Скачать презентацию CHAPTER When we think of learning we most Скачать презентацию CHAPTER When we think of learning we most

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CHAPTER When we think of learning, we most often think of the formal type CHAPTER When we think of learning, we most often think of the formal type that occurs in school. Learning, however, takes place continuously every day. © West Educational Publishing 7 Principles of Learning EXIT

Four Types of Learning 1 classical conditioning - making unavoidable physical associations 2 operant Four Types of Learning 1 classical conditioning - making unavoidable physical associations 2 operant conditioning - learning caused by the consequences of actions we perform 3 social learning - learning that results from watching other people 4 cognitive approach- learning that emphasizes the rational and problem-solving thought processes © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Pavlov and Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning can be defined as what happens when a Pavlov and Classical Conditioning Classical conditioning can be defined as what happens when a neutral stimulus evokes a response that was originally produced by another stimulus. Pavlov would later win a Nobel Prize for his work on the digestive system of dogs. An illustration of Pavlov’s classic experiment appears on the next slide. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Pavlov’s Dog Experiment © West Educational Publishing EXIT Pavlov’s Dog Experiment © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Design of Steps in Classical Conditioning Experiment Receives Food (UCS) Sight of the Experimenter Design of Steps in Classical Conditioning Experiment Receives Food (UCS) Sight of the Experimenter (NS) + Sight of the Experimenter (CS) UCS = unconditioned stimulus UCR = unconditioned response © West Educational Publishing Salivates (UCR) Receives Food (UCS) Salivates (UCR) Salivates (CR) NS = neutral stimulus CS = conditioned stimulus CR = conditioned response EXIT

Conditional Training: Albert and Peter Conditioned fear experiments such as Albert’s experience would never Conditional Training: Albert and Peter Conditioned fear experiments such as Albert’s experience would never occur today because of the existing ethical standards. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

John Watson took a a baby named Albert and conditioned him to be afraid John Watson took a a baby named Albert and conditioned him to be afraid of white furry objects using Pavlov’s techniques. A sudden loud noise (UCS) Rat (NS) + A sudden loud noise (UCS) Rat (CS) © West Educational Publishing Startled and began crying (UCR) Startled and began crying (CR) EXIT

Mary Cover Jones used an early form of desensitization to prove that fears (phobias) Mary Cover Jones used an early form of desensitization to prove that fears (phobias) could be unlearned. Peter, a young boy, had an extreme fear of rabbits. Jones gave Peter his favorite food while slowly bringing the rabbit closer and closer. Eventually Peter no longer panicked around rabbits. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Variations Within Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalization A response can be generalized to other like Variations Within Classical Conditioning Stimulus Generalization A response can be generalized to other like stimuli. Extinction If a stimulus is never reinforced, then the response will go away. Spontaneous Recovery After extinction, a response will suddenly reappear. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

B. F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning can be defined as a behavior B. F. Skinner and Operant Conditioning Operant conditioning can be defined as a behavior that is learned (or avoided) as a result of its consequence. Reinforcement is a key component. If the behavior is followed by a pleasurable response, then the behavior will reoccur. (I tell a joke… people laugh…I tell the joke again to a different group of people. ) A rat in a Skinner Box © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Operant Conditioning Processes Primary Reinforcement is unlearned and usually necessary for survival. Food is Operant Conditioning Processes Primary Reinforcement is unlearned and usually necessary for survival. Food is the best example of a primary reinforcer. Secondary Reinforcement is anything that comes to represent a primary reinforcer such as praise from a friend or a gold star on a homework assignment. Punishment weakens a response by following it with something unpleasant. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Generalization is a behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one. (A Generalization is a behavior that spreads from one situation to a similar one. (A baby will call Daddy “Dada. ” When the baby sees any man, the baby calls out “Dada. ”) Discrimination is the reverse of generalization. Some stimuli have pleasant consequences and some do not. (A baby gradually learns that only one person responds with a smile when called “Dada. ”) © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Extinction occurs when a response is no longer followed by reinforcement so that a Extinction occurs when a response is no longer followed by reinforcement so that a person will gradually stop making that response. (Tell a joke. If people do not laugh, you’re not likely to tell the joke again. ) In shaping, successively closer versions of a desired response are reinforced (as in learning to play tennis). In chaining, each part of a sequence is reinforced; the different parts are put together into a whole (as in learning the steps to a dance). © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Do you want to stop a bad habit? Wear a rubber band around your Do you want to stop a bad habit? Wear a rubber band around your wrist. Every time you engage in the bad habit, snap the rubber band! What conditioning process is represented by this example? © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Ratio A person must perform different (variable) acts before reinforcement Schedules of Reinforcement Variable Ratio A person must perform different (variable) acts before reinforcement is given. (Children in a school band selling candy have to ask every person because they don’t know who might buy the candy. ) Fixed Ratio The number of responses and reinforcement never varies. A dentist gets paid according to how many cavities are fixed. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Variable Interval The amount of time varies between reinforcements. Performance is steady but sluggish. Variable Interval The amount of time varies between reinforcements. Performance is steady but sluggish. (A person goes fishing and is waiting for the fish to bite. ) Fixed Interval A set amount of time goes by before the reinforcement occurs. Performance is irregular and increases only before the reinforcement. (A worker gets paid every two weeks. ) © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Albert Bandura and Social Learning According to Bandura, we imitate the activities and behaviors Albert Bandura and Social Learning According to Bandura, we imitate the activities and behaviors of those around us. Between the stimulus and the response is the “inner person. ” Much social learning is observational. Children model their behavior after watching. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

This series of photographs shows children observing and modeling aggressive behavior. © West Educational This series of photographs shows children observing and modeling aggressive behavior. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Cognitive Approach This approach emphasizes abstract and subtle learning that could not be achieved Cognitive Approach This approach emphasizes abstract and subtle learning that could not be achieved through conditioning or social learning alone. Some learning is not intentional, but occurs almost accidentally—a situation called latent learning. Expectancies are beliefs about our ability to perform an action and to get the desired reward. Expectancies affect learning. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Cognitive Maps E. C. Tolman argued that animals and people use cognitive maps to Cognitive Maps E. C. Tolman argued that animals and people use cognitive maps to figure out where they are in the environment. He showed that they use strategies to analyze and (sometimes) to communicate information. © West Educational Publishing EXIT

Summary of Main Topics Covered Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Cognitive Approach © Summary of Main Topics Covered Classical Conditioning Operant Conditioning Social Learning Cognitive Approach © West Educational Publishing EXIT