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Citizen Centred e-Government: an HCI approach Leonardo Sandoval
A meme introduction to e-government • Delivery of government information and services to citizens through the Internet (UNDESA, 2001; West, 2003) Example: e-FOIA system (US) • 1 citizen request • 29 Agencies • 285 Offices • 285 Websites!!! • All with different forms!!! • Bureaucratic paradigm (Ho, 2002) • Low adoption after 20 years (OECD, 2009; Verdegem et al. , 2010; Eurostat, 2014; Wang, 2014)
Citizen Centred Approach • Promoted by International Organisations since last decade (OECD, 2005, 2009; UNDESA, 2012; European Commission, 2013) • Focuses on integration and rationalisation of e-services • Flagship initiative: One Stop Portals (e. g. GOV. UK) “Before we came along, there were more than 1, 700 different government websites in the U. K. Each one had a different look and feel. Each one had a different user experience. In each one the language was different. ” Ben Terret on GOV. UK businessweek. com 20 th March 2014
How User Centred are Citizen Centred Services? • Gap: few references to HCI in the e-government literature (Van den Haak et al. , 2009; Sørum et al. , 2012; de Róiste, 2013) • Citizen centred solutions may still miss user needs • Pilot study – 4 tasks on 2 One Stop Portals (Canada & UK) – 16 Citizens & 3 HCI Experts – 3 HCI Methods (CVP, CHE, AI) Results – Usability problems: Canada. Ca = 43 | GOV. UK = 69 – UCDE: + 10 heuristics violated according to experts – UX: Aesthetics did not affect perception of usability – Perception of usability was related to objective usability measures (number and severity of problems)
My research • Understand the role of interaction in egov UX • Focus on different – Types of users – e-gov areas and technologies – HCI methods • Aims – Increase the body of knowledge on e-government – Integrate HCI approaches in e-government evaluation – Develop a method for comparative studies on citizen centricity
References • de Róiste, M. (2013). Bringing in the users: The role for usability evaluation in e. Government Information Quarterly, 30(4), 441 -449. • Eurostat. (2014). Individuals using the Internet for interacting with public authorities. [Online]. Available at: http: //appsso. eurostat. ec. europa. eu/nui/show. do? dataset=isoc_bde 15 ei&lang=en [Accessed 31 August 2014] • Ho, A. (2002). Reinventing Local Governments and the E-Government Initiative. Public Administration Review, 62(4), 434– 444. • OECD. (2005). E-government for Better Government. Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Public Management Service (OECD). Paris, France: OECD Publishing. • OECD. (2009). Rethinking e-government services (user-centred approaches). Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development, Public Management Service (OECD). Paris, France: OECD Publishing. • Sørum, H. , Andersen, K. N. , & Vatrapu, R. (2012). Public websites and human–computer interaction: an empirical study of measurement of website quality and user satisfaction. Behaviour & Information Technology, 31(7), 697– 706. • UNDESA. (2001). Benchmarking E-government: A Global Perspective Assessing the Progress of the UN Member States. New York, NY, USA: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA) • UNDESA. (2012). United Nations Global E-government Survey 2012: E-Government for the People. New York, NY, USA: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). • UNDESA. (2014). United Nations Global E-government Survey 2014: E-Government for the Future We Want. New York, NY, USA: UN Department of Economic and Social Affairs (UNDESA). • van den Haak, M. J. , de Jong, M. D. , & Schellens, P. J. (2009). Evaluating municipal websites: A methodological comparison of three think-aloud variants. Government Information Quarterly, 26(1), 193 -202. • Verdegem, P. , Stragier, J. , & Verleye, G. (2010). Measuring for Knowledge: A Data-Driven Research Approach for e. Government. Electronic Journal of EGovernment, 8(2), 227– 236. • Wang, F. (2014). Explaining the low utilization of government websites: Using a grounded theory approach. Government Information Quarterly 31, 610621. • West, D. M. (2003). Global E-Government, 2003. (Centre for Public Policy Brown University, Ed. ). United States. : Princeton University Press.