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Chapter Introduction Section 1: The Nixon Administration Section 2: The Watergate Scandal Section 3: Ford and Carter Section 4: New Approaches to Civil Rights Section 5: Environmentalism Visual Summary
What Stops Government Abuse of Power? The Watergate scandal forced Richard Nixon to become the first president to resign from office. The legacy of Watergate, together with the Vietnam War and the economic downturn of the late 1970 s, caused many people to distrust the government and worry about the nation’s future. • How do you think Watergate affected people’s attitudes toward government? • Do you think Nixon should have been punished for his role in the scandal?
The Nixon Administration How did Nixon’s presidency change the country and its position in the world?
The Watergate Scandal What were the causes and effects of the Watergate scandal?
Ford and Carter How did Ford and Carter respond to energy and economic challenges?
New Approaches to Civil Rights What were the goals of the African Americans, Native Americans, and Americans with disabilities when they organized?
Environmentalism What conditions did the environmental agreement address?
Big Ideas Individual Action One of President Nixon’s most dramatic accomplishments was changing the United States’s relationship with the People’s Republic of China and the Soviet Union.
Content Vocabulary • revenue sharing • détente • impound • summit Academic Vocabulary • welfare • liberal
People and Events to Identify • Southern strategy • New Federalism • Henry Kissinger • Vietnamization • SALT I
Should the president focus more on domestic affairs or foreign affairs? A. Domestic B. Foreign A. A B. B
Appealing to Middle America Nixon won the 1968 election by appealing to a “silent majority” of Americans.
Appealing to Middle America (cont. ) • Republican Richard Nixon won the 1968 presidential election against Democrat Hubert Humphrey and independent George Wallace. • One of the keys to Nixon’s victory was his surprisingly strong showing in the South. • He met with powerful South Carolina senator Strom Thurmond and won his backing by promising several things.
Appealing to Middle America (cont. ) • Following his victory, Nixon set out to attract even more Southerners to the Republican Party, an effort that became known as the Southern strategy. • Nixon had promised to uphold law and order in his campaign.
Appealing to Middle America (cont. ) • He took the following actions: – He specifically targeted the nation’s antiwar protesters. – He attacked the Supreme Court rulings that expanded the rights of accused criminals. – He replaced Chief Justice Warren with Warren Burger, a respected conservative judge.
Appealing to Middle America (cont. ) • Nixon had campaigned promising to reduce the size of the federal government by dismantling several federal programs and giving more control to state and local governments, which he called as New Federalism. • Under this program, Congress passed a series of revenue-sharing bills that granted federal funds to state and local agencies to use. • He sought to close down many of the programs of Johnson’s Great Society.
Appealing to Middle America (cont. ) • He also sought to increase the power of the executive branch. • When Congress appropriated money for programs he opposed, Nixon impounded the funds. • The Supreme Court eventually declared this practice unconstitutional.
Appealing to Middle America (cont. ) • In 1969, Nixon proposed replacing the Aid to Families with Dependent Children (AFDC) with the Family Assistance Plan. • Although the program won approval in the House in 1970, it was defeated in the Senate.
To gain Strom Thurmond’s support, Nixon made the following promises EXCEPT A. To appoint only conservatives to the federal courts B. To name a Southerner to the Supreme Court C. To close down the programs of Johnson’s Great Society D. To oppose court ordered busing A. B. C. D. A B C D
Nixon’s Foreign Policy With the support of national security adviser Henry Kissinger, Nixon forged better relationships with China and the Soviet Union.
Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • In a move that would greatly influence his foreign policy, Nixon chose as his national security adviser Henry Kissinger. • Both Nixon and Kissinger believed that a gradual withdrawal from Vietnam, while simultaneously training South Vietnamese to defend themselves, would work best. • This policy of Vietnamization extended globally in what came to be called the Nixon Doctrine.
Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • Both Nixon and Kissinger wanted to continue to contain communism, but they believed that engagement and negotiation with Communists offered a better way for the United States to achieve its international goals. • They developed a new approach called détente between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China.
Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • After a series of highly secret negotiations between Kissinger and Chinese leaders, Nixon announced that he would visit China in 1972. • During the historic trip, the leaders of both nations agreed to establish “more normal” relations between their countries. • Shortly after the public learned of American negotiations with China, the Soviets proposed an American-Soviet summit to be held in May 1972.
Nixon’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • The two superpowers signed the first Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, or SALT I, a plan to limit nuclear arms that the two nations had been working on for years. The Nuclear Arms Race
What did Nixon do to reverse the United State’s refusal to recognize the Communists as legitimate rulers? A. Lifted trade and travel restriction B. Withdrew the Seventh Fleet from defending Taiwan C. Visited China D. A and B E. All of the above A. B. C. D. E. A B C D E
Big Ideas Government and Society The Watergate scandal intensified lingering distrust of government that had arisen during the Vietnam War.
Content Vocabulary • executive privilege • special prosecutor Academic Vocabulary • incident • challenger
People and Events to Identify • Sam J. Ervin • John Dean • Federal Campaign Act Amendments
Have there been any presidential scandals in your lifetime? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
The Roots of Watergate Tactics used by Nixon’s supporters to try to ensure his reelection in 1972 led to the Watergate scandal.
The Roots of Watergate (cont. ) • The Watergate scandal began when the Nixon administration tried to cover up its involvement in the break-in at the Democratic National Committee headquarters, along with other illegal actions. • Many scholars believe the roots of the Watergate scandal lay in Nixon’s character and the atmosphere that he and his advisers created in the White House.
The Roots of Watergate (cont. ) • As part of their efforts to help the president win reelection, Nixon’s advisers ordered five men to break into the headquarters and steal any sensitive campaign information. • They were also to place wiretaps on the office telephones. • The media discovered that one of the burglars, James Mc. Cord, was not only an ex-CIA official but also a member of the Committee for the Re -election of the President (CRP).
The Roots of Watergate (cont. ) • Reports also surfaced that the burglars had been paid to execute the break-in from a secret CRP fund controlled by the White House. • Meanwhile, few people paid much attention to the scandal during the 1972 campaign, and Nixon won by a landslide.
Who did Nixon run against in the 1972 election? A. George Wallace B. George Mc. Govern C. Hubert Humphrey D. Gerald Ford A. B. C. D. A B C D
The Cover-Up Unravels The president’s refusal to cooperate with Congress only focused attention on his possible involvement.
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) • Under relentless prodding from federal judge John J. Sirica, Mc. Cord agreed to testify before the newly created Senate Select Committee on Presidential Campaign Activities. • Sam J. Ervin was chairman of the committee. • A parade of White House and campaign officials exposed one illegality after another.
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) • Foremost among the officials was counsel to the president John Dean. • Dean testified that former Attorney General John Mitchell had ordered the Watergate break-in and that Nixon had played an active role in attempting to cover up any White House involvement. • The Senate committee tried to determine who was telling the truth for the next month.
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) • A White House aid revealed that Nixon had ordered a taping system installed in the White House to record all conversations. • Nixon refused to hand over the tapes, pleading executive privilege. • Special prosecutor Archibald Cox took Nixon to court to force him to give up the recordings.
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) • Nixon ordered Attorney General Elliot Richardson to fire Cox, but Richardson resigned. • Richardson’s deputy also resigned. • Nixon’s solicitor general, Robert Bork, finally fired Cox.
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) • The vice president, Spiro Agnew, was forced to resign after investigators learned that he had taken bribes as governor and vice president. • In July, the Supreme Court ruled that the president had to turn over the tapes, and Nixon complied. • Several days later, the House Judiciary Committee voted to impeach Nixon.
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) • On August 9, 1974, Nixon resigned his office in disgrace. • Gerald Ford took the oath of office. • The Watergate crisis led to new laws intended to limit the power of the executive branch: − the Federal Campaign Act Amendments
The Cover-Up Unravels (cont. ) − the Ethics in Government Act − the FBI Domestic Security Investigation Guidelines Act
Nixon was impeached for the following reasons EXCEPT A. Stealing money from the government B. Obstructing justice in the Watergate cover-up C. Misusing federal agencies to violate the rights of citizens D. Defying the authority of Congress A. B. C. D. A B C D
Big Ideas Economics and Society A weakening economy and growing energy crisis marred the terms of Presidents Ford and Carter.
Content Vocabulary • inflation • embargo • stagflation Academic Vocabulary • theory • deregulation
People and Events to Identify • OPEC • Helsinki Accords • Department of Energy • Camp David Accords
Should a president have previous experience in Washington? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
The Economic Crisis of the 1970 s In the 1970 s Americans had to face a slowing economy and an end to plentiful, cheap energy.
The Economic Crisis of the 1970 s (cont. ) • The nation’s economic troubles began in the mid-1960 s when President Johnson increased federal deficit spending to fund both the Vietnam War and the Great Society Programs, without raising taxes. • This spending spurred inflation. • In 1973, the Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) decided to use oil as a political weapon.
The Economic Crisis of the 1970 s (cont. ) • OPEC announced that its members would place an embargo on petroleum to countries that supported Israel. • The embargo ended in a few months, but oil prices continued to rise, which led to a recession. • Another economic problem was the decline of manufacturing. Price of Gasoline, 1970– 1990
The Economic Crisis of the 1970 s (cont. ) • Nixon faced a new economic problem, “stagflation, ” in the early 1970 s. • Economists did not think inflation and recession could occur at the same time, so they were not sure which fiscal policy to pursue. • Nixon’s attempts to help the economy met with little success.
Why did many U. S. factories close in the early 1970 s? A. They were unable to compete with Japanese and German factories. B. Americans stopped buying as many products, so demand decreased. C. Not enough people wanted to work in factories. D. Too many accidents led to lawsuits that forced factories to close. A. B. C. D. A B C D
Ford and Carter Battle the Economic Crisis When Gerald Ford failed to solve the nation’s problems, Americans turned to political outsider Jimmy Carter to lead the nation.
Ford and Carter Battle the Economic Crisis (cont. ) • By 1975, the American economy was in the worst recession since the Great Depression, with unemployment at nearly 9%. • None of President Ford’s plans revived the economy. • In foreign policy, Ford continued Nixon’s general strategy.
Ford and Carter Battle the Economic Crisis (cont. ) • In August 1975, he met with leaders of NATO and the Warsaw Pact to sign the Helsinki Accords. • In the election of 1976, Jimmy Carter narrowly defeated Ford. • In the end, none of Carter’s efforts to fix the economy succeeded either. The Election of 1976
Ford and Carter Battle the Economic Crisis (cont. ) • He felt the nation’s most serious problem was its dependence on foreign oil. • He proposed a national energy program to conserve oil and to promote the use of coal and renewable energy sources such as solar power. • He also convinced Congress to create the Department of Energy.
Ford and Carter Battle the Economic Crisis (cont. ) • He agreed to support deregulation of the oil industry but insisted on a “windfall profits tax” to prevent oil companies from overcharging consumers. • In the summer of 1979, instability in the Middle East produced a second major fuel shortage and deepened the nation’s economic problems.
Ford and Carter Battle the Economic Crisis (cont. ) • By 1979, public opinion polls showed that Carter’s popularity had dropped lower than President Nixon’s during Watergate.
Why did Carter have so much difficulty in solving the nation’s economic problems? A. Inexperience with Washington B. Inability to work with Congress C. A lack of understanding of economics D. A and B E. B and C A. B. C. D. E. A B C D E
Carter’s Foreign Policy Carter attempted to reestablish the United States as a moral force for good on the international stage but had few successes.
Carter’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • A man of strong religious beliefs, Carter argued that the U. S. must try to be “right and honest and truthful and decent” in dealing with other nations. • In 1978, the Senate ratified two Panama Canal treaties, which transferred control of the canal to Panama on December 31, 1999. • He also singled out the Soviet Union as a violator of human rights.
Carter’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • Under the Carter administration, détente eroded further. • It was in the Middle East that President Carter met both his greatest foreign policy triumph and his greatest failure. • In 1978, Carter helped broker a historic peace treaty, known as the Camp David Accords, between Israel and Egypt.
Carter’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • After the Shah was forced to flee Iran, an Islamic republic was declared. • Led by religious leader Ayatollah Khomeini, the new regime distrusted the U. S. because of their support of the Shah.
Carter’s Foreign Policy (cont. ) • Revolutionaries took 52 Americans hostage from the American embassy. • The Carter administration tried unsuccessfully to negotiate for the hostages’ release. • On January 20, 1981, the day Carter left office, Iran released the Americans, ending 444 days in captivity.
How did Carter respond to Soviet troops invading the Central Asian nation of Afghanistan in December 1979? A. Imposing an embargo on the sale of grain B. Sending American troops to stop the fighting C. Boycotting the Summer Olympic Games in Moscow D. A and B E. A and C A. B. C. D. E. A B C D E
Big Ideas Struggles for Rights African Americans, Native Americans, and people with disabilities organized to fight discrimination and gain access to better education and jobs.
Content Vocabulary • busing • affirmative action Academic Vocabulary • criteria • appropriate
People and Events to Identify • Allan Bakke • Jesse Jackson • Congressional Black Caucus • Shirley Chisholm • American Indian Movement (AIM) • Section 504
Do you feel that busing is the best way to integrate schools? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
African Americans Seek Greater Opportunity During the 1960 s and 1970 s, African Americans built on the civil rights achievements of the 1950 s to advance their social, political, and legal status.
African Americans Seek Greater Opportunity (cont. ) • In the 1970 s, African Americans began to push harder for improvements in public education and access to good schools. • Many schools remained segregated, not by law, but because whites and African Americans lived in different neighborhoods.
African Americans Seek Greater Opportunity (cont. ) • State courts began ordering local governments to bus children to schools outside their neighborhoods to achieve greater racial balance—known an busing. • Civil rights leaders also began advocating affirmative action as a new way to solve economic and educational discrimination.
African Americans Seek Greater Opportunity (cont. ) • Affirmative action programs did not go unchallenged. • In 1978, in University of California Regents v. Bakke, the Supreme Court ruled that the university had violated Allan Bakke’s civil rights by turning him down in favor of a minority.
African Americans Seek Greater Opportunity (cont. ) • They ruled that schools had an interest in maintaining a diverse student body but could not reserve certain slots for minority students.
African Americans Seek Greater Opportunity (cont. ) • New political leaders emerged in the African American community in the 1970 s, such as: – Jesse Jackson – Louis Farrakhan – Shirley Chisholm – L. Douglas Wilder – Andrew Young – David Dinkins • In 1971, African American members of Congress organized the Congressional Black Caucus to more clearly represent their concerns.
Which of the following leaders organized the Million March? A. Andrew Young B. Louis Farrakhan C. L. Douglas Wilder D. David Dinkins A. A B. B C. C D. D
Native Americans Raise Their Voices The most impoverished minority group in America, Native Americans, began organizing for civil rights.
Native Americans Raise Their Voices (cont. ) • In 1961, more than 400 members of 67 Native American groups gathered in Chicago and issued a manifesto, known as the Declaration of Indian Purpose. • Congress passed the Indian Civil Rights Act in 1968. • The American Indian Movement (AIM) believed that government efforts were too modest.
Native Americans Raise Their Voices (cont. ) • By the mid-1970 s, Native Americans had begun to achieve some of their goals. – In 1975, Congress passed the Indian Self-Determination and Educational Assistance Act. – More Native Americans moved into policymaking positions at the Bureau of Indian Affairs. – Native Americans won several court cases involving land water rights.
In 1970, the life expectancy for Native Americans was almost seven years below the national average. A. True B. False A. A B. B
The Disability Rights Movement During the 1970 s, people with disabilities fought for greater rights and access to education and jobs.
The Disability Rights Movement (cont. ) • People with disabilities looked to the federal government to protect their civil rights. • The passage of the Architectural Barriers Act in 1968 was one victory. • The Rehabilitation Act of 1973 was even more significant, especially Section 504.
The Disability Rights Movement (cont. ) • In 1966, Congress created the Bureau for the Education of the Handicapped. • In 1975, the Education for All Handicapped Children Act required that all students with disabilities receive a free, appropriate education. • In 1990, Congress enacted the Americans with Disabilities Act.
Mainstreaming is a result of which act? A. Education for All Handicapped Children Act B. Americans with Disabilities Act C. Architectural Barriers Act D. Rehabilitation Act of 1973 A. A B. B C. C D. D
Big Ideas Group Action Increased awareness of environmental issues inspired a grassroots campaign to protect nature.
Content Vocabulary • smog • fossil fuel Academic Vocabulary • intensify • alternative
People and Events to Identify • Rachel Carson • Environmental Protection Agency • Love Canal • Three Mile Island
Do you feel that the government does enough to protect the environment? A. Yes B. No A. A B. B
The Origins of Environmentalism Concerns about the effects of a deadly pesticide, the visible signs of pollution in American cities, and an influential book inspired a movement to protect the environment.
The Origins of Environmentalism (cont. ) • Rachel Carson helped trigger the new environmental movement. • Her 1962 book, Silent Spring, assailed the increasing use of pesticides, particularly DDT. • People not only read her book but noticed changes in the environment, such as smog and other types of pollution.
The Origins of Environmentalism (cont. ) • Many observers point to April 1970 as the unofficial beginning of the environmentalist movement. • The Audubon Society, the Sierra Club, and the Wilderness Society grew rapidly in membership and political influence.
Why is April 1970 marked as the unofficial beginning of the environmentalist movement? A. The government recognized environmental issues as a problem. B. The first Earth Day celebration was held. C. The Natural Resources Defense Council was created. D. The Audubon Society was founded. A. B. C. D. A B C D
The Environmental Movement Blossoms Pressure from citizens and activist groups led Congress to pass major environmental legislation.
The Environmental Movement Blossoms (cont. ) • In 1970, President Nixon signed the National Environmental Policy Act, which created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). • The Clean Air Act also became law in 1970. • The Clean Water Act and the Endangered Species Act were also passed.
The Environmental Movement Blossoms (cont. ) • The residents of Love Canal, New York noticed high incidences of health problems in their community and learned that their community sat atop a decades-old toxic waste dump. • In 1978, the state permanently relocated more than 200 families. • In 1980, Carter declared the site a federal disaster area and moved over 600 remaining families.
The Environmental Movement Blossoms (cont. ) • After a small leak at a Three Mile Island, a nuclear facility outside Harrisburg, PA, many people doubted the safety of nuclear energy. • Supporters of nuclear energy hailed it as a cleaner and less expensive alternative to fossil fuels.
In the years since the Three Mile Island accident, the following have occurred EXCEPT A. Sixty nuclear power plants have shut down. B. No new facilities have been built since 1973. C. All nuclear power plants have been shut down. D. Many people have doubted the safety of nuclear energy. A. B. C. D. A B C D
An Era of Challenges Major Domestic Issues of the 1970 s • A nation is divided angry over the Vietnam War. • An energy crisis is triggered by OPEC’s raising of oil prices. • A stagnant economy exists with both inflation and high unemployment.
An Era of Challenges Major Domestic Issues of the 1970 s • Ongoing racial problems occur in major cities. • Growing awareness of environmental problems including air and water pollution, toxic waste (at Love Canal and other sites), the overuse of pesticides, plus a crisis with the nuclear power plant at Three Mile Island.
An Era of Challenges Major Foreign Policy Issues of the 1970 s • Cold War tensions continue with the Soviet Union and China. • The Soviet Union invades Afghanistan. • War between Israel and its Arab neighbors breaks out in 1973, and ongoing violence occurs in the Middle East. • A revolution in Iran leads to the taking of American hostages.
New Policies and Activism Responding to Domestic Issues • Nixon attempts to win over Southern conservatives, but his administration’s determination to win leads to the Watergate cover-up and Nixon’s subsequent resignation. • Ford’s WIN campaign fails to overcome inflation. • Carter urges Americans to conserve energy, creates the Department of Energy, and asks Congress to pass legislation deregulating the oil industry.
New Policies and Activism Responding to Domestic Issues • Civil rights leaders propose affirmative action policies to reduce discrimination; the Supreme Court upholds some types of affirmative action in the Bakke case. • Busing begins in northern cities to integrate schools. • Environmentalist movement begins; Nixon creates the EPA.
New Policies and Activism Responding to Foreign Policy Issues • Nixon and Kissinger introduce the policy of détente and begin talks with both the USSR and China. • Carter mediates negotiations between Israel and Egypt leading to the first Arab-Israeli peace treaty. • The United States imposes a grain embargo on the USSR for invading Afghanistan and boycotts the Moscow Olympics.
New Policies and Activism Responding to Foreign Policy Issues • The hostage crisis with Iran drags on for more than a year; an American rescue attempt fails, and the hostages are not released until Carter leaves office.
Chapter Transparencies Menu Why It Matters Cause-and-Effect Transparency Unit Time Line Transparency Select a transparency to view.
ANSWER: No. Nixon would still have won the majority of electoral votes.
revenue sharing federal tax money that is distributed among the states
impound to take possession of
détente a policy that attempts to relax or ease tensions between nations
summit a meeting of heads of government
welfare aid in the form of money or necessities for those in need, especially disadvantaged social groups
liberal a person who generally believes the government should take an active role in the economy and in social programs but should not dictate social behavior
executive privilege principle stating that communications of the executive branch should remain confidential to protect national security
special prosecutor a lawyer from outside the government appointed by an attorney general or Congress to investigate a government official for misconduct while in office
incident occurrence of a happening or situation that is a separate unit of experience
challenger one who enters a competition
inflation the loss of value of money
embargo a government ban on trade with other countries
stagflation persistent inflation combined with stagnant consumer demand relatively high unemployment
theory a hypothesis meant for argument or investigation
deregulation the act or process of removing restrictions or regulations
busing a policy of transporting children to schools outside their neighborhoods to achieve greater racial balance
affirmative action an active effort to improve employment or educational opportunities for minorities
criteria standards on which a judgment or action may be based
appropriate to allocate funds for spending
smog fog made heavier and darker by smoke and chemical fumes
fossil fuel a fuel formed in the earth from decayed plant or animal remains
intensify to become more frequent and powerful
alternative existing or functioning outside the established cultural, social, or economic system
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