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Chapters 30 -31: The Great Depression, World War II, and Decolonization
The 1920 s: Temporary Prosperity n n Optimism and prosperity in the 1920 s led many to hope that large scale conflict could be avoided. This hope ended abruptly in October, 1929, with the onset of the Great Depression.
The Great Depression’s Causes n n n After effects of World War I Overproduction Tariffs and other trade barriers Stock market crash Bank failures in the US and other countries
The Great Depression (1929 -1941)
The New York Stock Exchange in October, 1929
The Dust Bowl
Responses to the Great Depression n n The enormous economic decline led many western governments to take greater control over their nation’s economies. Many saw the Depression as evidence that democratic governments and capitalism were incapable of solving problems or meeting the needs of modern society.
US reaction to the Depression n Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt the US enacted a reform program known as the New Deal. The New Deal expanded government powers and regulated the US economy more closely than ever before. Programs such as Social Security were designed to help Americans through the worst effects of the Great Depression and, it was hoped, prevent another.
Western European Reactions n n Social Democratic governments were elected in Scandinavia. They were socialist but democratic. In England, the Labour Party took power France’s government was led by the Popular Front, a mixture of socialist and moderate parties. These governments attempted to help end the Depression by taking more power over their economies
The Soviet Union n Because its economy was independent and did not depend on external trade, the Soviet Union had few economic troubles during the 1930 s. Joseph Stalin boasted that this demonstrated the superiority of socialism over capitalism, and some Westerners agreed. Stalin’s Five Year Plans and focus on heavy industry and militarization made the Soviet Union a powerful force.
Japan n Japan had fought on the Allied side during World War I, but was disappointed with its treatment by the other powers afterwards. By the 1930 s, military leaders or warlords had taken power. Japan began to construct the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, promising “Asia for the Asiatics. ”
Germany n n n After World War I Germany’s economy was devastated, its territory shrunken, and its military force depleted. Many Germans felt their country had been badly treated by the Treaty of Versailles, and were eager for revenge. The Great Depression made Germany’s situation worse, and many Germans looked to new leadership.
The German Mark
The German Mark
The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans
Adolf Hitler n n n n Born 1889, Austria Obsessed with German racial superiority Anti-Semitic World War I veteran, took leadership of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) in early 1920 s Attempted to seize power in 1923, but was imprisoned. Wrote Mein Kampf Appointed Chancellor after Nazis won the German elections in January, 1933.
The Third Reich n n n By 1934 Hitler had taken total power and become Der Fuhrer, or “The Leader” of Germany He began to remilitarize Germany in defiance of the Versailles Treaty. Anti-Semitic Decrees first separated the Jews from the Germans, then began to limit their rights, eventually leading to the Holocaust.
The Road to World War II n n n Many point to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in Northern China in 1931 as the true beginning of World War II. During the 1930 s, Mussolini’s Italy invaded and conquered Ethiopia, Japan continued to invade and conquer China, and Germany made aggressive moves towards war The Spanish Civil War of 1936 -1938 was another omen of greater conflicts to come.
“Guernica” by Pablo Picasso
Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936
The Austrian Anschluss, 1938
The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937
The “Problem” of the Sudetenland
Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.
Rome-Berlin Axis, 1939 The “Pact of Steel”
The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov
Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightning War”]
The “Phony War” Ends: Spring, 1940
Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis: The Tripartite Pact September, 1940
Battle of Britain: The “Blitz”
British Prime Minister Winston Churchill
Operation Barbarossa: Hitler’s Biggest Mistake
Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!
Pacific Theater of Operations
Allied Counter-Offensive: “Island-Hopping”
“Island-Hopping”: US Troops on Kwajalien Island
Battle of Midway Island: June 4 -6, 1942
Axis Powers in 1942
Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942 -1943 German Army Russian Army 1, 011, 500 men 1, 000, 500 men 10, 290 artillery guns 13, 541 artillery guns 675 tanks 894 tanks 1, 216 planes 1, 115 planes
The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” y Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942 -May 1943 y George S. Patton leads American troops y Germans trapped in Tunisia surrender over 275, 000 troops.
D-Day (June 6, 1944)
Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944) German Prisoners Higgins Landing Crafts
The Liberation of Paris: August 25, 1944 De Gaulle in Triumph!
The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler’s Last Offensive Dec. 16, 1944 to Jan. 28, 1945
US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River: April 25, 1945
Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed
Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Entrance to Auschwitz Crematoria at Majdanek
Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Slave Labor at Buchenwald
Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen
Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 Cyanide & Pistols The Führer’s Bunker Mr. & Mrs. Hitler
V-E Day (May 8, 1945) General Keitel
Japanese Kamikaze Planes: The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots Suicide Bombers
US Marines on Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]
The Manhattan Project: Los Alamos, NM Major General Lesley R. Groves Dr. Robert Oppenheimer I am become death, the shatterer of worlds!
Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 © 70, 000 killed immediately. © 48, 000 buildings. destroyed. © 100, 000 s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 © 40, 000 killed immediately. © 60, 000 injured. © 100, 000 s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.
Japanese A-Bomb Survivors
End of the War (September 2, 1945)
V-J Day in Times Square, NYC
The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War
The Division of Germany: 1945 - 1990
The Creation of the U. N.
The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements
The De-Colonization of European Empires
India Gains Independence n n Between World Wars I and II, agitation for Indian independence increased. Mohandas K. Gandhi continued to advocate satyagraha nonviolent noncooperation or passive resistance During World War II the Indian National Congress led the “Quit India” movement The Muslim League advocated cooperation with the British war effort.
Jawaharlal Nehru: leader of Congress 1889 - 1964
Mohammed Ali Jinnah: leader of the Muslim League 1876 - 1948
Gandhi spinning cloth
Gandhi and His Granddaughters, 1947
Last Viceroy of India Lord and Lady Mountbatten
Jawarharlal Nehru n n n Ally of Gandhi. 1 st Prime Minister of India, 1947 -1964. Advocated Industrialization. Promoted “Green Revolution”. Mixed Economy. Nonaligned Movement.
Indira Gandhi n n n Nehru’s daughter. Prime Minister of India, 1966 -1984. Continues Nehru’s policies. Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. Assassinated in 1984.
Indira Gandhi with sons Sanjay and Rajiv
Rajiv Gandhi n n n Indira’s son. Prime Minister of India, 1984 -1989. Some reform of economy and government. Also faced rebellion. Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning.
Sonia, Rahul, and Priyanka Gandhi: The next generations
Pakistan n Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Prime Minister Ayub Khan. Dangerous combination Was not prepared to rule in 1948. Ø Strong Islamic fundamentalism. Ø Impoverished. Ø n Pakistan divides in 1972 W. Pakistan = Pakistan Ø E. Pakistan = Bangladesh Ø
Benazir Bhutto n First Woman Prime Minister, 1988 Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption charges. Ø Assassinated Dec. 27, 2007 Ø n Nawaz Sharif Ousted three times. Ø Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists. Ø
Gen. Pervez Musharaff § Coup d’etat. § Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists. § U. S. ally in the “War on Terror. ”
India-Pakistan Border Disputes
1971 India-Pakistan War
2002 Military Statistics
2002 Nuclear Statistics
Partners in the “War on Terror? ”
What title would you give this political cartoon?
Decolonization in Africa and Asia n n n After World War II nationalist demands for independence increased in the colonies Western nations were no longer strong enough to maintain control of their empires Some European countries managed to end their empires peacefully. The Dutch pulled out of Indonesia in 1948. The British turned their Empire into the British Commonwealth of Nations France struggled to maintain its empire and fought a series of conflicts in Algeria and Indochina before finally pulling out. By the mid-1960 s most of Africa was independent. The last European nation to give up its colonies was Portugal in 1980.
The Four “Worlds” n n First World: industrialized liberal democracies with market economies Second World: dictatorships with Marxist command economies Third World: non-aligned nations (post- Cold War: developing nations) Fourth World: non-self-supporting nations dependent on the First and Second Worlds
Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization n Colonies which had few European settlers were allowed to gain independence quickly Kwame Nkrumah practiced passive resistance and economic boycotts in Ghana. By 1960 the British had pulled out and granted independence.
Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization n n Kenya was a colony with a substantial population of British citizens. During the 1950 s and early 1960 s, Jomo Kenyatta led a guerrilla war style conflict against the British. The British called this the Mau Rebelliion, the Kenyans refer to it as their war for independence. In 1965 Britain pulled out of Kenyatta became President, and Kenya has had fairly good racial relations since
White Resistance to African Independence. n n Rhodesia, ruled by a white minority, seceded from the Commonwealth in 1965 rather than accept majority rule. In 1980, it returned to the Commonwealth, accepted majority rule, and became Zimbabwe. Until the late 1990 s, it also had good race relations President Robert Mugabe has encouraged confiscation of white owned land businesses and terrorism against white residents.
White Resistance to African Independence. n n n South Africa’s apartheid regime remained in power until the early 1990 s. Brutal laws mandated racial segregation and other restrictions. In 1994, Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid leader, was elected the first majority-rule President of South Africa.
Problems of the new African nations n n n Lack of an infrastructure and middle class Little or no industry and technology Artificial borders dating from the colonial period, with no recognition of historic and cultural differences Democratic governments were often overthrown and replaced with military dictatorships. Neocolonialism meant continued economic dependence on the West
Nigeria: Colonial borders creating conflict n n Oil rich nation with large population Former British colonial borders include many different hostile ethnic and tribal groups. Religious differences: Muslim north, Christian south. Worst conflict: Late 1960 s, the Ibo tribe attempted to form separate nation of Biafra. This led to a two year long civil war.
The Middle East after World War II n n Most Arab nations became independent during or shortly after World War II In 1948, the nation of Israel was established, supported by the United Nations, the United States, and the Soviet Union. War broke out as Israel’s Arab neighbors attempted to destroy the new country. Israel defeated the Arabs and expanded its territory. Palestinian refugees became an immediate and lasting problem
Palestine Populatio n in 1946
U. N. Partition Plan of 1947
Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, 1 st Prime Minister
War Begins!: May 15, 1948
Arab Refugees, 1948 The Palestinian Diaspora begins!
Armistice Sig n e d, 1949
Israeli-Arab Conflicts Since 1948 n n n 1956 Suez Crisis 1967 Six Day War 1973 Yom Kippur War 1987 -Present: Palestinian Intifada Camp David Accord 1979 Oslo Agreement 1994