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Civil and criminal courts Civil and criminal courts

Contents Hierarchy of courts of England Wales Civil courts and civil procedure Criminal courts Contents Hierarchy of courts of England Wales Civil courts and civil procedure Criminal courts and criminal procedure

Civil courts County Courts High Court of Justice The Court of Appeal (Civil Division) Civil courts County Courts High Court of Justice The Court of Appeal (Civil Division) The Supreme Court

County courts In England, simple civil actions are normally heard in either the Magistrates’ County courts In England, simple civil actions are normally heard in either the Magistrates’ Courts or the County Courts Family cases may go on appeal from the Magistrates’ Court to the County Court The County Court hears complex first instance civil cases, such as contract disputes, compensation claims, consumer complaints and bankruptcy cases

Claimants Formerly called plaintiffs They seek legal remedy for some harm or injury they Claimants Formerly called plaintiffs They seek legal remedy for some harm or injury they have suffered Juries are now rare in civil actions, so the judge usually considers both law and fact

High Court of Justice More complex cases are heard in the High Court of High Court of Justice More complex cases are heard in the High Court of Justice It is divided in three divisions: Family, Chancery and Queen’s Bench The Court has both original and appelate jurisdiction

High Court Divisions Family Division – for family-related disputes, wardship cases and cases relating High Court Divisions Family Division – for family-related disputes, wardship cases and cases relating to children under the Children Act 1989 Chancery Division – equity and trust, mortgages, copyrights and patents Queen’s Bench Division – contract and tort claims

The Court of Appeal From the High Court cases may go on appeal to The Court of Appeal From the High Court cases may go on appeal to the civil division of the Court of Appeal, which can reverse or uphold a decision of the lower courts Its decision binds all the lower civil courts

The Supreme Court The final appeal hearings and judgments of the House of Lords The Supreme Court The final appeal hearings and judgments of the House of Lords took place on 30 July 2009. The judicial role of the House of Lords as the highest appeal court in the UK has ended. From 1 October 2009, the Supreme Court of the United Kingdom assumes jurisdiction on points of law for all civil law cases in the UK and all criminal cases in England Wales and Northern Ireland.

Civil Procedure Rules All cases concerning goods, property, debt repayment and breach of contract Civil Procedure Rules All cases concerning goods, property, debt repayment and breach of contract are subject to Civil Procedure Rules. The Rules came into force in 1999 in England Wales and changed the civil process in the County Court and the High Court

The three tracks 1. 2. 3. All cases are defended and allocated to one The three tracks 1. 2. 3. All cases are defended and allocated to one of three tracks: Small claims track (most cases under £ 5, 000) Fast track cases (claims between £ 5, 000 and 15, 000) Multi-track cases (claims over £ 15, 000)

Criminal courts and criminal procedure Criminal courts and criminal procedure

Criminal courts The The Magistrates’ Court Crown Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) Supreme Court Criminal courts The The Magistrates’ Court Crown Court of Appeal (Criminal Division) Supreme Court

Magistrates’ Courts About 95% of all criminal cases in England Wales are tried in Magistrates’ Courts About 95% of all criminal cases in England Wales are tried in the Magistrates’ Courts, which deal with summary offences (less serious ones) In certain circumstances, the court may commit an accused person to the Crown Court for more severe punishment

Magistrates One stipendiary magistrate (full-time paid magistrate who has qualified as a lawyer) or Magistrates One stipendiary magistrate (full-time paid magistrate who has qualified as a lawyer) or three lay magistrates (unpaid, established members of the community) Decide without a jury

The Crown Court Formerly called assizes and quarter sessions Deals with indictable offences (more The Crown Court Formerly called assizes and quarter sessions Deals with indictable offences (more serious ones) A jury of twelve people decides whether the defendant is guilty of the crime he or she is charged with

The Court of Appeal From the Crown Court, appeal against conviction or sentence goes The Court of Appeal From the Crown Court, appeal against conviction or sentence goes to the Criminal Division of the Court of Appeal

Criminal justice The state prosecutes those charged with a crime and may apprehend suspects Criminal justice The state prosecutes those charged with a crime and may apprehend suspects and detain them in custody If the police decide that an offender should be prosecuted, a file on the case is sent to the Crown Prosecuting Service (CPS)

The CPS must consider whethere is enough evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction, The CPS must consider whethere is enough evidence for a realistic prospect of conviction, and if so, whether the public interest requires a prosecution Criminal proceedings can be initiated either by the serving of a summons or, in more serious cases, by a warrant of arrest issued by a Magistrates’ Court

Criminal court proceedings The English system of justice is adversarial (each side collects and Criminal court proceedings The English system of justice is adversarial (each side collects and presents their own evidence and attacks their opponent’s by cross-examination). In a criminal trial, the burden of proof is on the prosecution to prove beyond reasonable doubt that the accused is guilty

Vocabulary Appeal - priziv Mortgage – hipoteka Wardship – skrbništvo, starateljstvo Copyright – autorsko Vocabulary Appeal - priziv Mortgage – hipoteka Wardship – skrbništvo, starateljstvo Copyright – autorsko pravo Tort – delikt, namjerno nanošenje štete Bankruptcy - stečaj

 Summary offence – lakše kazneno djelo Indictable offence – teže kazneno djelo Custody Summary offence – lakše kazneno djelo Indictable offence – teže kazneno djelo Custody - pritvor Conviction – osuda Summons – poziv na sud

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