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Church of God, a Worldwide Association Fundamental Beliefs The Divinity of Christ Instructor: Jim Church of God, a Worldwide Association Fundamental Beliefs The Divinity of Christ Instructor: Jim Franks Date: March 2011 © 2011 Church of God, a Worldwide Association

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Plurality of God Review Sheet 1. Provide Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Plurality of God Review Sheet 1. Provide Old Testament Scriptures that show plurality in the Godhead. Genesis 1: 26; Genesis 11: 6 -7; Psalm 45: 6 -7 2. What is the Hebrew word translated “one” in Deuteronomy 6: 4? What does it mean? Echad; means one or first; can include more than one. 3. Does 1 John 5: 7 -8 prove there is a trinity? No. This verse has spurious or added words. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Plurality of God Review Sheet 4. What Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Plurality of God Review Sheet 4. What is the plural of majesty? Please explain how this is used to define God. Use of plural by king/queen, but referring to one. 5. What does the Hebrew word “yachid” mean? Solitary; Only one; One of a kind; unique 6. What does the Hebrew term elohim mean? God. It is the plural form of eloah. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Plurality of God Review Sheet 7. Who Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Plurality of God Review Sheet 7. Who were the major scholars involved in the development of the Trinity doctrine? Arius; Athanasius; Basil; Gregory of Nyssa; and Gregory of Nazianzus Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Fundamental Belief: The Godhead God the Father Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Fundamental Belief: The Godhead God the Father is an eternally existing Spirit, a perfect, personal Being of supreme love, intelligence, knowledge, justice, power and authority… There is one Lord, Jesus Christ, who has eternally existed. God is an eternal family currently consisting of the Father and the Son. Both the Father and Son are involved in the creative work of expanding this family by bringing many children (sons and daughters) to glory. The Holy Spirit is the power of God and the Spirit of life eternal, not a separate entity or being. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Preservation of the Truth… Christ taught the Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Preservation of the Truth… Christ taught the Disciples The Disciples taught the Church. The truth was preserved down through the years. We learned from HWA… Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God The Divinity of Jesus Christ The teaching Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God The Divinity of Jesus Christ The teaching of the Church has been consistent. Jesus is God and He pre-existed His human life. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Overview of Class… 1. A look at Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Overview of Class… 1. A look at the various ideas about the “nature of God and Christ. ” 2. Analyze the divinity of Christ as explained in the New Testament. 3. Study in detail John 1 and Psalm 110. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Which choice will we make? Either Christ, Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Which choice will we make? Either Christ, the Word, belonged to the divine realm (which was the domain of God alone) or He belonged to the fragile created order. Arius placed Him in the “fragile created order” but Athanasius placed Him in the “divine realm. ” The Trinity was developed to defeat the argument of Arius. It had no basis in scripture. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Summary from the Old Testament 1. There Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Summary from the Old Testament 1. There are numerous references to the “oneness” of God in the Old Testament. 2. There are numerous references to the “plurality” of God in the Old Testament. 3. This causes some confusion in understanding God the Father and Jesus Christ. We must admit that we don’t have all knowledge in this matter. 4. The most fitting explanation is the term “composite unity. ” Christ references this when He states “My Father and I are one. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Five Views of the Nature and Origin Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Five Views of the Nature and Origin of Christ… 1. The Trinity 2. The Unitarian View 3. Christ as a Created Being (Arianism) 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH 5. Christ as God, a Separate Being in the Godhead Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1. The Trinitarian View • Contrary to Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 1. The Trinitarian View • Contrary to Scripture. Cannot be supported from the Bible. • Idea developed in the fourth century because of an argument with Arius. • Karen Armstrong in her book “The History of God” explains the confusion that resulted from the early explanations. Later the Cappadocian brothers provided more understanding which led to the adoption of the Nicene Creed. • The Holy Spirit is not a person, therefore there can be no trinity. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2. The Unitarian View • Basic reasoning: Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2. The Unitarian View • Basic reasoning: God is one; therefore Christ cannot be God (Deuteronomy 6: 4). • Based on this conclusion, Christ must have been a created being or a “clone” who did not exist prior to His human birth. • Webster’s definition of a Unitarian: “A person who denies the doctrine of the Trinity, believing in the teachings, but denying the divinity of Christ, and holding that God is a single being. ” • The Old Testament has many examples of plurality in reference to God. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2. The Unitarian View (continued) • Adam Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 2. The Unitarian View (continued) • Adam and Eve are called “one” (Hebrew “echad”) but they were two separate beings (Genesis 2: 24). • Christ stated that He and the Father are “one” but they are two separate beings (John 17: 22). • Christ prayed that we all might be “one” but we do not become one person (John 17: 11). Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3. Christ as a Created Being • Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3. Christ as a Created Being • Also called Arianism, after its first proponent Arius. • Today few accept this idea, but it is the teaching of the Jehovah’s Witnesses. • There are various twists to the teaching: Christ was created prior to Genesis 1; Christ was created at the time of Genesis; Christ was created at the time of His human birth. • This teaching denies the divinity of Christ and relegates Him to the created order, a little higher than the angels but not on the same level with God. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3. Christ as a Created Being (continued) Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 3. Christ as a Created Being (continued) • Numerous scriptures declare Jesus Christ to be God, yet there is no scripture that describes His creation. • Christ has eternally existed. He is the same yesterday, today and forever (Hebrews 13: 8). • Christ created all things and nothing was created without Him (John 1: 1 -3). Christ could not have been created. • Colossians 2: 9 In Christ dwells the “fullness of the Godhead. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH • Similar to belief in Christ as a created being in that it also requires creation. • This view is based on the scriptures that refer to the “Angel of YHWH. ” • This explanation describes Christ as a super angel prior to His human birth. • Genesis 16: 7 -13 Hagar has an experience with a being who is called the “Angel of the LORD” and she refers to this being as the LORD. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH (continued) • Jacob wrestles with a “man” and prevails. It is stated that he saw God “face to face” (Genesis 32: 30). Yet no man has ever seen God. In Hosea we are told that Jacob “in his strength he struggled with God. Yes, he struggled with the Angel and prevailed” (Hosea 12: 3 -4 NKJV). • Hebrew word for “angel” and “messenger” is the same. It is mal’ak. 111 times it is translated “angel”; 98 times “messenger”; and “ambassador” 4 times. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 4. Christ as the Angel of YHWH (continued) • Christ is called the “messenger” (mal’ak) of the covenant in Malachi 3: 1. It was up to the translators as to which word they chose (angel or messenger). Christ is the messenger of YHWH, but He is not an angel who was created. The context must determine which is the correct translation. • The teaching that Christ was the Angel of YHWH denies the divinity of Christ and puts Him in the created order as a super angel. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 5. Christ as God When all the Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God 5. Christ as God When all the evidence is considered, the most logical conclusion is that Christ was who He said He was– God in the flesh (Immanuel). Before Abraham was He said “I am. ” Before the foundations of the world He existed with the Father. No one has seen God, but YHWH and Elohim were seen. This could only be the one who became Christ. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 1. John 1: 1 -3 and Revelation 19: 13 John 1: 1 -3 “In the beginning was the Word, and the Word was with God, and the Word was God. He was in the beginning with God. All things were made through Him; and without Him nothing was made that was made. ” Revelation 19: 13 “He was clothed with a robe dipped in blood, and His name is called The Word of God. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 2. Titus 2: 11 -13 “For the grace of God that brings salvation has appeared to all men, teaching us that, denying ungodliness and worldly lusts, we should live soberly, righteously, and godly in the present age, looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ, who gave Himself for us, that He might redeem us from every lawless deed and purify for Himself His own special people, zealous of good works. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Study of Greek Grammar… Granville Sharpe Rule Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Study of Greek Grammar… Granville Sharpe Rule of Greek Grammar: “…when two nouns are joined by kai (and) and the first noun has the article and the second does not, then the two nouns refer to the same thing; hence ‘great God and Savior’ both refer to Christ Jesus” (The Moody Handbook of Theology, page 225). Titus 2: 13 “…looking for the blessed hope and glorious appearing of our great God and Savior Jesus Christ. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 3. John 20: 28 “And after eight days His disciples were again inside, and Thomas with them. Jesus came, the doors being shut, and stood in the midst, and said, ‘Peace to you!’ Then He said to Thomas, ‘Reach your finger here, and look at My hands; and reach your hand here and put it into My side. Do not be unbelieving, but believing. ’ And Thomas answered and said to Him, ‘My Lord and my God!’” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 4. John 8: 57 -58; John 17: 5 John 8: 57 -58 “Then the Jews said to Him, ‘You are not yet fifty years old, and have You seen Abraham? ’ Jesus said to them, ‘Most assuredly, I say to you, before Abraham was, I AM. ’” John 17: 5 “And now, O Father, glorify Me together with Yourself, with the glory which I had with You before the world was. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 5. Isaiah 9: 6 -7; Luke 1: 32 -33 “For unto us a Child is born, Unto us a Son is given; and the government will be upon His shoulder. And His name will be called Wonderful, Counselor, Mighty God, Everlasting Father, Prince of Peace. Of the increase of His government and peace there will be no end. Upon the throne of David and over His kingdom, to order it and establish it with judgment and justice from that time forward, even forever. The zeal of the LORD of hosts will perform this. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 6. Micah 5: 2; Matthew 2: 6; John 7: 42 “But you, Bethlehem Ephrathah, Though you are little among the thousands of Judah, Yet out of you shall come forth to Me the One to be Ruler in Israel, Whose goings forth are from of old, from everlasting” [margin, the days of eternity]. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 7. Titus 3: 4, 6; Isaiah 43: 11; Isaiah 45: 21 Titus 3: 4, 6 “But when the kindness and the love of God our Savior toward man appeared. . . Whom He poured out on us abundantly through Jesus Christ our Savior. ” Isaiah 43: 11 “I, even I, am the LORD, and besides Me there is no Savior. ” Isaiah 45: 21 “. . . And there is no other God besides Me, A just God and a Savior; There is none besides Me. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 8. John 1: 18; John 5: 37; 1 John 4: 12 John 1: 18 “No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son, who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him. ” John 5: 37 “And the Father Himself, who sent Me, has testified of Me. You have neither heard His voice at any time, nor seen His form. ” 1 John 4: 12 “No one has seen God at any time. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 9. Hebrews 1: 8; Psalm 45: 6 -7 Hebrews 1: 8 “But to the Son He says: Your throne, O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. ” Psalm 45: 6 -7 “Your throne O God, is forever and ever; A scepter of righteousness is the scepter of Your kingdom. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 10. Psalm 110: 1, 5; Luke 20: 41 -44 Psalm 110: 1, 5 “The LORD said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand, Till I make Your enemies Your footstool. . . The Lord [from Hebrew YHWH, LORD] is at your right hand. . . ” Luke 20: 41 -44 “And He said to them, ‘How can they say that the Christ is the Son of David? Now David himself said in the Book of Psalms: The LORD said to my Lord, Sit at My right hand till I make Your enemies Your footstool. Therefore David calls Him Lord; how is He then his Son? ’” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 11. Colossians 1: 15 -17 “He is the image of the invisible God, the firstborn over all creation. For by Him all things were created that are in heaven and that are on earth, visible and invisible, whether thrones or dominions or principalities or powers. All things were created through Him and for Him. And He is before all things, and in Him all things consist. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Twelve Proofs Christ is God and therefore eternal. . . 12. 1 Timothy 3: 16 “And without controversy great is the mystery of godliness: God was manifested in the flesh, Justified in the Spirit, Seen by angels, Preached among the Gentiles, Believed on in the world, Received up in glory. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Scriptures proving Divinity of Christ Probability Text Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Scriptures proving Divinity of Christ Probability Text Date Type John 1: 1 90 s Theos “And the Word was God” John 20: 28 30 s o theos “My Lord and my God” Romans 9: 5 ca. 57 Theos “… came Christ who is supreme over all as God” Titus 2: 13 ca. 63 o theos “our great God and Savior, Jesus Christ” Hebrews 1: 8 60 s o theos “Your throne O God” 2 Peter 1: 1 ca. 65 o theos “… of our God and Savior, Jesus Christ” John 1: 18 90 s Theos “The only Son, who is God” Certain Very Probable Translation Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God j. En (In) ajrch`/ (beginning) hn (was) Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God j. En (In) ajrch`/ (beginning) hn (was) o. J (the) lovgo", (Word) kai; (and) o. J (the) lovgo" (Word) hn (was) pro; " (with or beside) to; n (the) qeovn, (God) kai; (and) qeo; " (God) hn (was) o. J (the) lovgo". (Word) 2 ou|to" (He) hn (was) ejn (in) ajrch`/ (beginning) pro; " (with or beside) to; n (the) qeovn. (God) Word was the Word th e in was wi th was beginning the God John 1: 1… the God Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God John 1: 1 -2… pro; Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God John 1: 1 -2… pro; " (pros) Definition: 1. To, towards, denoting direction towards a thing, or position and state, looking towards a thing; it is used of the goal or limit towards which a movement is directed. 2. It is used of close proximity-- the idea of direction, though not entirely lost, being more or less weakened, answering to our at or by. 3. Of relation or reference to any person or thing. 4. At, near, hard by, denoting close local proximity. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God John 1: 18… “No one has seen Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God John 1: 18… “No one has seen God at any time. The only begotten Son [margin = “NU God”], who is in the bosom of the Father, He has declared Him. ” Monogenes = Greek for “only begotten. ” Means “single of its kind; only”– Thayer’s Greek-English Lexicon. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Robertson on John 1: 18… “But the Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Robertson on John 1: 18… “But the best old Greek manuscripts (Aleph B C L) read μονογενης θεος (God only begotten) which is undoubtedly the true text. Probably some scribe changed it to ο μονογενης υιος to obviate the blunt statement of the deity of Christ and to make it like 3: 16. ” Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Psalm 110 and the Divinity of Christ Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Psalm 110 and the Divinity of Christ The LORD said unto my Lord, Sit thou at my right hand, until I make thine enemies thy footstool. 2 The LORD shall send the rod of thy strength out of Zion: rule thou in the midst of thine enemies. 3 Thy people shall be willing in the day of thy power, in the beauties of holiness from the womb of the morning: thou hast the dew of thy youth. 4 The LORD hath sworn, and will not repent, Thou art a priest for ever after the order of Melchizedek. 5 The Lord at thy right hand shall strike through kings in the day of his wrath. 6 He shall judge among the heathen, he shall fill the places with the dead bodies; he shall wound the heads over many countries. 7 He shall drink of the brook in the way: therefore shall he lift up the head. Divinity of Christ 2011 1 òyb, yÒao tyvia; Ad '] yn. Iymiyli bve yn. Idoal ' hw: hyÒ µaunÒ rwmozÒmi dw. Id; l[. òyl, gÒr'l] µdoh {. òyb, yÒao br, q, B] hder] ÷w. YœXimi hw: hyÒ jl'v]y. I òZÒ[u. Ah. Fem' òl] rj; v]mi µj, r, me vd, qo. Ayred]h'B] òl, yje µwyœB] tbod; nÒ òM '][. òyt, dul]y" lf ' qd, x, Ay. Kil]m' ytir; b]Di. Al[' µl; w[ol] ÷heko. Ah. T; a' µje. N: y. I al¿wÒ hw: hyÒ [B'v]n. I

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God hw: hyÒ (YHWH: ; doa} yn ( Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God hw: hyÒ (YHWH: ; doa} yn ( (Adonai( Bullinger’s Companion Bible: “Out of extreme (but mistaken) reverence for the Ineffable Name ‘Jehovah’, the ancient custodians of the Sacred Text substituted in many places ‘Adonai’. These, in the AV and RV, are all printed ‘Lord’, marking the word with an asterisk in addition to the note in the margin, to inform the reader of the fact. The official list given in the Massorah (107 -15 Ginsburg’s edition) contains the 134. ” Psalm 110: 5 is one of the 134 locations that YHWH was replaced with Adonai. In addition there are 15 “extraordinary points” and 18 “emendations” in the text. [See Genesis 18: 16 -23]. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Psalm 110… In the New Testament Psalm Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Psalm 110… In the New Testament Psalm 110 is the most quoted portion of scripture from the Old Testament. The New Testament leaves little doubt that the reference is to Jesus Christ and not David or Abraham. Psalm 110 is quoted by: Jesus: Matthew 22: 44; Matthew 26: 64; Mark 12: 36; Mark 14: 62; Mark 16: 19; Luke 20: 42, 43; Luke 22: 69; Revelation 3: 21. Peter: Acts 2: 33 -34, Acts 5: 31, I Peter 3: 22. Stephen: Acts 7: 55 -56. Paul: Romans 8: 34; I Corinthians 15: 25; Ephesians 1: 20; Ephesians 2: 6 Colossians 3: 1; Hebrews 1: 3; Hebrews 1: 13 Hebrews 8: 1; Hebrews 10: 12 -13; Hebrews 12: 2. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God If Jesus were not fully God, then Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God If Jesus were not fully God, then how do we explain… 1. How can Jesus be the exact representation of the Nature of God (Hebrews 1: 3)? 2. How can Jesus, the Christ dwell in you (Colossians 1: 27)? 3. How can He be our only Lord and Master (Jude 4)? 4. Why was Jesus worshiped (Matthew 14: 33) when He says to worship God only (Matthew 4: 10)? 5. How can Paul state that He was equal with God (Philippians 2: 5 -11)? Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Overview of Study… 1. A look at Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Overview of Study… 1. A look at the various ideas about the “nature of God. ” 2. Analyze the divinity of Christ as explained in the New Testament. 3. Study in detail John 1 and Psalm 110. Divinity of Christ 2011

Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Next Class… The Holy Spirit A person? Fundamental Beliefs of the Church of God Next Class… The Holy Spirit A person? Or the power of God? Divinity of Christ 2011

Church of God, a Worldwide Association Fundamental Beliefs The Divinity of Christ Instructor: Jim Church of God, a Worldwide Association Fundamental Beliefs The Divinity of Christ Instructor: Jim Franks Date: March 2011 © 2011 Church of God, a Worldwide Association