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Classroom Compliance How to turn non-compliant learners into children who say “yes”! Timothy M. Wagner University of Pittsburgh
Today’s learning targets Participants in this seminar will be able to: Analyze reasons why classroom compliance is important. n Describe several specific strategies that can bring about classroom compliance. n Evaluate and explain “quick tips” that lead to compliance. n
Today’s agenda n WHAT does noncompliance look like? n WHY is noncompliance an important issue to deal with in the classroom? n HOW can I bring about classroom compliance?
Lucy: a case study Study guide page 2
Problem behavior focus: Noncompliance can be defined as disobedient, insubordinate behavior. n Children can be noncompliant to both major and minor school rules, and thus the consequences for noncompliance should match the infraction. n Those who comply conform to the rules & regulations of their environment. n
Where can noncompliance be found? n n Nearly twenty percent of school-aged children have undiagnosed and untreated emotional and behavioral problems and disabilities linked to noncompliance (Rafferty, 2007). Reflect & connect on your own experiences with noncompliance. Study guide page 3.
PBIS n Positive Behavioral Interventions & Supports Strategies addressed here primarily focus on school & classroom wide interventions— “Green Zone” interventions
What does noncompliance look like? n n n Passive noncompliance Simple refusal Direct defiance Negotiation Attention seeking tactics Reflect & Connect: What might be an underlying motivation for children engaging in each of these types of noncompliant behavior? Study guide page 4.
Related problems Reflect & Connect: Brainstorm with someone sitting near you some of the byproducts of noncompliant behavior. What connection can be made with school attendance? Can high-stakes testing be affected by noncompliant behavior? Study guide page 4.
ABC’s: Evaluating Contributing Factors of Noncompliance Reflect & Connect: With a new partner discuss some of the “A’s” associated with noncompliance. What behaviors do you notice in students immediately preceding noncompliant behavior. These are the “A’s” (or antecedents) of the trouble behavior. Study guide page 5. ABC’s of Behavior: ABC- Antecedent Behavior Consequence
De-escalating Noncompliant Behavior n What not to do! Reflect & Connect: List 3 things that happen in this video clip that you should not do when handling a noncompliant student. Study guide page 5.
What works: Research you can use Classroom Agreements “If-Then” Statements Positive Commands + Praise Direct Commands High-p Requests Thumbs Up Method
Classroom Agreements “If-Then” Statements -Students help with rule making -Increases student “buy in” -Positively framed rule statements -Example statement: “If you enter the classroom quietly, then you may choose where you sit at lunch today. ” -Consistent follow-up (Rafferty, 2007)
Positive Commands + Praise -Commands in terms of “do’s”, rather than “do not’s” -Proximity -Praise--verbal can be enough! (Matheson & Shriver, 2005) Direct Commands Right: “Please begin numbers 1 -5 in your notebook. Wrong: “Get busy!” Provides specific goals & tasks, and leads to compliance. (Cartledge, 2005)
High-p Requests Scenario: Clap 2 times. Great! Put both hands up in the air. Fantastic! High-five the person next to you. You’ve got it! Put your name on your paper and begin numbers 1 through 10. Thank you for beginning your seatwork! -Series of high probability requests, followed by a lower probability request. (Lee, Belfiore & Budin, 2008) Thumbs-Up Method Scenario: [Teacher shows thumbs up sign. ] “Please read pages 34 -39 silently. ” [Student shows thumbs up sign and complies within 15 seconds. ] -Positive consequence for thumbs up and compliance. -Negative consequence if method is not followed. -Provides auditory & kinesthetic engagement. -In one study, compliance rose from 44% to 95% using this method! (Glass, Houlihan, Fatis, & Levine, 1993)
Match ‘em up! n What are some quick ways that you can bring about compliance in your classroom? Reflect & Connect: With a partner match each variable that affects compliance with its description. Study guide page 6.
Ask the experts! What do you already do? n Reflect & Connect: Brainstorm one classroom management technique you have used in the past that has been effective. Why, based on research findings, has this strategy been effective? Study guide page 7. n Write your idea on an index card. Time for a museum walk! n
Weblinks…to read more! (included in your study guide… for easier reading!) The research page of Ohio State University Professor Dr. Gwendolyn Cartledge: http: //education. osu. edu/gcartledge/urbaninitiative/compliance. htm Intervention Central—Home of Jim Wright’s research on working with emotionally unstable children: http: //www. interventioncentral. org The Council for Exceptional Children’s Behavior Management resources: http: //www. cec. sped. org Teacher Vision’s teacher resources for effective behavior management: http: //www. teachervision. fen. com/classroom-discipline/resource/5806. html Discipline Help’s online resource archive for handling over 117 problem behaviors at home and at school: http: //www. disciplinehelp. com/
n. Eddie: A Case Study guide page 8
References (included in your study guide…for easier reading!) Glass, M. , Houlihan, D. , Fatis, M. , & Levine, H. (1993, October). Brief Report: Compliance in the Classroom: Using the Thumbs Up Procedure to Increase Student Compliance to Teacher Requests. Behavioral Residential Treatment, 8(4), 281 -288. Golish, T. , & Olson, L. (2000, Summer). Students' Use of Power in the Classroom: An Investigation of Student Power, Teacher Power, and Teacher Immediacy. Communication Quarterly, 48(3), 293 -310. Jansen, W. (1996). Reprimands and precision requests. Longmont, CO: Sopris West Educational Services. Kapalka, G. (2005, December). Avoiding repetitions reduces ADHD children's management problems in the classroom. Emotional & Behavioural Difficulties, 10(4), 269 - 279. Lee, D. , Belfiore, P. , & Budin, S. (2008, January). Riding the Wave. Teaching Exceptional Children, 40(3), 65 -70. Matheson, A. , & Shriver, M. (2005). Training Teachers to Give Effective Commands: Effects on Student Compliance and Academic Behaviors. School Psychology Review, 34(2), 202 -219. Rafferty, L. (2007, December). They Just Won't Listen to Me: A Teacher's Guide to Positive Behavioral Interventions. Childhood Education, 84(2), 102 -104. Walker, H. , & Sylwester, R. (1998, July). Reducing Students' Refusal and Resistance. Teaching Exceptional Children, 30(6), 52. Wong, H. & Wong, R. (2004). The first days of school: How to be an effective teacher. Mountain View, CA: Harry K. Wong Publications Inc. Note: All images in this presentation are used with the written permission of the photographers. For reprint details please contact the presenter.
Contact information n Timothy M. Wagner Upper St. Clair School District Upper St. Clair, PA wagnertm@mac. com