Скачать презентацию Chapters 30 -31 The Great Depression World War Скачать презентацию Chapters 30 -31 The Great Depression World War

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Chapters 30 -31: The Great Depression, World War II, and Decolonization Chapters 30 -31: The Great Depression, World War II, and Decolonization

The 1920 s: Temporary Prosperity n n Optimism and prosperity in the 1920 s The 1920 s: Temporary Prosperity n n Optimism and prosperity in the 1920 s led many to hope that large scale conflict could be avoided. This hope ended abruptly in October, 1929, with the onset of the Great Depression.

The Great Depression’s Causes n n n After effects of World War I Overproduction The Great Depression’s Causes n n n After effects of World War I Overproduction Tariffs and other trade barriers Stock market crash Bank failures in the US and other countries

The Great Depression (1929 -1941) The Great Depression (1929 -1941)

The New York Stock Exchange in October, 1929 The New York Stock Exchange in October, 1929

Bank Failures Bank Failures

The Dust Bowl The Dust Bowl

Responses to the Great Depression n n The enormous economic decline led many western Responses to the Great Depression n n The enormous economic decline led many western governments to take greater control over their nation’s economies. Many saw the Depression as evidence that democratic governments and capitalism were incapable of solving problems or meeting the needs of modern society.

US reaction to the Depression n Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt the US enacted US reaction to the Depression n Under President Franklin D. Roosevelt the US enacted a reform program known as the New Deal. The New Deal expanded government powers and regulated the US economy more closely than ever before. Programs such as Social Security were designed to help Americans through the worst effects of the Great Depression and, it was hoped, prevent another.

Western European Reactions n n Social Democratic governments were elected in Scandinavia. They were Western European Reactions n n Social Democratic governments were elected in Scandinavia. They were socialist but democratic. In England, the Labour Party took power France’s government was led by the Popular Front, a mixture of socialist and moderate parties. These governments attempted to help end the Depression by taking more power over their economies

The Soviet Union n Because its economy was independent and did not depend on The Soviet Union n Because its economy was independent and did not depend on external trade, the Soviet Union had few economic troubles during the 1930 s. Joseph Stalin boasted that this demonstrated the superiority of socialism over capitalism, and some Westerners agreed. Stalin’s Five Year Plans and focus on heavy industry and militarization made the Soviet Union a powerful force.

Japan n Japan had fought on the Allied side during World War I, but Japan n Japan had fought on the Allied side during World War I, but was disappointed with its treatment by the other powers afterwards. By the 1930 s, military leaders or warlords had taken power. Japan began to construct the Greater East Asia Co-Prosperity Sphere, promising “Asia for the Asiatics. ”

Germany n n n After World War I Germany’s economy was devastated, its territory Germany n n n After World War I Germany’s economy was devastated, its territory shrunken, and its military force depleted. Many Germans felt their country had been badly treated by the Treaty of Versailles, and were eager for revenge. The Great Depression made Germany’s situation worse, and many Germans looked to new leadership.

The German Mark The German Mark

The German Mark The German Mark

The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans The “Stabbed-in-the-Back” Theory Disgruntled German WWI veterans

Adolf Hitler n n n n Born 1889, Austria Obsessed with German racial superiority Adolf Hitler n n n n Born 1889, Austria Obsessed with German racial superiority Anti-Semitic World War I veteran, took leadership of the National Socialist German Workers’ Party (Nazi) in early 1920 s Attempted to seize power in 1923, but was imprisoned. Wrote Mein Kampf Appointed Chancellor after Nazis won the German elections in January, 1933.

The Third Reich n n n By 1934 Hitler had taken total power and The Third Reich n n n By 1934 Hitler had taken total power and become Der Fuhrer, or “The Leader” of Germany He began to remilitarize Germany in defiance of the Versailles Treaty. Anti-Semitic Decrees first separated the Jews from the Germans, then began to limit their rights, eventually leading to the Holocaust.

Nazi Propaganda Nazi Propaganda

Anti-Semitism Anti-Semitism

The Road to World War II n n n Many point to the Japanese The Road to World War II n n n Many point to the Japanese invasion of Manchuria in Northern China in 1931 as the true beginning of World War II. During the 1930 s, Mussolini’s Italy invaded and conquered Ethiopia, Japan continued to invade and conquer China, and Germany made aggressive moves towards war The Spanish Civil War of 1936 -1938 was another omen of greater conflicts to come.

“Guernica” by Pablo Picasso “Guernica” by Pablo Picasso

Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936 Germany Invades the Rhineland March 7, 1936

The Austrian Anschluss, 1938 The Austrian Anschluss, 1938

The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937 The Japanese Invasion of China, 1937

The “Problem” of the Sudetenland The “Problem” of the Sudetenland

Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Now we have “peace Appeasement: The Munich Agreement, 1938 British Prime Minister Neville Chamberlain Now we have “peace in our time!” Herr Hitler is a man we can do business with.

Rome-Berlin Axis, 1939 The “Pact of Steel” Rome-Berlin Axis, 1939 The “Pact of Steel”

The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov The Nazi-Soviet Non-Aggression Pact, 1939 Foreign Ministers von Ribbentrop & Molotov

Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightning War”] Poland Attacked: Sept. 1, 1939 Blitzkrieg [“Lightning War”]

The “Phony War” Ends: Spring, 1940 The “Phony War” Ends: Spring, 1940

Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis: The Tripartite Pact September, 1940 Rome-Berlin-Tokyo Axis: The Tripartite Pact September, 1940

Lend-Lease Lend-Lease

Battle of Britain: The “Blitz” Battle of Britain: The “Blitz”

British Prime Minister Winston Churchill British Prime Minister Winston Churchill

Operation Barbarossa: Hitler’s Biggest Mistake Operation Barbarossa: Hitler’s Biggest Mistake

Pearl Harbor Pearl Harbor

Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy! Pearl Harbor - Dec. 7, 1941 A date which will live in infamy!

Pacific Theater of Operations Pacific Theater of Operations

Allied Counter-Offensive: “Island-Hopping” Allied Counter-Offensive: “Island-Hopping”

“Island-Hopping”: US Troops on Kwajalien Island “Island-Hopping”: US Troops on Kwajalien Island

Battle of Midway Island: June 4 -6, 1942 Battle of Midway Island: June 4 -6, 1942

Axis Powers in 1942 Axis Powers in 1942

Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942 -1943 German Army Russian Army 1, 011, 500 Battle of Stalingrad: Winter of 1942 -1943 German Army Russian Army 1, 011, 500 men 1, 000, 500 men 10, 290 artillery guns 13, 541 artillery guns 675 tanks 894 tanks 1, 216 planes 1, 115 planes

The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” y Allies plan assault on The Italian Campaign [“Operation Torch”] : Europe’s “Soft Underbelly” y Allies plan assault on weakest Axis area - North Africa - Nov. 1942 -May 1943 y George S. Patton leads American troops y Germans trapped in Tunisia surrender over 275, 000 troops.

D-Day (June 6, 1944) D-Day (June 6, 1944)

Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944) German Prisoners Higgins Landing Crafts Normandy Landing (June 6, 1944) German Prisoners Higgins Landing Crafts

The Liberation of Paris: August 25, 1944 De Gaulle in Triumph! The Liberation of Paris: August 25, 1944 De Gaulle in Triumph!

The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler’s Last Offensive Dec. 16, 1944 to Jan. 28, The Battle of the Bulge: Hitler’s Last Offensive Dec. 16, 1944 to Jan. 28, 1945

US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River: April 25, 1945 US & Russian Soldiers Meet at the Elbe River: April 25, 1945

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Entrance to Auschwitz Crematoria at Majdanek Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Entrance to Auschwitz Crematoria at Majdanek

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Slave Labor at Buchenwald Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Slave Labor at Buchenwald

Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen Horrors of the Holocaust Exposed Mass Graves at Bergen-Belsen

Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 Cyanide & Pistols The Führer’s Bunker Mr. & Hitler Commits Suicide April 30, 1945 Cyanide & Pistols The Führer’s Bunker Mr. & Mrs. Hitler

V-E Day (May 8, 1945) General Keitel V-E Day (May 8, 1945) General Keitel

Japanese Kamikaze Planes: The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots Suicide Bombers Japanese Kamikaze Planes: The Scourge of the South Pacific Kamikaze Pilots Suicide Bombers

US Marines on Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945] US Marines on Mt. Suribachi, Iwo Jima [Feb. 19, 1945]

The Manhattan Project: Los Alamos, NM Major General Lesley R. Groves Dr. Robert Oppenheimer The Manhattan Project: Los Alamos, NM Major General Lesley R. Groves Dr. Robert Oppenheimer I am become death, the shatterer of worlds!

Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 © 70, 000 killed immediately. © 48, 000 buildings. Hiroshima – August 6, 1945 © 70, 000 killed immediately. © 48, 000 buildings. destroyed. © 100, 000 s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 © 40, 000 killed immediately. © 60, 000 injured. Nagasaki – August 9, 1945 © 40, 000 killed immediately. © 60, 000 injured. © 100, 000 s died of radiation poisoning & cancer later.

Japanese A-Bomb Survivors Japanese A-Bomb Survivors

End of the War (September 2, 1945) End of the War (September 2, 1945)

V-J Day in Times Square, NYC V-J Day in Times Square, NYC

The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War The Bi-Polarization of Europe: The Beginning of the Cold War

The Division of Germany: 1945 - 1990 The Division of Germany: 1945 - 1990

The Creation of the U. N. The Creation of the U. N.

The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements The Emergence of Third World Nationalist Movements

The De-Colonization of European Empires The De-Colonization of European Empires

India Gains Independence n n Between World Wars I and II, agitation for Indian India Gains Independence n n Between World Wars I and II, agitation for Indian independence increased. Mohandas K. Gandhi continued to advocate satyagraha nonviolent noncooperation or passive resistance During World War II the Indian National Congress led the “Quit India” movement The Muslim League advocated cooperation with the British war effort.

Jawaharlal Nehru: leader of Congress 1889 - 1964 Jawaharlal Nehru: leader of Congress 1889 - 1964

Mohammed Ali Jinnah: leader of the Muslim League 1876 - 1948 Mohammed Ali Jinnah: leader of the Muslim League 1876 - 1948

Gandhi spinning cloth Gandhi spinning cloth

Gandhi and His Granddaughters, 1947 Gandhi and His Granddaughters, 1947

Pre-Partition Pre-Partition

Last Viceroy of India Lord and Lady Mountbatten Last Viceroy of India Lord and Lady Mountbatten

Partition! Partition!

Border problems Border problems

Kashmir Crisis Kashmir Crisis

Jawarharlal Nehru n n n Ally of Gandhi. 1 st Prime Minister of India, Jawarharlal Nehru n n n Ally of Gandhi. 1 st Prime Minister of India, 1947 -1964. Advocated Industrialization. Promoted “Green Revolution”. Mixed Economy. Nonaligned Movement.

Indira Gandhi n n n Nehru’s daughter. Prime Minister of India, 1966 -1984. Continues Indira Gandhi n n n Nehru’s daughter. Prime Minister of India, 1966 -1984. Continues Nehru’s policies. Faced corruption charges & internal rebellion. Assassinated in 1984.

Indira Gandhi with sons Sanjay and Rajiv Indira Gandhi with sons Sanjay and Rajiv

Rajiv Gandhi n n n Indira’s son. Prime Minister of India, 1984 -1989. Some Rajiv Gandhi n n n Indira’s son. Prime Minister of India, 1984 -1989. Some reform of economy and government. Also faced rebellion. Assassinated in 1991 while campaigning.

Sonia, Rahul, and Priyanka Gandhi: The next generations Sonia, Rahul, and Priyanka Gandhi: The next generations

Pakistan n Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Prime Minister Ayub Khan. Dangerous combination Pakistan n Led briefly by Muhammad Ali Jinnah. Prime Minister Ayub Khan. Dangerous combination Was not prepared to rule in 1948. Ø Strong Islamic fundamentalism. Ø Impoverished. Ø n Pakistan divides in 1972 W. Pakistan = Pakistan Ø E. Pakistan = Bangladesh Ø

Benazir Bhutto n First Woman Prime Minister, 1988 Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption Benazir Bhutto n First Woman Prime Minister, 1988 Ousted in 1990, 1993 on corruption charges. Ø Assassinated Dec. 27, 2007 Ø n Nawaz Sharif Ousted three times. Ø Struggle between modernizers and fundamentalists. Ø

Gen. Pervez Musharaff § Coup d’etat. § Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists. § U. Gen. Pervez Musharaff § Coup d’etat. § Secular government against Islamic fundamentalists. § U. S. ally in the “War on Terror. ”

India-Pakistan Border Disputes India-Pakistan Border Disputes

1971 India-Pakistan War 1971 India-Pakistan War

2002 Military Statistics 2002 Military Statistics

2002 Nuclear Statistics 2002 Nuclear Statistics

Partners in the “War on Terror? ” Partners in the “War on Terror? ”

What title would you give this political cartoon? What title would you give this political cartoon?

Decolonization in Africa and Asia n n n After World War II nationalist demands Decolonization in Africa and Asia n n n After World War II nationalist demands for independence increased in the colonies Western nations were no longer strong enough to maintain control of their empires Some European countries managed to end their empires peacefully. The Dutch pulled out of Indonesia in 1948. The British turned their Empire into the British Commonwealth of Nations France struggled to maintain its empire and fought a series of conflicts in Algeria and Indochina before finally pulling out. By the mid-1960 s most of Africa was independent. The last European nation to give up its colonies was Portugal in 1980.

The Four “Worlds” n n First World: industrialized liberal democracies with market economies Second The Four “Worlds” n n First World: industrialized liberal democracies with market economies Second World: dictatorships with Marxist command economies Third World: non-aligned nations (post- Cold War: developing nations) Fourth World: non-self-supporting nations dependent on the First and Second Worlds

Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization n Colonies which had few European settlers Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization n Colonies which had few European settlers were allowed to gain independence quickly Kwame Nkrumah practiced passive resistance and economic boycotts in Ghana. By 1960 the British had pulled out and granted independence.

Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization n n Kenya was a colony with Non-Settler vs Settler Colonies: Patterns of Decolonization n n Kenya was a colony with a substantial population of British citizens. During the 1950 s and early 1960 s, Jomo Kenyatta led a guerrilla war style conflict against the British. The British called this the Mau Rebelliion, the Kenyans refer to it as their war for independence. In 1965 Britain pulled out of Kenyatta became President, and Kenya has had fairly good racial relations since

White Resistance to African Independence. n n Rhodesia, ruled by a white minority, seceded White Resistance to African Independence. n n Rhodesia, ruled by a white minority, seceded from the Commonwealth in 1965 rather than accept majority rule. In 1980, it returned to the Commonwealth, accepted majority rule, and became Zimbabwe. Until the late 1990 s, it also had good race relations President Robert Mugabe has encouraged confiscation of white owned land businesses and terrorism against white residents.

White Resistance to African Independence. n n n South Africa’s apartheid regime remained in White Resistance to African Independence. n n n South Africa’s apartheid regime remained in power until the early 1990 s. Brutal laws mandated racial segregation and other restrictions. In 1994, Nelson Mandela, an anti-apartheid leader, was elected the first majority-rule President of South Africa.

Problems of the new African nations n n n Lack of an infrastructure and Problems of the new African nations n n n Lack of an infrastructure and middle class Little or no industry and technology Artificial borders dating from the colonial period, with no recognition of historic and cultural differences Democratic governments were often overthrown and replaced with military dictatorships. Neocolonialism meant continued economic dependence on the West

Nigeria: Colonial borders creating conflict n n Oil rich nation with large population Former Nigeria: Colonial borders creating conflict n n Oil rich nation with large population Former British colonial borders include many different hostile ethnic and tribal groups. Religious differences: Muslim north, Christian south. Worst conflict: Late 1960 s, the Ibo tribe attempted to form separate nation of Biafra. This led to a two year long civil war.

The Middle East after World War II n n Most Arab nations became independent The Middle East after World War II n n Most Arab nations became independent during or shortly after World War II In 1948, the nation of Israel was established, supported by the United Nations, the United States, and the Soviet Union. War broke out as Israel’s Arab neighbors attempted to destroy the new country. Israel defeated the Arabs and expanded its territory. Palestinian refugees became an immediate and lasting problem

Palestine Populatio n in 1946 Palestine Populatio n in 1946

U. N. Partition Plan of 1947 U. N. Partition Plan of 1947

Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, Israel Becomes a Nation: May 14, 1948 Chaim Weizmann, 1 st President David Ben-Gurion, 1 st Prime Minister

War Begins!: May 15, 1948 War Begins!: May 15, 1948

Arab Refugees, 1948 The Palestinian Diaspora begins! Arab Refugees, 1948 The Palestinian Diaspora begins!

Armistice Sig n e d, 1949 Armistice Sig n e d, 1949

Israeli-Arab Conflicts Since 1948 n n n 1956 Suez Crisis 1967 Six Day War Israeli-Arab Conflicts Since 1948 n n n 1956 Suez Crisis 1967 Six Day War 1973 Yom Kippur War 1987 -Present: Palestinian Intifada Camp David Accord 1979 Oslo Agreement 1994