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Chapter Preview Section 1: Deviance and Social Control Section 2: Functionalism and deviance Section 3: Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance Section 4: Conflict Theory and Deviance Section 5: Crime and Punishment
Chapter Preview · Section 1 Deviance and Social Control (pages 204– 208) Deviance is the violation of social norms. It is difficult to define because not everyone agrees on what should be considered deviant behavior.
Chapter Preview · Section 2 Functionalism and Deviance (pages 209– 213) According to functionalists, deviance has both negative and positive consequences for society. Functionalism also forms the basis for two important theories of deviance: strain theory and control theory.
Chapter Preview · Section 3 Symbolic Interactionism and Deviance (pages 214– 217) The symbolic interactionist perspective yields two theories of deviance. We learned in Chapter 3 that culture is learned. Sociologists believe that deviance is also culturally transmitted. Labeling theory holds that an act is deviant only if other people deem it so.
Chapter Preview · Section 4 Conflict Theory and Deviance (pages 218– 223) The conflict perspective looks at deviance in terms of social inequality and power. The most powerful members of a society determine who is regarded as a deviant. Conflict theorists point out the relationship between minorities and crime.
Chapter Preview · Section 5 Crime and Punishment (pages 224– 232) Crime statistics in the U. S. come from two major sources: the FBI and the Census Bureau. Four approaches to crime control are deterrence, retribution, incarceration, and rehabilitation.
Deviance is the violation of social norms. It is difficult to define because not everyone agrees on what should be considered deviant behavior.
• deviance • negative deviance • positive deviance • deviant • social control • social sanctions
Do you think all illegal activity is deviant behavior? A. Strongly agree B. Somewhat agree C. Somewhat disagree D. Disagree A. B. C. D. A B C D
The Nature of Deviance • The term deviance refers to behavior that departs from societal or group norms. • It is a subjective term, or a matter of social definition.
The Nature of Deviance (cont. ) • Negative deviance involves behavior that fails to meet accepted norms. • Positive deviance involves overconformity to norms, which leads to imbalance and extremes of perfectionism. Two Types of Youth Deviance
The Nature of Deviance (cont. ) • A deviant is a person who has violated one or more of society’s most highly valued norms.
Is constantly washing your hands a positive or negative deviance? A. Positive B. Negative C. Both D. Neither A. B. C. D. A B C D
Social Control • Without social control—ways to promote conformity to norms—social life would be unpredictable, even chaotic.
Social Control (cont. ) • Types of social control: – Internal social control lies within the individual; we know the difference between right and wrong due to the socialization process. – External social control is based on sanctions (formal and informal)—rewards or punishments designed to encourage desired behavior.
Social Control (cont. ) • Social sanctions are rewards or punishments designed to encourage desired behavior. • There are both positive and negative sanctions. Violent Crime
Which is a formal negative sanction? A. Gossip B. Ridicule C. Smiling at someone D. Imprisonment A. B. C. D. A B C D
According to functionalists, deviance has both negative and positive consequences for society. Functionalism also forms the basis for two important theories of deviance: strain theory and control theory.
• anomie • strain theory • control theory
Do you agree that deviance can have positive effects on society? A. Agree B. Disagree C. Not sure A. A B. B C. C
Costs and Benefits of Deviance • Negative effects of deviance: – It erodes trust. – It can cause nonconforming behavior in others. – It is expensive.
Costs and Benefits of Deviance (cont. ) • Benefits of deviance: – It clarifies norms by exercising social control to defend its values. – It can be a temporary safety valve or relieve societal pressures. – It increases unity within a society or group. – It promotes needed social change.
Do you use any of the following as a way to relieve pressure from authority figures? A. Listen to music B. Wear unique clothes C. Watch television D. Other A. B. C. D. A B C D
Strain Theory • Anomie is a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent.
Strain Theory (cont. ) • Strain theory is most likely to occur when there is a gap between culturally desirable goals, such as money and prestige, and a legitimate way of obtaining them. • Conformity is when people accept the goal and the means to achieve it. Merton’s Strain Theory
Strain Theory (cont. ) • These four responses to strain are considered deviant even though they might display conformity: – Innovation—illegal means used to achieve success – Ritualism—success rejected, but legitimate means still used
Strain Theory (cont. ) – Retreatism—both goals and means rejected – Rebellion—rejected goals and means, but a new set of goals and means formed
Which of the following is the most widespread response to strain? A. Innovation B. Ritualism C. Retreatism D. Rebellion A. B. C. D. A B C D
Control Theory • According to Travis Hirschi’s control theory, conformity to social norms depends on the presence of strong bonds between individuals and society.
Control Theory (cont. ) • The social bond has four basic components: – Attachment – Commitment – Involvement – Belief
Which basic element of social bonds do you think is most prevalent for conformity to social norms? A. Attachment B. Commitment C. Involvement D. Belief A. B. C. D. A B C D
The symbolic interactionist perspective yields two theories of deviance. We read in Chapter 3 that culture is learned. Sociologists believe that deviance is a learned behavior that is culturally transmitted. Labeling theory holds that an act is deviant on if other people name it so.
• differential association theory • labeling theory • primary deviance • secondary deviance • stigma
Do you think petty theft is deviant behavior? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure A. A B. B C. C
Differential Association Theory • Differential association theory emphasizes the role of primary groups in transmitting deviance.
Differential Association Theory (cont. ) • Three characteristics affect differential association: – A person who spends considerable time with deviants is more likely to learn deviant behavior. – A person is more likely to copy deviant behavior from a significant other than from people less important to him or her.
Differential Association Theory (cont. ) – Younger children learn deviant behavior more quickly than older children.
Which characteristic do you think is most responsible for deviant behavior? A. The ration of deviant to nondeviant individuals B. Whether the deviant behavior is practiced by significant others C. The age of exposure A. A B. B C. C
Labeling Theory • Labeling theory explains why deviance is relative. Sometimes, if two people break the same norm, only one may be labeled a deviant. • Deviant behaviors are always a matter of social definition; they are relative.
Labeling Theory (cont. ) • Primary deviance is when a person engages only in isolated acts of deviance. • Secondary deviance refers to deviance as a lifestyle and as a personal identity.
Labeling Theory (cont. ) • Labeling has negative effects: – Stigma—an undesirable characteristic or label used by others to deny the deviant full social acceptance.
Where do you think the majority of responsibility should be given to in the example of teenage pregnancy? A. Female B. Male C. Both D. Society A. B. C. D. A B C D
The conflict perspective looks at deviance in terms of social inequality and power. The most powerful members of a society determine who will be regarded as a deviant. Conflict theorists point to some disproportional statistical relationships between minorities and crime.
• victim discounting • white-collar crime
Do you think a suspect’s race is likely to have an impact on their treatment in the criminal justice system? A. Yes B. No C. Not sure A. A B. B C. C
Deviance in Industrial Society • From the conflict perspective, deviance in an industrial society is behavior that those in control see as threatening to their interests. Deviance
Deviance in Industrial Society (cont. ) • The following are considered deviants in an industrial society: – Critics of an industrial society. – Those who will not work. – Those who threaten private property. – Those who show a lack of respect for authority.
Deviance in Industrial Society (cont. ) • The following is encouraged: – Certain activities, such as violence in sports, depending on how well they fit within the industrial society.
Whom do you think suffers the most due to social inequities? A. African Americans B. Poor people C. Hispanics A. A B. B C. C
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime • Supporters of the conflict perspective believe that minorities receive unequal treatment in the American criminal justice system.
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime (cont. ) • Reasons for unequal treatment: – Minorities generally do not have the economic resources to buy good legal advice. – Crimes against whites tend to be punished more severely than crimes against minorities.
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime (cont. ) • Victim discounting is the process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status.
What percent of inmates under the death penalty are African Americans? A. 15 B. 23 C. 36 D. 42 A. A B. B C. C D. D
White-Collar Crime • White-collar crime is any crime committed by respectable and high-status people in the course of their occupations. • These people tend to be treated more leniently than other criminals.
How many months was Martha Stewart sentenced to for obstructing an investigation into illegal stock trading? A. 5 months B. 12 months C. 18 months D. 24 months A. A B. B C. C D. D
Crime statistics in the U. S. come from two major sources: the FBI and the Census Bureau. Differences in statistics between the two agencies are due to differences in methods of collecting data. Four approaches to crime control are deterrence, retribution, incarceration, and rehabilitation.
• crime • criminal justice system • deterrence • retribution • incarceration • rehabilitation • recidivism
Which violent crime do you think is the worst? A. Murder B. Forcible rape C. Aggravated assault A. A B. B C. C
Measurement of Crime • Crime—acts in violation of statute law—is widespread in the United States. • The major source of American crime statistics is the Federal Bureau of Investigation’s Uniform Crime Reports. FBI’s Crime Clock: 2003 Crimes in the United States, 2003
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) • Nine types of crime are tracked: – Murder – Forcible rape – Robbery – Aggravated assault – Burglary Types of Crimes Americans Commit
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) – Larceny-theft – Motor vehicle theft – Arson – Hate crimes Types of Crimes Americans Commit
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) • The UCR statistics are reliable in the fact that experienced police officers decide which incidents should be reported.
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) • The limitations are as follows: – The lower classes are overrepresented. – Smaller crimes are not as likely to be reported. – Prostitutes and intoxicated persons can easily hide.
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) – About two-thirds of crimes are not reported at all. – Crime reporting varies, and white-collar offenders are seldom included.
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) • The National Crime Victimization Survey was launched in the 1970 s in response to the aforementioned limitations.
Measurement of Crime (cont. ) • Two advantages to the NCVS: – It helps make up for underreporting of crime. – Its surveys are more scientifically sound.
In the U. S. , how often is a murder committed? A. Every 6 minutes B. Every 32 minutes C. Every 50 minutes A. A B. B C. C
Juvenile Crime • Juvenile crime refers to legal violations among those under 18 years of age. • Juvenile offenders are third largest category of criminals in the U. S. • Violent juvenile crime reached its lowest level in a decade in 2003. Juvenile Arrests in the United States, 2003
Juvenile Crime (cont. ) • Reasons: – A decline in the demand for crack cocaine. – Remaining crack gangs that provided guns to juveniles have reached truces. – Repeat violent offenders have been given stiffer sentences. – Police are cracking down on illegal guns on the street.
What do you think is the main reason juvenile crime has gone down? A. Decline in demand for crack cocaine B. Gang truces C. Stiffer sentences for repeat offenders D. More police enforcement A. A B. B C. C D. D
Approaches to Crime Control • The criminal justice system is made up of the institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statutes. • Police, courts, and the correctional system comprise the criminal justice system.
Approaches to Crime Control (cont. ) • Deterrence—threat of punishment used to discourage criminal actions. • Deterrence works if the lawbreakers know: – they are likely to get caught – the punishment will be severe
Approaches to Crime Control (cont. ) • Capital punishment is not an effective deterrent, but most people still tend to support it. Death Penalty Policy
Approaches to Crime Control (cont. ) • Retribution—a type of punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts. • Incarceration—keeping criminals in prisons. Top Ten Countries in Number of Prisoners
Approaches to Crime Control (cont. ) • Rehabilitation—an approach to crime control that attempts to resocialize criminals. • However, there is a high rate of recidivism, or a repetition of or return to criminal behavior.
Approaches to Crime Control (cont. ) • Reasons for recidivism: – The basic nature of the offender – Influences of more hardened criminals – The stigma of being an ex-convict
Approaches to Crime Control (cont. ) • Some alternatives to rehabilitation in prisons: – A combination of prison and probation, or shock probation – Community-based programs – Diversion strategy
Which approach to crime control do you think is most effective? A. Deterrence B. Retribution C. Incarceration D. Rehabilitation A. A B. B C. C D. D
Two Types of Youth Deviance Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, “Healthy Youth!” (2004).
FBI’s Crime Clock: 2003 How often do American’s commit crimes? Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports, 2003.
Crimes in the United States, 2003 Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports, 2003.
Types of Crimes Americans Commit Source: Federal Bureau of Investigation, Uniform Crime Reports, 2003.
Juvenile Arrests in the United States, 2003 Source: U. S. Department of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, 2005.
Top Ten Countries in Number of Prisoners Source: British Home Office Online Research and Development Statistics, 2004.
Violent Crime Source: Federal Bureau of Investigations, Uniform Crime Reports, 2003.
Death Penalty Policy Source: Amnesty International Online, 2005.
Sociology Chapter Transparencies Distribution of Deviance Curve Major Assumptions of Labeling Theory Control Theory Strain Theory Juvenile and Adult Crime Labels Violence and Guns Who’s on Death Row? Annual Application of Capital Punishment
deviance behavior that departs from societal or group norms
negative deviance involves behavior that under-conforms to accepted norms
positive deviance involves behavior that over-conforms to social expectation
deviant a person who breaks significant societal or group norms
social control ways to encourage conformity to society’s norms
social sanctions rewards or punishments that encourage conformity to social norms
anomie a social condition in which norms are weak, conflicting, or absent
strain theory that deviance is more likely to occur when a gap exists between cultural goals and the ability to achieve these goals by legitimate means
control theory that compliance with social norms requires strong bonds between individuals and society
differential association theory that individuals learn deviance in proportion to the number of deviant acts they are exposed to
labeling theory that society creates deviance by identifying particular members as deviant
primary deviance involving occasional breaking of norms that is not a part of a person’s lifestyle or self-concept
secondary deviance in which an individual’s life and identity are organized around breaking society’s norms
stigma an undesirable trait or label that is used to characterize an individual
victim discounting process of reducing the seriousness of the crimes that injure people of lower status
white-collar crime job-related crimes committed by high-status people
crime acts committed in violation of the law
criminal justice system comprising institutions and processes responsible for enforcing criminal statutes
deterrence discouraging criminal acts by threatening punishment
retribution punishment intended to make criminals pay compensation for their acts
incarceration a method of protecting society from criminals by keeping them in prisons
rehabilitation process of changing or reforming a criminal through socialization
recidivism a repetition of or return to criminal behavior
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