphanate particles in fluid streams Slide 34 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 5 System Trials - Conclusions

· · Produced water characterisation techniques provide a Click to edit Master text styles · · Produced water characterisation techniques provide a Click to edit Master text styles specialist tool in optimising existing oil-rigs and in Second level selecting new technology for retrofit applications · Based on the trials carried out , the performance of the Eye. Tech instrument matches or exceeds that of industry standard particle size analysers · The measurement, data manipulation and highly user friendly software makes the instrument very attractive with regards to use in the offshore environment. · We have determined that the Eye. Tech technology is applicable to use for fluids characterisation in the oil & gas industry Slide 35 OIL IS YOUR WEALTH THE ENVIRONMENT IS YOUR FUTURE 6 Summary