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Chlorine Disinfection Disclosure Let’s get it right!!!!
Why We Disinfect Our Wastewater ? ? ? ØIn human wastewater there are many microorganisms that can cause disease
Bacteria, Viruses, and Protozoa are some examples
It is important to prevent waterborne diseases from going downstream.
Chlorine Disinfection ØChlorine destroys organisms by oxidizing cellular material
The RTF plans to use Sodium Hypochlorite The same chemical as Liquid Bleach
The Good, The Bad, and The Ugly Let’s look at some advantages and disadvantages to using chlorine….
The Good, Advantages of Chlorine Ø Effective against most pathogens Ø Can eliminate certain odors while disinfecting Ø Cheaper than other disinfection alternatives
The Bad, Disadvantages of Chlorine Ø All forms of Chlorine are highly corrosive and toxic, so shipping, storing and handling pose a risk.
The Bad, continued…. A de-chlorination process is needed to remove free chlorine from wastewater. This adds to the operation expenses, and places another step in an already cumbersome process. NOTE: CHLORINE is a toxin.
The Ugly ØEven at low concentrations, chlorine is toxic to aquatic life!
The long-term effects of discharging chlorinated and de-chlorinated compounds into the environment are unknown!!!
Chlorine combines with the organic matter from wastewater in disturbing ways, creating many harmful chemicals.
Some of these by-products cause cancer as well as neurological damage in animals!!
Chlorine Disinfection By-Products Disinfectant Residuals Free Chlorine Hypochlorous Acid Hypochlorite Ion Halogenated Organic By-Products Trihalomethanes Chloroform Bromodichloromethane Chlorodibromomethane Bromoform Chloroform Haloacetic Acids Inorganic By-Products Bromodichloromethane Chlorate Ion Chlorite Ion Chlorodibromomethane Bromate Ion Haloacetonitriles Iodate Ion Bromoform Hydrogen Peroxide Ammonia Organic Oxidation Chloroacetic Acid By-Products Haloketones Aldehydes Dichloroacetic Acid Chlorophenols Trichloroacetic Acid Chloroamines Monochloramine Chlorine Dioxide Chloroacetic Acid Dichloroacetic Acid Trichloroacetic Acid Monobromoacetic Acid Dichloroacetronitrile Bromochloroacetonitrile Dibromoacetonitrile Trichloroacetonitrile Formaldehyde Acetaldehyde Glyoxal Hexanal Heptanal Carboxylic Acids Hexanoic Acid Heptanoic Acid Oxalic Acid 1, 1 -Dichloropropanone 1, 1, 1 -Trichloropropanone 2 -Chlorophenol 2, 4 -Dichlorophenol 2, 4, 6 -Trichlorophenol Chloropicrin Choral Hydrate Cyanogen Chloride N-Organochloramines
Health Effects of Some By. Products of Chlorine Disinfection Chloroform By-product. Chlorobromomethane Health effect Bromoform Dichloroaceticwhich induces Acid Animal carcinogenic Chloroform Producesto nerve and liverrats. liver tumors in damage in kidney function Intestinalandtumors in rats and Damage kidney liver and mice and rats. Bromodichloromethane both mice. Animal carcinogenic which induces liver and kidney tumors in rats and mice. Carcinogenic in mice and rats, producing renal, liver , and intestinal tumors. Chlorobromomethane Produces liver and kidney damage in both mice and rats. Bromodichloromethane Chloroaceitic Acid Bromoform Carcinogenic in of Neurological mice and Trichloroacetic Acid rats, General Chloroaceitic Acidincidents producing renal, of liverand intestinal Potent Acid inducer liver , tumors in Dichloroacetic damage in animals. tumors. Trichloroacetic Acid male mice. Incidence of intestinal tumors in rats. Neurological effects in animal. No increases tumors Damage to nerve and liver function Potent inducer of liver tumors in male mice
De-chlorination will not diminish or eliminate these byproducts. They will be discharged into the Creek along with Ammonia and Phosphate….
A Quick word about… Ammonia & Phosphate
Ammonia & Phosphate Ø The increase of nutrients in water causes uncontrolled algae growth Ø Algae consume too much oxygen Ø Fish suffocate & die www. echonews. com/ 706/news. html
Ammonia & Phosphate Ø There already high amounts of ammonia & phosphate in Onondaga Creek Ø The RTF will not remove these excess nutrients Ø METRO currently removes these nutrients and reduces the biological oxygen demand.
SO… What Does It All Mean For The Midland RTF?
A virtual stew of chlorinated, de-chlorinated, and raw sewage will continue to be discharged into Onondaga Creek.
Some of the toxic by-products will vaporize with the potential of putting the residents downstream at risk.
Hazardous chemicals are still being put into Onondaga Creek and ultimately Onondaga Lake.
What can we do? ØReduce the use of chlorine to a last resort response ØRefuse to use our waterways for sewage overflows ØInsist on underground storage and sewer separation
The Partnership for Onondaga Creek www. onondagacreek. org
References • Chlorine Disinfection Fact Sheet 1998, National Small Flows Clearing House (publisher) Developed by Clement Solomon, Peter Casey, Colleen Mackne, and Andrew Lake (Project funded by the US EPA) http: //www. nesc. wvu. edu/nsfc/ • Health Effects of Disinfectants and Disinfection By-products 1991 R. J. Bull and F. C. Kopfler, AWWA Research Foundation and American Water Works Association • Combined Sewer Overflow Technology Fact Sheet: Chlorine Disinfection 1999, United States EPA- Office of Water.