Скачать презентацию Childhood Tuberculosis Kim Connelly Smith MD MPH Скачать презентацию Childhood Tuberculosis Kim Connelly Smith MD MPH

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Childhood Tuberculosis Kim Connelly Smith MD, MPH Childhood Tuberculosis Kim Connelly Smith MD, MPH

OUTLINE • Stages of tuberculosis • Differences of disease in children and adults • OUTLINE • Stages of tuberculosis • Differences of disease in children and adults • Diagnostic challenges of pediatric TB • Treatment of TB in children • Clinical cases

Stages of Tuberculosis Exposure to Contagious Adult with Pulmonary Disease Household contacts 20 -30% Stages of Tuberculosis Exposure to Contagious Adult with Pulmonary Disease Household contacts 20 -30% Latent TB Infection LTBI 5 -10% Adult Active TB Disease Risk varies by age 5 -50% Child Active TB Disease

Percent Risk of Disease by Age at Infection Risk of Active TB Birth – Percent Risk of Disease by Age at Infection Risk of Active TB Birth – 1 year* 43% 1 – 5 years* 24% 6 – 10 years* 2% 11 – 15 years* 16% Healthy Adults 5 -10% lifetime risk HIV Infected Adults+ *Miller, Tuberculosis in Children Little Brown, Boston, 1963 30 -50% lifetime +WHO, 2004

Risk of Progression to TB Disease by Age @ primary infection Risk of Disease Risk of Progression to TB Disease by Age @ primary infection Risk of Disease n Birth-12 months Disease 50% Pulmonary Dis 30 -40% Miliary or TBM 10 -20% n 1 -2 years Disease Pulmonary Dis Miliary or TBM 20 -25% 75% 2 -5% Marais BJ. Int J Tuberc Lung Dis 2004; 8: 392 -402

Pediatric Tuberculosis Treatment Table Stages of TB TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN Skin Test Pediatric Tuberculosis Treatment Table Stages of TB TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOSIS IN CHILDREN Skin Test or IGRA CXR SXs Treatment Negative Normal None Meds: INH Duration: 8 -10 weeks Repeat skin test: 8 -10 wks after exp if positive > 5 mm, see LTBI Latent TB infection (LTBI) Positive Normal None Meds: INH Duration: INH 9 mo or for INH resistant LTBI, RIF 6 mo Disease 90% positive Abnormal +/- Meds: INH, RIF, PZA (consider EMB or an aminoglycoside) Duration: 6 mo total, Stop PZA after 2 mo, continue INH & RIF for susceptible disease TST may be negative early in disseminated TB, most positive by end of treatment +/- Yes Meds: INH, RIF, PZA and EMB or an aminoglycoside Duration: 9 -12 mo total Stop PZA and EMB or aminoglycoside after 2 mo for susceptible disease Often negative early in meningitis and miliary disease 90% positive by end of tx +/- Yes Meds: INH, RIF, PZA and an aminoglycoside or EMB or Ethionamide daily for 2 mo, then INH and RIF for 7 -10 mo Duration: 9 -12 mo total for drug susceptible disease Steroids recommended for first 1 -2 mo for meningitis Exposure Child < 4 years of age Household contact with adult with active pulmonary disease Pulmonary and extrapulmonary (except disseminated disease and meningitis, see below) Disease Disseminated including miliary, bone/joint and multi-site disease Disease Meningitis

Daycare Exposure Daycare Exposure

Daycare Exposure n n Index case, teacher assistant with AFB smear positive pulmonary disease Daycare Exposure n n Index case, teacher assistant with AFB smear positive pulmonary disease and cough for 6 weeks 135 children < 4 years of age, plus adult staff members exposed Smith, KC. Southern Medical Journal 93(9): 877 -880, 2000

Daycare Exposure Management n Who is at risk? • Children and staff n Who Daycare Exposure Management n Who is at risk? • Children and staff n Who needs TST? • Everyone with significant contact with source case n Who needs CXR? • All children less than 4 years of age even if TST negative • Any contacts with positive TST (> 5 mm) n Who needs treatment? • LTBI (positive TST >5 mm and normal CXR) INH for 9 months • Exposed children less than 4 years of age need INH window prophylaxis for 8 -10 weeks n Follow up? • Repeat TST 8 -10 weeks after exposure • If negative and contact broken, stop INH prophylaxis

Window Prophylaxis n Exposure Ø Ø Ø n Household contact with contagious person Usually Window Prophylaxis n Exposure Ø Ø Ø n Household contact with contagious person Usually > 4 hours of contact Teen or adult with pulmonary TB disease Window period for TST conversion Ø 8 -10 weeks n v If CXR and physical exam normal INH prophylaxis recommended: Ø For children <4 yrs of age Ø Prevention of disease during window period n n Repeat TST 8 -10 wks after exposure May stop INH if 2 nd TST negative <5 mm and contact broken

Preventable Case Preventable Case

Pediatric TB Case a Missed Opportunity n 15 mo old • 10 days fussiness Pediatric TB Case a Missed Opportunity n 15 mo old • 10 days fussiness & decreased appetite • 3 days inability to walk or sit up • CSF: 96 WBC (NL <7), 72% Lymphs, 198 Protein (NL <45), Glucose 8 • Source case: mother of child • Diagnosis: TB Meningitis n Family history • Mom with pulmonary TB diagnosed 5 mo earlier on appropriate treatment • Dad diagnosed with LTBI on INH • Baby initial TST 0 mm @ 10 months of age Ø Ø Ø no CXR no treatment lost to follow up

TB Meningitis Treatment and Clinical Course n n 12 months RIPE therapy Steroids for TB Meningitis Treatment and Clinical Course n n 12 months RIPE therapy Steroids for 1 -2 month with 2 -3 week taper • decreases CNS inflammation n n Fever common for first month, symptoms may initially worsen followed by gradual improvement Possible complications • • n Seizures Hydrocephalus CNS tuberculoma, stroke, MR, CP Mortality may be 100% if not diagnosed and treated This case was potentially preventable if treated with window prophylaxis when parent diagnosed

Differences In Adult and Pediatric TB Differences In Adult and Pediatric TB

Reactivation Disease n n n Occurs years after primary infection Typical of adult disease Reactivation Disease n n n Occurs years after primary infection Typical of adult disease Occasionally seen in teens Often cavitary disease High numbers of organisms (AFB +) Usually symptomatic and contagious

Primary Disease n n n Typical of childhood TB Usually not cavitary Classic x-ray: Primary Disease n n n Typical of childhood TB Usually not cavitary Classic x-ray: • Hilar lymphadenopathy with or without pulmonary infiltrates • Miliary infiltrates n Low numbers of organisms Ø AFB smears negative in 95% of pedi cases Ø Culture negative in 60% of cases n n Most children <12 yrs not contagious Often asymptomatic (50%)

Pediatric Case TB Disease n Father • Cavitary pulmonary disease • AFB smear positive Pediatric Case TB Disease n Father • Cavitary pulmonary disease • AFB smear positive • Pansusceptible TB n 9 year old son • • • Contact investigation TST 5 mm Healthy kid with no symptoms Initial CXR with small pleural effusion No treatment started What was the diagnosis at this point?

Treatment and Follow up n 6 weeks later • Fever • Respiratory difficulty • Treatment and Follow up n 6 weeks later • Fever • Respiratory difficulty • Worsening CXR n n What went wrong? What treatment recommended?

Adult TB Disease 85% Pulmonary 15% Extrapulmonary CDC Adult TB Disease 85% Pulmonary 15% Extrapulmonary CDC

Adult Extrapulmonary TB Disease (15%) 4% Meningeal 9% Miliary 10% Bone/Joint 13% Other 25% Adult Extrapulmonary TB Disease (15%) 4% Meningeal 9% Miliary 10% Bone/Joint 13% Other 25% Lymphatic 23% Pleural 16% GU CDC

Pediatric TB Disease 25% Extrapulmonary 75% Pulmonary CDC Pediatric TB Disease 25% Extrapulmonary 75% Pulmonary CDC

Extrapulmonary TB Disease in Children (25%) 6% Pleural 14% Meningeal 5% Miliary 5% Other Extrapulmonary TB Disease in Children (25%) 6% Pleural 14% Meningeal 5% Miliary 5% Other 67% Lymphatic 4% Bone/Joint CDC

*Feigin & Cherry, Text of Pedi ID *Feigin & Cherry, Text of Pedi ID

Symptoms of TB Disease in Children • Cough and/or respiratory distress • Pulmonary findings Symptoms of TB Disease in Children • Cough and/or respiratory distress • Pulmonary findings on examination • Lymphadenopathy or lymphadenitis • S/Sx of meningitis including seizures • Persistent fever (FUO) • Weight loss or failure to thrive • Unlike adults, up to 50% of children with TB disease may have no symptoms

Unique Challenges of TB in Children n n n More difficult diagnosis Nonspecific signs Unique Challenges of TB in Children n n n More difficult diagnosis Nonspecific signs and symptoms Fewer mycobacteria Fewer positive bacteriologic tests Increases risk of progression to disease Higher risk of extrapulmonary and TB meningitis

Diagnosis for TB in Children Gold Standard – Positive TB Culture OR, Clinical Diagnosis: Diagnosis for TB in Children Gold Standard – Positive TB Culture OR, Clinical Diagnosis: n Abnormal CXR, laboratory, or physical examination consistent with TB AND 1 or more of the following: n Ø Positive tuberculin skin test Ø Contagious adult source case identified Ø Clinical course consistent with TB disease, or Ø Improvement on TB therapy

Diagnostic Triad for TB Disease in Children Abnormal CXR and/or physical exam Positive TST Diagnostic Triad for TB Disease in Children Abnormal CXR and/or physical exam Positive TST or IGRA Infectious adult source case identified

AFB smears and Cultures in Children and Infants Ø AFB smear usually negative Ø AFB smears and Cultures in Children and Infants Ø AFB smear usually negative Ø In 95% of patients <12 years of age Ø Low yield on TB culture Ø Only 40% positive in children 12 yrs of age with pulm TB 1 - Ø Obtaining cultures from children with pulmonary TB Ø Ø Ø Early morning gastric aspirates (x 3) Broncho alveolar lavage (BAL) Induced sputum Ø Infants with pulmonary TB Ø 60 -70% cultures pos

Gastric Aspirates Inpatient procedure Overnight fasting Lavage with NS Collected in morning x 3 Gastric Aspirates Inpatient procedure Overnight fasting Lavage with NS Collected in morning x 3 Inpatient costs substantial AFB smear yield: minimal AFB Culture yield: 2050%

Induced Sputum Outpatient procedure 2 -3 h fasting period Pretreatment: Nebulized salmeterol and saline Induced Sputum Outpatient procedure 2 -3 h fasting period Pretreatment: Nebulized salmeterol and saline Chest physiotherapy (CPT) Nasopharynx suctioned One specimen sufficient Minimal costs Lancet. 2005; 365: 130

Lymphadenopathy Lymphadenopathy

Clinical Case Cervical Lymphadenopathy n n 8 yr old with cervical lymphadenopathy History: Ø Clinical Case Cervical Lymphadenopathy n n 8 yr old with cervical lymphadenopathy History: Ø LAN for 3 months Ø PMHx: Healthy Ø BCG vaccine at birth Ø TB skin test 10 mm n Physical Exam: Ø 3 cm anterior cervical LAN Ø 1. 5 cm supraclavicular LAN n CXR: Ø Hilar LAN, no infiltrates n n Is this TB disease? What else could it be?

Hilar & Cervical Lymphadenopathy n Differential Dx • • Tuberculosis Non TB mycobacteria (NTM) Hilar & Cervical Lymphadenopathy n Differential Dx • • Tuberculosis Non TB mycobacteria (NTM) • Lymphoma/Leukemia • HIV • Other causes n Diagnostic tests • Biopsy (FNA or surgical for culture and path) • Interferon Blood test for TB infection

Results n Fine needle aspirate of node: Ø Pathology: lymphoma, no TB by culture Results n Fine needle aspirate of node: Ø Pathology: lymphoma, no TB by culture or microscopy n Interferon Blood test for TB Ø Positive Ø Diagnostic for latent TB infection or disease n Diagnoses: Ø LTBI AND Ø Hodgkin’s Lymphoma n Treatment: Ø Chemotherapy for lymphoma AND Ø INH daily for 9 months for LTBI consider prolonged treatment during immunosuppresion

IGRAs in Children n Sensitivity § Variable 60 -90% n Highly specific § Specificity IGRAs in Children n Sensitivity § Variable 60 -90% n Highly specific § Specificity 90 -95% § Eliminates false positives from BCG or most other mycobacteria n n n Single visit required Helpful (preferred) in BCG vaccinated patients Children <5 years of age • Not FDA approved in this age due to limited data • Consider either test (IGRA or TST) positive in high risk patients n May save costs by reducing false positives

Quanti. FERON TB Meta Analysis in Children n n Systematic review and meta analysis Quanti. FERON TB Meta Analysis in Children n n Systematic review and meta analysis of QFT for diagnosing LBTI and TB disease in children – 20 of 68 studies used Conclusions: • LTBI: QFT has higher specificity compared to TST • Disease: Sensitivity of QFT was no different from the TST • Lower QFT sensitivity was found in high-burden settings (55%) compared with low burden settings (70%) Machingaidze et al. PIDJ 2011; 30: epub

Machingaidze et al. PIDJ 2011; 30: epub Machingaidze et al. PIDJ 2011; 30: epub

Skin Test in Foreign Born Skin Test in Foreign Born

Skin Test in Foreign Born n 6 year old with positive TST for school Skin Test in Foreign Born n 6 year old with positive TST for school entry Born in Asia BCG history • Vaccinated at birth • BCG scar present n TST measures 12 mm

CXR Normal n How do you interpret the skin test? n Is this BCG CXR Normal n How do you interpret the skin test? n Is this BCG effect or LTBI? n What tests may help?

Algorithm for TB Testing in Children TB Risk Questionnaire positive? No Screening Complete Yes Algorithm for TB Testing in Children TB Risk Questionnaire positive? No Screening Complete Yes Age < 5 years? Yes TST Preferred* No Likely to return for TST reading? No BCG Vaccinated? Yes Initial TST Done? Yes TST Result? Yes TST or IGRA Acceptable No No IGRA Preferred Positive Negative Concern for TB disease? * No Negative, testing complete Yes Indeterminate Negative Concern for TB disease? * No Negative, testing complete Yes Positive, testing complete Repeat IGRA Indeterminate Consider TST if not done *If clinical suspicion of TB disease consider doing both tests and either positive TST or IGRA may be significant

TST Preferred, IGRA Acceptable n Children < 5 years of age Note: most experts TST Preferred, IGRA Acceptable n Children < 5 years of age Note: most experts would not use an IGRA to detect TB infection in a child < 2 years of age IGRA preferred, TST acceptable n n Children > 4 yrs of age who have had BCG vaccine Children > 4 years of age who are unlikely to return for TST reading

What to do with Discordant IGRA and TST Results? Consider either test positive • What to do with Discordant IGRA and TST Results? Consider either test positive • If disease is suspected • If patient is at high risk for progression to disease (infants or immune compromised) For healthy patients without risk factors • Choose the more specific test (IGRA)

Monitoring Children on TB Treatment n Risk of toxicity low n Monitor clinical signs Monitoring Children on TB Treatment n Risk of toxicity low n Monitor clinical signs n Routine blood work not necessary unless n Monitor and reinforce adherence n When to follow up CXR’s n Completion of therapy certificate • Regular clinical visits (4 -6 wks) • Patient education • • • Symptoms Risk factors for toxicity Taking other toxic drugs • • Pill counts Pharmacy records • • • Clinical change End of therapy Normal CXR not required to end therapy

Management of TB Medication Reactions n n Hepatotoxicity Medication refusal in children • Crush Management of TB Medication Reactions n n Hepatotoxicity Medication refusal in children • Crush tablets, medication sandwich n Vitamin B 6 • Breastfed infants, teens & picky eaters n Going back to school • Children <12 yrs of age are not contagious

Central Nervous System TB Drug Penetration Drug n Isoniazid n Rifampin n PZA n Central Nervous System TB Drug Penetration Drug n Isoniazid n Rifampin n PZA n Ethambutol n Ethionamide n Aminoglycosides n Fluoroquinolones CNS Penetration n Good n Inflamed meninges only n Good except Cipro poor

Ethambutol in Children n Risk of optic neuritis: • • n Visual acuity Color Ethambutol in Children n Risk of optic neuritis: • • n Visual acuity Color perception Visual field perception Dose related Usually reversible Risk around 1 -3% in adults Risk in children about the same EMB probably safe in children • Monitor vision on treatment • Infants - VEP

Ethambutol in Children Table 2. Studies that have specifically sought optical toxicity in children Ethambutol in Children Table 2. Studies that have specifically sought optical toxicity in children treated with Ethambutol Reference Patients (n) 24 25 47 36 Fox* 26 27 28 45 30 27 6 Age range Method of evaluation 3 -13 years 4 months to 16 years 1 -15 years 4 -5 years 5 -15 years 9 -16 years Length of follow up (months) Number with toxicity Visual evoked responses Acuity/field/colour 15 -18 24 -48 0 0 Acuity/field/colour Computerised visual field examiniation 9 -18 6 12 -36 9 0 0 *Fox W, unpublished data quoted in Tubercle 1986; 67: 27. SM Graham. Arch Dis child 1998; 79: 274 -278.

Fluoroquinolones in Children n Initial animal studies: • Problems with growing cartilage in puppies Fluoroquinolones in Children n Initial animal studies: • Problems with growing cartilage in puppies • Initial clinical trials in children were not done n Some children have been treated without problems: • CF, chronic UTI, shigellosis and TB n Probably safe in children: • Some case series and RCT with good results • Germany study: 2030 patients treated, 31 (1. 5%) with self resolving arthralgia* n n n Not indicated for routine infections in children Consider risk benefit Monitor clinically for joint and tendon problems (reported in adult patients) *B Hampel. Pediatr Inf Dis J, 1997; 16: 127 -9.

Comparison of Side Effects with Ciprofloxacin vs Ceftazidime/Tobramycin in Children No. of Patients Event Comparison of Side Effects with Ciprofloxacin vs Ceftazidime/Tobramycin in Children No. of Patients Event Any Abnormal liver function tests Injection site pain Rash Phlebitis Vomiting Central nervous system, any Respiratory, any Musculoskeletal, any Joint Disorder Arthralgia Arthritis Leg cramps Myalgia Ciprofloxacin N = 67 (%) Ceftazidime/ Tobramycin N = 62 (%) 52 (78) 17 (25) 16 (24) 13 (19) 10 (15) 7 (10) 11(16) 1 (1) 7 (10) 15 (22) 8 (12) 7 (10) 1 (1) 0 (0) 1 (1) 43 (69) 13 (21) 5 (8) 7 (11) 5 (8) 1 (2) 4 (6) 6 (10) 3 (5) 13 (21) 10 (16) 7 (11) 0 (0) 1 (2) 0 (0) DA Church. Pediatr Infec Dis J 1997 Jan; 16 (1): 97 -105 P 0. 288 0. 554 0. 015 0. 203 0. 225 0. 063 0. 078 0. 055 0. 328 0. 845 0. 493 0. 878 1. 0 0. 481 1. 000

Aminoglycocides n Administration • • n IV or IM Consider central line Home health Aminoglycocides n Administration • • n IV or IM Consider central line Home health or clinic administration Usually given for 6 -12 months with MDR-TB or some non-TB mycobacterial diseases Monitor • • • Blood levels Renal function Hearing

Summary n n n TB medications are well tolerated in children Education of family Summary n n n TB medications are well tolerated in children Education of family important Regular clinical monitoring recommended • Laboratory test if symptoms Adverse events are rare and usually reversible DOT standard of care for disease

Prevention of TB Disease in Children n Contact Investigation n INH Window Prophylaxis n Prevention of TB Disease in Children n Contact Investigation n INH Window Prophylaxis n Treatment of LTBI

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