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China Classic Empires
China’s Geography Huang He The Yellow River, aka China’s sorrow because of frequent flooding. Yangtze (Chang Jiang) Yellow Sea North China Plain between two major rivers. Most populated area of China.
China’s Geography Fertile Land 10% of the land is good for agriculture Physical Landscape Desert: Gobi Taklimakan Desert Mountains Himalaya Tian Shan Plateau of Tibet High plateau N. of the Himalaya.
Quick Check n n n How would you describe the Geography of China? How can this geography influence settlement patterns? Can the geography affect how people move around? Relate to each other? Explain.
Zhou Dynasty n 1027 -221 BCE n n Lasted almost 900 years, longest lasting dynasty in Chinese history Political Structure n n n The top of political structure was a King. The King was the link between heaven and earth and had divine-like powers. He ruled by the Mandate of Heaven. Decentralized gov’t: Feudalism https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v =m. Bs. PR 5 br. Z 0 E
Life Under the Zhou n Irrigation and Water Projects n n Farming Advancements n n Began to control the flow of rivers to water crops. Farming could be more reliable without dependence on rains. Remember only 10% of their land was arable. Iron plows, increase arable land. Changes in Warfare n n n Iron Weapons were developed. Infantry (foot soldiers) and Cavalry (soldiers on horseback) became more prevalent. Began to use the crossbow
Life Under the Zhou n Trade n n An agricultural surplus led to an increase in trade. The most important trade item was silk. n Silk is made from the cocoons of silkworms Cultural diffusion – spread of cultures through trade. n https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=77 i. Rt. VR 2 Oxo n
Life Under the Zhou n Filial Piety n n Family members were responsible to obey the needs and wants of the male head of the family. Everyone had to know their place. Children were expected to provide for their parents in old age Role of Women n Ancient China was a patriarchal, or male dominated, society. Some women had power, but this was generally looked down upon. Women were expected to raise children and work in the home.
Mandate of Heaven/Dynastic Cycle n n Mandate of Heaven: The mandate of heaven was used to explain the rise and fall of different dynasties. When a ruler took over they claimed they had earned the mandate of heaven, or they would not have been able to win. This was closely tied to the Dynastic Cycle Dao: The Way n n The King was responsible to rule by the Dao, he had to keep the gods happy to protect people from natural disaster, or bad harvest. If he didn’t do this he would lose power.
The Dynastic Cycle New Ruler Gains the Mandate of Heaven Dynasty founded by powerful leader Period of Rebellion Ruler loses the Mandate of Heaven Period of Decline and Corruption Period of Great Power and Prosperity Golden Age
Decline of Zhou n n Later Zhou rulers began to become corrupt. Warring States Period n n Civil war broke out between the kingdoms At the end of this the emperor Qin Shihuangdi of Qin dynasty unified China under a single leader, becoming the first Emperor of China.
Qin (Chin) Dynasty n n Modern China named after Qin 221 -206 BCE First Emperor came to power in 221 BCE Shi Huangdi (Shihuangdi) n n Came to power at the age of 13 https: //www. youtube. com/watc h? v=nhfht. Pcj 3 nw
Shi Huangdi n n Ruling philosophy – Legalism Needed a stable gov’t after Warring state period Style of rule – centralized power to avoid another civil war Treatment of people n n n People who opposed his rule were punished or executed Held mass book burnings to get rid of ideas contrary to what he believed Started to persecute other philosophies
Shi Huangdi n Reforms n n n n Unified written Chinese, having a common written language allowed for easier communication Created a single currency to make trade easier Built roads throughout empire to make travel easier Dug the Grand Canal from the Yangtze to Central China to make trade and travel easier Centralized administrative system Standard system of weights and measures Simplified standard alphabet Began work on the Great Wall
Great Wall n Xiongnu – nomadic warriors to the north of China n n n Kept invading along the northern borders Mastered the art of fighting on horseback, using horse archers to attack Shi Huangdi ordered that a wall be built across the northern border n n n Already some walls, had them joined together Massive construction project Many people died and are allegedly buried inside the wall
The Great Wall is the world's longest man-made structure, stretching over 6, 352 km (3, 948 miles)
Fall of the Qin Dynasty n Shi Huangdi accomplished his work in only ten years n n n Drove his people mercilessly Imposed heavy taxes, imposed forced labor, and brutally crushed all hints of dissent Many angered by Shihuangdi’s harsh rule After his death, another period of civil war Next dynasty became one of the greatest and longest lasting in Chinese History
Terra. Cotta Army n Emperor Qin built a huge tomb, containing a life-sized army constructed of terra cotta soldiers. It took more than 700, 000 men 38 years to construct it.
Qin Check n n What were the accomplishments/achievements of the Qin Dynasty? What caused the decline of the Qin Dynasty?
Han Dynasty 202 B. C. through 220 A. D. n n Emperor Gaozu is the 1 st Emperor of the Han Dynasty. He begins restoring order and a sense of justice to the empire - - attempting to unify China. n n Lowers taxes Eases off legalist policies and ideas Appoints Confucian scholars as advisers This sets foundation for a strong Han dynasty.
Emperor Wudi…. AKA Wu https: //www. youtube. com/watch? v=XZMlte. B 4 Zbc&index=4&list=PLh 3 Fr 3 CAe. LN 5 w 5 Tt. Dli Am 4 p 4 hfhg 4 fq. SS
141 B. C. - - - 87 B. C. n n Known for strengthening the government and economy. He set up Confucian academies and made Confucianism the state philosophy. Economic growth came from improvements to canals and roads. Granaries were set up across the empire to buy and store grain …controlling the market when it was scarce.
141 B. C. - - - 87 B. C. n Created a monopoly on iron and salt. n What is a monopoly? n n Expansionism was practiced under Wudi’s leadership. The empire stretched to Central Asia, Korea and Vietnam. What was expansionism?
141 B. C. - - - 87 B. C. n n Established an overland trade route, such as the “Silk Road”, which connected China to the Roman Empire and other regions. Silk Road - Trade goods, ideas, and diseases exchanged Emperor Wu of Han sought horses to fend off the nomadic horsemen raiding Chinese villages What brought the decline of the Han Empire? (p. 92)
Decline of Han Dynasty Infighting among ruling elites Inequitable distribution of land - tax burden fell on peasants rather than on large landowners Series of peasant rebellions Generals usurp (take over) political power - become warlords
Decline of Han Dynasty 220 CE generals divide empire into three kingdoms. Emigration of nomadic peoples into Northern China kept country disunited
Han Check n n n Why was the Han period known as the Golden Age for China? What were the accomplishments/achievements of the Han Dynasty? What caused the decline of the Han Dynasty?
Main Philosophies of Chinese Empires